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Durban Water angers activists, impresses Stockholm judges







The Mercury, 3 September 2013
Water and sanitation become a living nightmare in Durban’s Inanda township
Gcina Makoba (The Mercury) 3 September 2013

Does eThekwini municipality deserve to win the Stockholm Water Industry Award, which will be granted to the Water and Sanitation Department this week?

In Inanda, we residents expect ‘development’ to at least include adequate access to water, flush sanitation, a well-built decent-sized house, affordable electricity, waste removal and air clean enough to breathe. But especially in wards 44, 55 and 56, we are underdeveloping. At the end of apartheid, even these basic need goods were better supplied and cheaper in Inanda.

Something changed in 1994 – and it was not just our liberation from racism. There was a trade-off, it now appears, leaving poor people facing new miseries.

Our communities are now very concerned with the polluted air we breathe, with raw sewage flowing into our streams and with the small size and fragility of the RDP houses built here in 2011. The stream running through our wards was once clean and clear, but it is now doubtful whether there are any species living there. Fish and riverine animals that had been common have since died.

Besides our sewer crisis, the worst service might be the communal toilets within shipping containers that have recently been installed in Durban’s townships and shack settlements. In ward 56, 150 houses are sharing two containers with just two showers and three toilets each. About 500 houses in ward 44 share four communal toilets, and 320 houses in ward 55 share four communal toilets. There are numerous challenges that accompany these toilets, including cleanliness and queues, and most of us are not happy about them.
Listen to the voices of my neighbours, such as Lindani (age 39): “Our norms do not allow us to share the toilets. Using these toilets is an insult to us, telling us directly that we have no value. I have never used these toilets ever since they came, because I am angry about them. They were imposed on us.”

The container communal toilets are not accessible to the greater part of our community. They have restrictive opening and closing times. They are not secure spaces in any case, and lead to increased crime such as rape. Many containers also have broken taps, which is a health hazard because it is impossible for us to wash hands after use. The toilets themselves are often blocked. Some are closed, which leads to males and females sharing the same toilets.

Most of us, especially those living where these container toilets are placed, feel that our lives are more difficult since these were introduced. Because they do not have sufficient drains, water is directed into the yards of nearby houses, so we are soaked in water day and night and our kiddies cannot play in the yards. In some cases, our houses are falling apart due to water coming from these toilets.
As another Inanda resident living next to a communal container toilet, Bongiwe Mnqaba (age 56), told me, “if we were consulted about these toilets, we would have disputed this type of development. We expected flush toilets per household, not this. If taps are broken it can be that people are sending the message to the Municipality that we do not want these toilets.”

Another neighbour, Mxolisi (age 18) complained, “Now that a dead body was found [hanging in a container toilet] early this year, everybody is scared to go there….I think they can now be removed because they have turned to be useless. Even more, tsotsis are hiding there to mug people who are coming from work [because] they are dark!”

Then we have an unnecessary financial expense because we pay R2 for 25 liters which we must buy, since by the time we reach home at 7pm the communal taps are already closed (it used to be 9pm).

Most of the people who are living in Inanda’s RDP houses, which do have individual water taps, have a problem with the high billing costs.
The new water meters being installed are not for everyone. For most of us, there are no standpipes nearby to provide us with water, so we ended up diverting the pipes to our yards so that we can get access to water. The Municipality must remember that we decided to connect water on our own because we were neglected. Water is a basic need and a human right.

We are waiting for a meeting where these new meters will be discussed, but if they impose these, we will make sure that they are removed from each and every house, as we are tired of water and sanitation being imposed on us.

For example, while others in eThekwini enjoy their flush toilet inside their house, 80 000 households in black communities are denied this right by the municipality, as they were given the ‘Urinary Diversion’ toilets in small rooms outside the house, without water. These are similar to the old-style bucket system, and are now recognised as a failed experiment.
The greatest fear of this type of ‘development’ is that it is permanent. The question in our Inanda wards remains: how long will our community be forced to live under these conditions, if a world water award makes our politicians smug?

(Gcina Makoba is a Dennis Brutus Community Scholar at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Centre for Civil Society.)



FOLLOWING MAKOBA’S ARTICLE, THE FOLLOWING DEBATE TOOK PLACE ON SEVERAL LISTSERVES IN SEPTEMBER 2014

PB: More quick banter, below, but I must say, I sometimes just don't know what to believe when I read Neil's replies, e.g. "The eThekwini municipality has not built VIP toilets" (i.e., Ventilated Improved Pitlatrines - the prior fad of neoliberal water management). Evidence below suggests that Bill Gates thinks otherwise.

Re: [Bubbles] [Debate-List] (Fwd) Durban's big water award on Tuesday (Stockholm Water Industry) 7 September 2014

NM: Dear Vanessa
I think that you are confusing issues here. I have never heard the city or our government say that citizens do not have a right to a clean environment or access to a basic supply of water necessary to sustain life.

PB: If you don't hear that, no surprise, for it would be unconstitutional for a city official to say it. But there's lots of talk-left walk-right rhetoric and practice in South Africa. So this sentence seems disingenuous, given the record of disconnections and extreme cutbacks enforced on the city's poorest third who were already provided a metered supply - i.e. a reduction from 22 kl/hh/month to 15 kl/hh/month because of the doubling of the real water price from 1997-2004, during which time, at the peak of rights-denial, 4000 households per week were disconnected from a full water supply due to non-payment. The 200 l/hh/day (now 300) came in the form of yard tanks, again a system for the poor (never seen in my Bluff neighbourhood) which ignores the critical role of water pressure in assuring hygiene and the safety of the water. Rights violations were legion, as the case of the late Christina Manquele proved already 15 years ago (see her on video here).



NM: It seems that many have forgotten that the Durban metro municipality introduced the concept of free basic water rather than basic water that had to be paid for.

PB: Two serious problems here, that I don't think Neil can rebut:
1) as noted above, if during the FBW's pilot phase and city-wide roll-out, consumption by the poorest 1/3 simultaneously declined (during pandemics of cholera, AIDS and diarhhoea), because the overall water price doubled from R2/kl to R4/kl (after correction for inflation), the Durban version of FBW was diabolical, not something to brag about. Here are the 1997-2004 data from the municipality's own staff person, Reg Bailey:



2) what was the rationale for FBW being introduced, based on the Durban pilot? According to the water minister at the time (Ronnie Kasrils), the Durban pilot convinced him that ‘It would save money because local authorities would not be saddled with the problem of administering large numbers of small accounts’ (Business Day, 11 February 2000). Again, nothing to brag about if this was a matter of fiscal savings. (Also, it makes little sense as the basis for public policy, because if one then consumes 6001 liters, this logic is to charge the customer for the whole 6001, not just for 1 liter.)

NM: It was also one of the first to start emptying pit toilets once every 5 years for free and now the UD toilets every two years for free.

PB: But again, Neil, why brag about what is now explicitly acknowledged to be a class-'discriminatory' system, in your own words? Those pit toilets and UD are now acknowledged to fail the tests of dignity and fairness; they should never have been introduced as a 'sanitation solution', since now they must be replaced.

NM: When our interaction with communities through the Water Dialogues and subsequently our user platforms and focus groups,

PB: If this is true, I was mistaken, then, to think that water activists had anything to do with the pressure put on Durban municipality to change its rights-violating policies. (If this is true. But it would not be in any municipal official's interest to acknowledge that activists had anything to do with changing policy.)

NM: led us to understand that 200 litres a day was not enough water for basic living in a tropical climate,

PB: Why such a weasel word? "Tropical"? In non-tropical Joburg, the equivalent FBW allocation was from 6 to 10 (not 9) kl/hh/month, just before the court judgement in 2008 found that Soweto citizens' rights were violated by Suez - which had designed Joburg Water's FBW in alliance with the national strategy put in place in mid-2001 by the Palmer Development Group. Ian Palmer had earlier been the most vigorous advocate I ever met of denying people a FBW allocation; somehow or other, his consultancy was put in charge of FBW design. Neil was on the board of Joburg Water when it implemented its pre-payment meters (for black not white neighbourhoods), inhumane 'shallow sewer' strategy and VIPs.

NM: the Council increased it to 300 litres per family per day. To imply that the city is unresponsive is incorrect.

PB: The critique is not that Durban officials do not change and are unresponsive. Everyone acknowledges that there is a marginal improvement over the years, as activist critiques hit home. The durable concern, though, is that there is a tendency to continue new innovations in water apartheid: not using race as the explicit dividing line, but instead class.

NM: The eThekwini municipal area is covered with water pipes

PB: The critique is that there is a residual (and ongoing) apartheid logic to the verb "cover". For example, a "sanitation edge" was declared that has very little geographical logic (look at the many white areas that have sanitation services outside the 'edge'). It is based on a class-centric assessment of communities.



NM: intended to provide water to any customer who applies to be connected. Many of the illegal connections have not been made by poor families but by families living in large houses in the Ingonyama Trust areas, houses that would sell for millions of Rand if they were located in Umhlanga Rocks or Reservoir Hills.

PB: This is the sort of class analysis that is helpful. What's the logical conclusion? Enforce a stronger water credit control policy on people who can afford to pay but who don't, and charge them much higher amounts for hedonistic consumption.

NM: Then there are those in shack areas who have connected to the supply lines leading to public standpipes and as a result no water comes out of the taps at the end of the line, depriving the really poor of access to sufficient water.

PB: This is not just a problem in shack areas; Mike Muller can testify that this is the way ordinary people have responded to the inadequacy of off-site water access all over the country. They put pipes and hoses into water systems so as to achieve yard-based access. Many of the projects were set up with a design specification of 25 l/c/d which was what some of the water experts says is what a woman can carry each day for her household for a targeted maximum of 200 meters. The possibility of a community increasing its population or moving up a 'ladder' of consumption to yard or in-house supply was not taken into account. The public health, gender equity and micro-economic benefits of moving to the

PB: For that I blame the policy people and municipal designers who provide too few taps, too far away. Worse, they cite "RDP standards" to justify this - when in reality the RDP has much more generous medium-term targets. (The short-term emergency mandate, to be provided by water tankers if necessary, was at least 25 lcd; the medium-term was on-site 50-60 lcd.)

NM: Instead the water runs out of ‘private’ taps at individual shacks - taps that are hardly ever closed.

PB: Where are these taps for private individuals that are 'hardly ever closed'? What is the water being used for? If these shack settlements typically have no soakaways or drains, why would an individual private tap owner let water run constantly?

NM: We monitor consumption per house in these shack areas and it is far more than 300 litres per family per day, but the excessive consumption is not being paid for by those responsible.

PB: I find it hard to believe that shack settlements have that kind of per household consumption if they are not sharing their supply with immediate neighbours, as I know so many do, who are illegally connected to water or electricity grids.

NM: Our research has shown that there are businesses active in making these illegal connections for a cost that typically is around R600. We have been given the pamphlets that are handed out by these companies and that offer unlimited free water for ever. We have approached the police to take action against them, but nothing seems to have been done.

PB: So why not solve that problem by putting in municipal taps?

NM: Sadly there is also evidence that some of the contractors and employees working for EWS are also involved in making illegal, unmetered connections for a fee.

PB: Why does eThekwini hire so many crooks, especially in Public Private Pilfering partnerships? (See Manase Report for a small sampling, or for a particularly telling example, how about Carver Media trying to loot a WWF award. Or just recall Mike Sutcliffe's overall looting spree. Or Mayor Obed Mlaba's R3 bn tender hijack.) Don't the activists critics have a point, about tenderpreneurship being a primitive mode of class formation? Why can't the water department at least hire its own staff and not outsource its work - especially wastewater treatment here in South Durban - to a criminal operation (Veolia) that is involved in internationally-recognised illegal Occupation-related services in East Jerusalem, for example? The impression that Durban municipality gives the world is unending corruption; surely the celebrated Water and Sanitation group can work against that trend, not amplify it?

NM: So the eThekwini municipality has a plan to make water available in the form of metered connections to individual homes and communal ablution blocks in dense shack areas. We have connected 1,3 million people to safe drinking water since 2000, another fact that is overlooked by the critics of EWS.

PB: No, it is the exorbitant price rises over that period to all those connected that is most disconcerting (as the Bailey/Buckley data above indicate).

NM: 280 000 families who are legally connected to the network do not pay for water each month.

PB: But they don't get enough water, do they, nor with sufficient pressure to meet the society's public health and hygiene objectives.

NM: Our experience over the past 22 years has shown that the water ‘consumption’ for families who use water through unmetered connections is generally three times more than those who are supplied through metered connections.

PB: Are they then also commoning the water, sharing with others? (I would, if in that situation.)

NM: Johannesburg Water saw an even more dramatic drop in consumption in unbilled areas after the installation of meters (from an average of 60 kl per month to less than 15kl per month)

PB: And they also witnessed the world's second greatest water war (after Cochabamba).

NM: Threatening to vandalise meters and remove them is a clear indication of an attitude that does not relate to poverty or to human rights – in my view it is plain anarchy or criminality.

PB: If the meter charges too much to allow water to be consumed by poor people, and if the authorities refuse to permit a generous FBW allowance, then surely it's better to have that meter sabotaged than face the public health and personal household burdens of inadequate water access. As a taxpayer and a fellow citizen, that cost-benefit analysis makes sense to me.

NM: Turning to the toilet issue, the cost of providing water borne sanitation to the 370 000 families living in rural and shack areas would cost more than R60 billion.

PB: What, R162 000 per household? For a simple low-flush and on-site septic tank in peri-urban and rural areas, and for a much more generous approach to shack settlement sanitation? That sounds like an exaggeration.

NM: The ongoing additional operational costs that would have to be funded from a revenue source would exceed R1,5 million a day.

PB: That amount - if true (like the R162 000 per hh?) - is barely 1.5% of the municipal budget. Since Durban is one of the most unequal countries in the world, that kind of redistribution is justifiable. We spend so little of the fiscus on water and on social spending as it is.

NM: Please also remember that most residential areas in our municipality did not have piped water borne sanitation for 120 years

PB: Here we need some rudimentary racial analysis, and post-apartheid retribution too.

NM: and it was only in the 1970’s that the sewering of these areas began. Many suburbs in the Highway area and parts of Westville still rely on private septic tanks systems for sewage disposal.

PB: Right, here we have race analysis, but the euphamism is "suburbs in the Highway area and parts of Westville" (i.e. still mainly whites). The point about 'private septic tanks' is interesting: what percentage of the historically-white areas (on high ground) have these, and why can't they be subsidised for peri-urban and rural areas across the country?

NM: It is just too expensive to construct sewers in these areas, never mind the rural areas where it would cost 10 to 20 times more per household to construct sewers, compared to the denser urban areas.

PB: I don't know anyone who suggests full-flush system through sewage lines in rural areas, do you? But a rudimentary septic tank with enough of a flush to move the excrement out is certainly feasible. How much would that cost? An average of R162 000 per unit? I doubt it.

NM: So even if the Moses Mabhida stadium had not been built and tenders had not been given to the companies you mention, the prohibitive cost of sewering large areas of our municipality would still remain.

PB: Can we please get accurate costing, not the R162 000/unit alleged?

NM: This is not an attempt to deny the poor access to sanitation – even in first world countries in Europe and America there are families without piped sewerage systems who are left to fend for themselves.

PB: The end of the sentence appears a justification for denying the poor access to sanitation. It's just this kind of double-talk that critics find exasperating.

NM: London generally had no sewers or flushing toilets until the early 1900’s –

PB: Actually, London's Metropolitan Commission of Sewers started the process of sewage installation after the Great Stink and cholera epidemic in the 1850s.

NM: you used a pit toilet in the garden! Currently national policy as per the Strategic Framework Document for Water and Sanitation Services says that basic sanitation is effectively a VIP toilet.

PB: This is national neoliberal water policy, sure. But Durban is one of the richest municipalities in the country. So in that context, justifying Durban's class-apartheid policy because of an awful national policy - one that many of us fought on the policy front these last 20 years - is not satisfactory.

NM: The eThekwini municipality has not built VIP toilets.

PB: Well, if not, your department has been fooling local citizenry and internet viewers: and this rich poverty tourist seeking a technological silver bullet:



NM: In my view if families want more expensive options than that envisaged as basic sanitation, they should do what everyone else in the world (rich and poor alike)does and make a plan themselves instead of waiting for government.



PB: And if people are too poor, then tough shit, eh. The name for that, as public policy, is 'class apartheid'.

NM: My personal view is that the issue is not about flush toilets, but is rather about having access to a toilet that is clean with no bad odours, is easy and safe to use and that is not dark inside. There is also the popular view that the flushing toilet is the only acceptable solution – a facility that uses about 150 litres a day of treated clean water (for a family of 5) to flush away 5 litres of human excreta. This 155 litres of water then has to be transported to a treatment works

PB: Doesn't have to be: site-based treatment is possible, either through biogas digestion in built-up areas, or through septic tanks in rural areas.

NM: to remove the 5 litres of ‘pollution’. The energy consumption to treat the water to drinking water quality, deliver it to the home and then remove the sewage and treat it, is huge. Dry sanitation has to be the solution of the future for everybody and many organisations around the world are working towards that goal. The flushing toilet was first put into common use in the 1860’s and has hardly changed since then – we have to do better than that in a world where water and energy are becoming scarce. We need a 21st century toilet that is used by all, both rich and poor.

PB: Great, that last sentence is fine. But given the track record of only experimenting - mainly unsuccessfully - on poor people and black people, when will the rich - or even middle-class - try out a new system? Count me in as a guinea pig, please.

Cheers,
Patrick

NM: Regards
Neil Macleod

Re: [PORT] Re: [Bubbles] [Debate-List] (Fwd) Durban's big water award on Tuesday (Stockholm Water Industry) 6 September 2014

NM: "...the writer seems to see the right to a clean environment to be the right to a flushing toilet and the right to basic water to be the right to an illegal connection so unlimited quantities of water can be stolen."

VB: It is interesting that the eThekwini Municipality always manages to associate poverty with crime, be it the homeless, illegal connections, shack dwellers - the struggle for survival and basic human dignity by the poor is naturally assumed to be of criminal intent.

VB: I would like to ask, however, which is the REAL crime here: that of a poor family, often single-mother households, resorting to an illegal water connection to obtain some measure of access to a basic human right when service delivery fails; or the municipality's continued diversion of ratepayers' money into the back pockets of the already obscenely wealthy? I refer to such questionable practices as repetitious tenders awarded to construction companies owned by the likes of the Mpisane's, Jay Singh, etc, the list is too long to mention all.

VB: Or the municipality's continued squander of budgetary resources on 'nice to haves but hardly essential when one considers the existing inequality,' such as the Moses Mabhida Stadium and all the other white elephants which cost us millions to maintain each month? And for what long term benefit and to whom?

VB: Or the bloated costs of ward councillors' bodyguards? And, and, and...again the list is too long to detail.

VB: So which is the REAL crime here Mr Mcleod?

VB: How many proper sanitation projects and flush toilets could the city have built if this money, alleged by many (such as has been detailed in the Manase Report for eg and in countless other corruption investigations that are simply ignored) to have been 'stolen' or wasted or 'irregularly spent' - and continues to be - hadn't been? Or had to be paid back?

VB: It is not only our president that should "Pay back our money" to enable a "Better life for all." A better life which SHOULD include ready access to a liveable amount of water and being able to use a toilet without fear of disease or rape.

Vanessa

Subject: [PORT] Re: [Bubbles] [Debate-List] (Fwd) Durban's big water award on Tuesday (Stockholm Water Industry) 6 September 2014

Two quick replies: first to Neil, then Mike. (This is a debate on the 'Bubbles' listserve but since Neil and Mike both cc-ed several other listserves, people who are interested are invited to chime in on this dispute.) (And in case the quotation function disappears, my replies are preceded by PB: for clarity's sake.)

On 2014/09/06 03:46 PM, Neil Macleod wrote:

NM: I intend writing to the paper to set the record straight. My summary of the article is that the writer seems to see the right to a clean environment to be the right to a flushing toilet

PB: Right then, it seems that we're backtracking to Gandhi: "First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win." We've apparently moved along this trajectory from ignoring to ridiculing, even though water activists like Gcina Makoba - who does indeed see the right to a clean environment in her township as entailing a flush toilet inside her house (as do I) - might have had the impression that she was winning. After all, over the past five years or so, slowly but surely, Durban officials seemed to be listening to the activists' grievances; they at least changed previously unacceptable policies and projects, such as Ventilated Improved Pitlatrines (now out of fashion) and the Free Basic Water supply of 200 liters/household/day (it's now up to 300).

NM: and the right to basic water to be the right to an illegal connection so unlimited quantities of water can be stolen.

PB: Neil, is there a single activist who believes that the solution to the household water crisis is "an illegal connection so unlimited quantities of water can be stolen"? I've never met one. My impression is that the township activists who have workshopped the various policy options invariably promote the 1994 Reconstruction and Development Programme promises as their ideal policy. Aside from the SA Municipal Workers Union which advocated 100 liters per day lifeline supply per capita (not 50-60 lcd as the RDP recommends) about 15 years ago, I've never encountered an activist who demanded more than the RDP. Am I wrong on this?

PB: As for stealing? Look, as a temporary measure in the event an inhumane municipality (such as Durban back in the day) disconnects 1000 families per day, well then yes, a human right to water strategy should surely include the urgent and if necessary illegal reconnection of poor people, especially women-headed households. Sometimes court injunctions against disconnections are slow, expensive or rejected by conservative judges. As a fellow taxpayer, don't you agree that encouraging illegal water reconnections under those circumstances (such as Thulisile Chrisina Manquele's famous case 15 years ago) makes sense, so that our health bills don't skyrocket as a result of this extremist municipal disconnection rate? The gory details are in an Oxford DPhil thesis about Durban's awful past, by Alex Loftus: A Political Ecology of Water Struggles in Durban, South Africa

NM: I do not need to defend our service delivery and innovation record -

PB: Ok but if you change your mind, we would love to have a public dialogue, including activists like Gcina, Orlean Naidoo, MamaDudu Khumalo, etc.

NM: those who we respect have done it for us repeatedly.

PB: Maybe, but surely the best analysis of Durban's unacceptable service delivery and innovation record is actually this quote from someone who admits that the past strategy was unacceptable to low-income black people: "containers with toilets and showers and wash troughs, and the construction of 80 000 urine-diverting toilets speak to our past. But what we've realised is that into the future, we need to find new technologies that meet people's expectations. The reality is that everyone believes that the flushing toilet is the best solution to sanitation.... we'll bring safe sanitation at an acceptable level to rich and poor alike and we'll do away with this perceived discrimination where the flushing toilet is seen to be for rich people and dry sanitation is seen to be a solution for poor people. Our challenge is to do away with that differentiation."

PB: Hear hear! I'm impressed, because that sounds like a sensible official who realises that the service delivery and innovation record of the past - a sanitation apartheid that also had rather obvious racial overtones - is simply not acceptable, and simply didn't meet people's expectations. Perhaps a very low-flush technological solution can be found that might, ideally, entail bio-gas digestion and the same quality of indoor, non-odor standards for rich and poor alike. That would be excellent. Meantime, why ridicule activists who also believe that the challenge for EWS in future is to do away with that durable water-apartheid differentiation?
On 2014/09/04 07:32 PM, Mike Muller wrote:
MM: Of course, the difference between Neil and all the many progressive environmental and social activists is that he tried to implement some of their proposals.

PB: In a way this is correct... as you saw above and can listen to here, Neil now concedes that the current system - the 'sanitation edge' denying water-borne sanitation in peri-urban areas (and also close-in shack settlements) - is widely perceived to be discriminatory. And yes, as noted, he implemented an increased Free Basic Water supply after consistent critique of his disconnection policy. (Ok, that 300 liters/household/day amount is still not enough for many larger families, especially when there are special events like funerals, and it comes with a new version of neoliberal indigency policy, and hence is not universal as promised in the 2000 ANC election campaign. Nor is the block tariff steep enough to redistribute properly. So the FBW strategy still needs fixing.) Sadly though, these changes came only after the huge social engineering mistakes were made, e.g. installation of what I gather are not 80 000 UDs, as Neil says in the video, but instead (we learned in seminar from an EWS official), 140 000. What an enormous waste.

PB: Warnings against UDs were made early on, e.g. in 2007, 2008, and again in 2012 - and I think that two superb campaigners - MamaDudu Khumalo and Simphiwe Nojiyeza - laid out better than anyone what was wrong, at an early stage in the process. Their concerns were ignored for years. Here are slides with their critique, and see way below. Until the UD experiment failed, Durban municipality seemed committed to not supplying decent sanitation to these residents. Now maybe there is a way forward, if we take time and trouble - and dispense with prejudices, Mike - to listen and learn from activists on the frontline of the sanitation wars.

MM: Those UD toilets are an example; they are designed both to reduce water use

PB: By who? Poor people? Black people? Do you know how many were imposed on the residents of my (mainly white middle-class) neighbourhood (the Bluff)? (Zero.) It's this race/class (and by implication gender) discrimination that, finally, is acknowledged to be a fatal flaw. Do you not get that?

MM: and to capture the nutrients

PB: In a bucket-system contraption similar to apartheid's, in a city with the highest number of HIV+ people, and hence a huge diarrhoea problem (which chamber?) and abnormally high levels of pathogens... and so with Durban's humid weather (hence difficulty in drying the excrement), with erratic bucket-emptying strategies, with urban agriculture inappropriate for human excrement, and with consistent failure to gain community ownership of this strategy, the nutrients are not so easy to capture, are they.

MM: that otherwise go down the drain while still offering safe and convenient sanitation.

PB: No, the UDs have proven unsafe (hygienically) and inconvenient (located outside the house). And terribly smelly as well. Mike, in all these respects, do watch the interview and learn from Neil. He says he is trying to get beyond them, in part for safety reasons. Let's learn why.

MM: The Greens love them.

PB: Which 'Greens' do you mean? Have you not met 'red-greens' committed to Environmental Justice, who put dignity, equity and reparations into the mix?

MM: Until someone tries to implement them and discovers that all these easy solutions are not quite as easy as they appear. Then they are suddenly very absent or very ready to point fingers.

PB: Ah, but we also point fingers inward, by the way, not just at the 'water fraternity'. Sad and convoluted experiences on the biogas digester in Cato Manor convinces me that the efforts made there were inadequate. I was associated (as a voluntary board member) of an NGO that was involved. That exercise was a huge mistake, mainly because of lack of community ownership.

MM: Shame!

PB: Mike, shame is an emotion usefully invoked by Herman Daly, pioneer of ecological economics, when thinking about something similar to UD advocacy: degrowth advocacy applied to the poor. Daly advocated degrowth (or 'steady-state economics') for the Global North but is aware that you cannot make this transfer to the Global South, and his argument applies equally well to the UD debate: "It is absolutely a waste of time as well as morally backward to preach steady-state doctrines to underdeveloped countries before the overdeveloped countries have taken any measure to reduce either their own population growth or the growth of their per-capita resource consumption. Therefore, the steady-state paradigm must first be applied in the overdeveloped countries…. One of the major forces necessary to push the overdeveloped countries toward a…steady-state paradigm must be Third World outrage at their overconsumption." - Herman E. Daly, Steady-State Economics (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1991), p.19

PB: Here's an interesting essay that, not entirely taking my point of view, nevertheless puts the UD into this vital context. Living as we do, Mike, in the world's most unequal major country, it's a shame to have to remind of this context.



UD social/ equity issues: Are UDs a dignified form of sanitation?
Dudu Khumalo and Simphiwe Nojiyeza, UKZN Centre for Civil Society

Positive Effects of UD Toilets

  • It improves dry sanitation facilities by:
    (1) Reducing odours if properly constructed and operated
    (2) Facilitating maintenance of the system
    It contributes to improved health through:
    (1) Easier and more hygienic handling of the faeces
    (2) Reduces risk of pathogen transport to groundwater


  • It can provide more permanent interventions compared to VIPs,chemical toilets, buckets and other inadequate sanitation facilities through:
    (1) Simplified emptying that increases the toilet lifetime
    (2) It facilitates nutrient cycling and creates possibilities to increase food security Positive

    Effects of UD Toilets

    (1) Urine contains the majority of nutrients found in excreta
    (2) Urine is an excellent fertilizer, suitable for all crops needing quick- acting nitrogen
    (3) Urine has an extremely low content of micropollutants such as heavy metals


  • Urine diversion systems are not expensive than similar conventional technologies


  • Positive Cost effects

  • Dry urine diversion is cheaper to install than VIPs, VIP emptying is expensive and facilities are sometimes non- existent


  • It is the cheapest alternative for on-site sanitation, when it is full, households can build new ones


  • It is estimated that over a ten year period, the full toilet investment can be paid for solely by the value of nitrogen and phosphorus in the urine


  • Environmental and Sustainable Development

  • Urine diversion systems contribute less to environmental contamination than conventional sanitation systems:
    (1) There is reduced risk of groundwater pollution for dry urine diversion systems
    (2) There is reduced risk of surface water pollution for water- flushed urine diversion systems


  • Motives for eThekwini to introduce UDs

  • There were 140 193 households without adequate sanitation especially in rural areas


  • The use of VIPs requires mechanical desludging which is expensive, vulnerable to failure, inaccessible (site), unable to cope with heavy sludge and solid waste in pits.


  • It is unsafe and unpleasant to do manual emptying of VIPs using shovels and buckets


  • The cost of using tanker emptying of VIPs is around R1536 per pit if the service is subsidized and each household pay R120, possibility of saving from construction additional Waste Water Treatment Plants


  • VIP latrines are financially unsustainable, especially subsidizing the empting of such using tankers


  • UDs are maintained by users themselves, therefore it is cost saving


  • Motives for eThekwini

  • Replacement of about 100 000 old pit latrines without ventilation toilets with UDs that are allowing faeces and urine to dry and decompose faster


  • In 2006 eThekwini commissioned Pollution Research Group of UKZN to investigate whether UD solid waste can be used as fertilizer, and the results according to UKZN biologist Mike Smith were promising


  • Motives for eThekwini

  • Another study funded by eThekwini Municipality and WHO suggested a 30% reduction in diarrheal diseases among households with UD toilets compared with similar households using pit toilets


  • According to Stephen Knight of Nelson Mandela School of Medicine access to UD toilets helped avert an average of one diarrhea episode per person every 2 years, with the benefits of good sanitation three times greater for children under the age of 5 than for other age ranges.


  • Challenges of UD roll out

  • Risks associated with UDs is the lack of quality and construction of the toilets and piping systems which result in people reverting back to open defecation and use of traditional latrines.


  • The focus is on the number of toilets constructed and how closer we are to meeting MDGs


  • Zero regular health and hygiene education, no operating manuals and instructions, no maintenance guidelines are provided, no spare parts and support is given


  • Users are not accepting the system because of the top down nature of delivery systems, because in some areas there are different sanitation technologies, some use UD and others ( elite and aristocratic class) have flush toilets


  • Handling of urine and faeces not explained and also not acceptable to communities


  • Other Challenges

  • No programme to re-circulate urine and faces to agriculture, operation and maintenance of urine and faeces is more demanding than conventional piping which results in blockages


  • In most instances , there are no piping, storage and collection (transportation) tanks systems that are put in place


  • As a user you are on your own, eThekwini is reducing costs and creating health impacts!


  • Other challenges

  • Lack of compliance with building codes which results in improper running of the system


  • The sizing and inclination of pipes, documentation and accessibility are mistakes that lead to failure of the system


  • No municipal collection of urine is provided for, and therefore urine harvested is not used for agricultural purposes


  • The construction of UDs did not cater for appropriate collection and storage capacity for the urine.


  • Social costs of UDs

  • Although there is minimal risk of disease transmission when urine is used without prior storage in the home garden, the risk could be great due to lack of urine storage guidelines.


  • The waiting period of one month between last application of urine and harvest is not adhered to as education is often not provided


  • There is a serious lack of stakeholder participation, which result in UDs not being accepted by households


  • The agricultural benefits ( fertilizing effects of urine and faeces) of UDs are not properly explained to farmers


  • Most of the UD toilets are becoming storage facilities


  • UDs designed so far are not taking into cognizance that men and women excrete urine in different ways


  • Social Impacts of UD Toilets

  • The bowls are not designed so that urine is collected in an appropriate way from both women and men using the toilet


  • Therefore there is a need for designing different urinals for men and women


  • The current UD is gender insensitive, inadequate and unsafe


  • Faeces and urine contain low pesticide residues that could harm people if no safe removal devices and storage facilities are provided


  • Informed choice

  • In most instances communities did not play any role in technology choice


  • Double vaults or single vaults were prescribed and communities had no say


  • UD toilets are situated far away from existing houses and may make users vulnerable to criminal activities when using them at night, the other motivation is that UD toilets smell very bad despite ash and sew dust being used


  • Most households that have UD toilets complain about responsibilities of emptying vaults, difficulty to operate and maintain, construction mistakes, handling of faeces and their preference of a flush toilet


  • The vaults are also too deep and difficult to clean, urine pipes often blocks, Urine is disposed to soaked pits and in few instances it is piped to velds for fertilizer making


  • Economic Issues

  • The implementation of UD in Durban did not result in improved environment, food security for households and
    safer handling of waste flow from the households


  • The externalities are borne by households that operate and maintain their latrines without any form of subsidy


  • Ashe and sew dust is not provided, whereas in most rural areas there is electricity and people are no longer using fire for cooking and other domestic services


  • The double piping system is expensive in terms of installation costs


  • The costs of removing and resealing the slab of the vault that are borne by households


  • Training and Children usage

  • Training on usage, health and hygiene provided in some instances was not adequate to enhance behavioural change.


  • Children under the age of 10 are not using UD toilets because
    (1) They are too small and too young to use the seat properly, they might fall in the vault, they may defecate in the urine receptacle
    (2) They don’t know how to use the toilet


  • Failure to use UDs by children resulted in exposing them to health risks as they openly defecate in bushes


  • Some households are neither using ash no soil to cover faeces after defecation


  • Excreta Removal

  • Most users are objecting to emptying the vault and disposing of the excreta because:
    (1) They do not want to work with excreta.
    (2) The municipality must take the excreta away as nobody is willing to empty the vault and handle faeces

  • (3) It is not easy to dispose of the contents of the vault and emptying of the vault is not easy
    (4) Use of Faeces and Urine as Fertilizer

  • Most users are not willing to use neither faeces nor urine as fertilizer because:
    (1) They don’t like to handle faeces.
    (2) It is unhealthy to use excreta in the garden
    (3) Faeces smell, no matter how dry they are
    (4) Urine kills plants


  • Way forward

  • Sanitation committees need to elected in a transparent and participatory manner, sanitation technology choices made need to meet the needs of the users and not imposed by eThekwini


  • Currently households regard UDs as punishment for being poor, black and Zulu and some form of degradation and humiliation


  • Training, operation and maintenance, emptying of the vaults and safe disposal methods to be re visited , health and hygiene education to be given a priority, improvement in construction of UDs need to take place, use of excreta and urine for fertilizer to be re looked


  • Emptying of vaults need to be subsidised together with transportation for agricultural use of both faeces and urine, gender sensitivity of construction of UDs


  •  Events Index 2017
     Bandile Mdlalose, Daniel Dunia and Nisha Naidoo, The Peoples Economic Forum Responds to the World Economic Forum, 1 June 2017 
     Mvu Ngcoya, Rozena Maart, Shaun Ruggunan, Mershen Pillay Centre for Civil Society Seminar: Decolonising Curricula, 25 May 2017 
     Peter Sutoris, Environmental Activism and Environmental Education: (De) Politicising Struggles in India and South Africa, 18 May 2017 
     Lubna Nadvi, Lukhona Mnguni, Shauna Mottiar, The April 7th Protests, 20 April 2017 
     John Devenish, CCS Seminar: The use of interactive maps and scatter graphs to study protest in the BRICS countries, 13 April 2017  
     Shauna Mottiar, Mvuselelo Ngcoya BOOK LAUNCH: Philanthropy in South Africa - Horizontality, ubuntu and social justice, 22 March 2017 
     Peter McKenzie Photo Exhibition - Durbanity, 09 March 2017 
     Elisabet Van Wymeersch On change, conflicts and planning theory: the transformative potential of disruptive contestation, 2 March 2017 
     Daniel Byamungu Dunia, Africa Solidarity Network (ASONET) Community Building Workshop: CRIMINALISATION OF HATE CRIMES AND HATE SPEECH, 24 February 2017 
     Jasper Finkeldey, Centre for Civil Society Seminar: (No) Limits to extraction? Popular Mobilization and the Impacts of the Extractive Industries in KZN, 9 February 2017 
     Bandile Mdlalose, New Urban Agenda’ – Report Back from Habitat III, United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development Ecuador, 28 November 
     Patrick Bond, From Trump to BRICS, where is civil society headed? 18 November 
     Gerard Boyce, Arguments in favour of putting the South African government's nuclear plans to a popular referendum, 28 October  
     Duduzile Khumalo, Sibongile Buthelezi, Cathy Sutherland, Vicky Sim, Social constructions of environmental services in a rapidly densifying peri-urban area under dual governance in eThekwini Municipality, 26 October  
     Alex Hotz CCS Seminar: Challenging Secrecy and Surveillance: Building Anti-Surveillance Activism, 19 August 
     Itai Kagwere, Daniel Byamungu Dunia and Gabriel Hertis CCS Seminar: Challenges of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Migrants in South Africa, 26 August 
     Delwyn Pillay CCS Seminar: Sight on the target: Tackling destructive fishing, 12 August 
     Carolijn van Noort CCS Seminar: “Strategic narratives of infrastructural development: is BRICS modernizing the tale?”, 26 July 
     CCS Co-Hosts: The Governance and Politics of HIV AIDS, 19 July 
     Moises Arce CCS Seminar: The Political Consequences of Mobilizations against Resource Extraction, 12 July 
     Zimbabwe's Despondent Political Economy - a Durban workshop to honour Sam Moyo 13-14 June 2016 
     Patrick Bond gives political economy lecture to Durban Chamber of Commerce and Industry's Women in Business Forum, 26 April 2016 
     CCS hosts mining critics for press conference, 7 April 
     Assassination in Xolobeni: Film screening and memorial meeting for Sikhosiphi Bazooka Rhadebe, 6 April 
     Patrick Bond & Ana Garcia launch BRICS in Toronto, 31 March 
     Akin Akikboye CCS Seminar: KZN's Internally Displaced People, 31 March 
     Patrick Bond & Ana Garcia present critique of world ports, New York, 30 March 
     Dieter Lünse CCS Seminar: Strength of nonviolent action, 22 March 
     Hafsa Kanjwal CCS Seminar: India in Turmoil, 23 March 
     Patrick Bond testifies at public hearing on Transnet's South Durban plans, 21 March 
     Patrick Bond lectures on BRICS and Pan-Africanism, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 15 March 
     Yaa Ashantewaa K. Archer-Ngidi CCS Seminar: The role of Black women in liberation, 10 March 
     Patrick Bond reports on research into urban economic and ecological violence, IDRC & UKAID conference, Johannesburg, 8 March 
     Patrick Bond addresses Women in Mining (Womin) conference on movement building, Johannesburg, 7 March 
     Allen & Barbara Isaacman CCS Seminar: Dams, displacement, and the delusion of development, 4 March  
     Patrick Bond presents South Durban paper in Merebank, 2 March 
     Andrew Lawrence CCS Seminar: Why nuclear energy is bad for South Africa, bad for the world—and how it can be opposed, 29 February 2016  
     China Ngubane , Chumile Sali & Dalli Weyers CCS Seminar: Social Justice Coalition Citizen Oversight of Policing in Khayelitsha Court Case Presentation, 26 February 
     CCS hosts groundWork, SDCEA and FrackFreeSA for climate and energy workshop, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Can the SA budget afford #FeesMustFall demands and other social spending? 23 February  
     Patrick Bond joins Mondli Hlatshwayo & Aziz Choudry to launch Just Work, Ike's Books, 22 February 
     Peter Cole CCS Seminar: A History of Dockers, Social Movements and Transnational Solidarity in Durban and San Francisco, 17 February 
     Patrick Bond lectures on BRICS at Univ of the Western Cape, Cape Town, 15 February 
     Delwyn Pillay, Jorim Gerrad, Madaline George & Nozipho Mkhabela CCS Seminar: A return to MUTOKO, Zimbabwe, 10 February  
     Nick Turse CCS Seminar: AFRICOM’s New Math and “Scarier” Times Ahead in Africa, 5 February 
     Menzi Maseko & Mandla Mbuyisa CCS Seminar: Black Consciousness, Fees Must Fall and Lessons from the Life of Ongkopotse Tiro, 1 February  
     Gabriel Hertis, China Ngubane & Daniel Dunia CCS Seminar: Central African and Zimbabwean geopolitics and their implications for Durban civil society II, 27 January  
     Patrick Bond keynote at Tata Institute Development Studies conference, 23 January 
     Patrick Bond, Thando Manzi, Bandile Mdlalose & China Ngubane present urban analysis at Tata Institute, Mumbai, 19-22 January 
     Patrick Bond, Achin Vanaik, Ajay Patnaik & Alka Acharya launch BRICS book, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 18 January 
     Gabriel Hertis, China Ngubane, Daniel Dumia & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: African geopolitics and their implications for Durban civil society I, 11 January 
     Events Index 2015 
     CCS students Boaventura Monjane, Mithika Mwenda, Tabitha Spence & Celia Alario at the COP21 climate summit, Paris, 1-12 December 
     Jorim Gerrard & Paul Steffen CCS Seminar: Influencing society's views of refugees, 9 December  
     Workshop on Climate Change and Environmental Justice with the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance, 7-10 December  
     Ashwin Desai, Betty Govinden, Crispin Hemson & Andile Mngxitama CCS Seminar: The Gandhi debate, 27 November 
     Stefano Battain & Daniela Biocca CCS Seminar: Alternative development or alternative to development? 27 November 
     CCS Seminar: Remembering Sam Moyo, 25 November  
     Patrick Bond debates Sihle Zikalala & Vasu Gounden on the state of South Africa, eThekwini Progressive Professionals Forum, 25 November 
     Christelle Terreblanche debates Ubuntu at the University of Pretoria, 23 November 
     Patrick Bond & Toendepi Shonhe CCS Seminar: BRICS crumble, commodities crash and Africa's climate changes, 20 November 
     Patrick Bond seminar on BRICS banking at University of Cape Town School of Economics, 16 November 
     Delwyn Pillay CCS Seminar: KZN civil society responses to the Paris Climate Change Conference, 9 November 
     Patrick Bond with Numsa and BRICS climate critique at Historical Materialism conference, London, 5-6 November 
     Andile Mngxitama CCS Seminar: Black First! but what is Black? 4 November 
     Patrick Bond seminar on BRICS as sub-imperialism at Open University, 4 November 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS and climate change at Sussex University, 3 November 
     Mondli Hlatshwayo CCS Seminar: Numsa, technological change and politics at ArcelorMittal's Vanderbijlpark plant, 22 October 
     Tri Continental Film Festival Screenings at CCS 21-24 October 
     Patrick Bond launches BRICS book in New York 19 October 
     Patrick Bond delivers keynote at Cyprus conference on mining and sustainable development, 16 October 
     Brian Minga Anza, Mwamba Kalombo Thithi & Sinqobangaye Magestic Pro Sibisi CCS Seminar: Creative challenges to xenophobia, 15 October 2015 
     Patrick Bond, Bandile Mdlalose & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Inequality, the criminalisation of protest and internecine social conflict, 9 October 
     Patrick Bond delivers sustainability keynote to SA Public Health Association conference, 8 October 
     Patrick Bond debates UN Sustainable Development Goals, ClassicFM, Johannesburg, 1 October 
     Patrick Bond talks on African uprisings at Mapungubwe Institute, Pretoria, 30 September 
     Patrick Bond debates Africa in the world economy, Channel Africa, Johannesburg, 29 September 
     Ana Garcia presents BRICS critique at Geopolitical Economy conference, Winnipeg, 26 September 
     Patrick Bond lectures on degrowth in Berlin, 16 September 
     CCS welcomes World Social Science Forum to Durban, with talks by Vuyiseka Dubula, Patrick Bond & others in CCS, 13 - 16 September  
     CCS welcomes Codesria and WSSF to Ike's Books, 12 September 
     CCS hosts the South-South Institute during the World Social Science Forum, 10-18 September 
     Patrick Bond lectures at Codesria/Osisa Economic Justice Institute, 8-9 September 
     Patrick Bond, Boaventura Monjane & Mithika Mwenda at Africa Climate Talks, Dar es Salaam, 3-5 September 
     Vladimir Slivyak What's wrong with Russia's nuclear energy deal-making? 4 September  
     John Devenish CCS Seminar: Mapping social unrest in South Africa, 1 September  
     Patrick Bond lectures on climate and deglobalisation alternatives at Attac University, Marseille, 26 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on legacy of Rosa Luxemburg at New School for Social Research, New York, 21 August 
     China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Xenophobia as symptom, 20 August  
     Justine van Rooyen CCS Seminar: The Social Inclusion/Exclusion of Intersex South Africans, 12 August 
     Patrick Bond keynote speech at BRICS-in-Africa conference, Livingstone, 7-11 August 
     Patrick Bond and Sam Moyo speak at Trust Africa conference on Illicit Financial Flows, Harare, 3 August 
     Patrick Bond delivers paper on climate and the blue economy, Wits University, 2 August 
     Patrick Bond in economic debate at M&G Literary Festival, Johannesburg, 1 August 
     Yaa Ashantewaa Ngidi CCS Seminar: The state of the Pan Africanist movement, 30 July 
     Ryan Solomon CCS Seminar: Belonging, inclusion and South African civil society in the campaigns against AIDS and xenophobia, 29 July 
     Patrick Bond moderates UKZN College of Humanities debate on xenophobia and higher ed transformation, 28 July 
     Lloyd Sachikonye CCS Seminar: Social research and civil society in Zimbabwe, 28 July 
     Patrick Bond & Mithika Mwenda at Climate Futures symposium, Italy, 13-17 July 
     China Ngubane, Bandile Mdlalose & Nonhle Mbuthuma CCS Seminar: The state of social activism against xenophobia, human rights violations and mining exploitation - three case sites, 3 July 
     CCS co-hosts (with Chris Hani Institute) World Association for Political Economy, Johannesburg, 19-21 June 
     CCS workshop with ASONET, Action Support Centre and South African Liaison Office, on South Africa, Peace and Security in the post-2015 Development Agenda, 10-11 June 
     CCS/ASONET workshop on xenophobia, 5 June 
     Alf Nilsen launches his book We Make Our Own History, at Ike's Books, 4 June 
     Patrick Bond addresses civil society electricity crisis summit on load-shedding, Johannesburg, 2 June  
     Patrick Bond talks on extractivism, BRICS sub-imperialism and South Africa at Left Forum, New York, 30-31 May 
     China Ngubane, Gabriel Hertis, Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Persistent Durban xenophobia and Operation Fiela, 20 May 
     CCS hosts Colgate University students for social movement research, June 
     Nonhle Mbuthuma CCS Seminar: Xolobeni mining, unobtanium-titanium battle update, 14 May 
     Patrick Bond lecture on carbon markets and climate debt, Gyeongsang University, Jinju, Korea, 12 May 
     Patrick Bond speaks on South African political economy, Hong Kong Reader bookshop, 11 May 
     Gcina Makoba, Bandile Mdlalose & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Rhodes' walls must fall! 30 April  
     CCS Film Screening: The GAMA Strike A victory for all workers, 24 April 
     Patrick Bond lectures on degrowth and the green economy, Berlin, 21 April 
     Faith ka Manzi & Bandile Mdlalose at Climate Justice strategy meeting, Maputo, April 21-23 
     Paul Kariuki, Bandile Mdlalose, China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Xenophobia in Durban, 14 April 
     CCS joins Greenpeace and R2K in solidarity meeting with Somkhele coal victims, northern KZN, 12 April 
     Patrick Bond lecture on water commodification and resistance at Zimbabwe Sustainable Economics Forum, Harare, 9 April 
     China Ngubane & Jean-Pierre Lukamba CCS Seminar: Xenophobia in Isipingo, 7 April 
     Alice Thomson, Desmond D’Sa & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Liberal and radical approaches to Environmental Justice campaigning, 1 April 
     Patrick Bond speaks on coalitions for national economic sovereignty, World Social Forum, University of Tunis el Manar, 25 March 
     Akin Akiboye & Jorim Gerrard CCS Seminar: Xenophobia and displacement, 17 March 
     Sofie Hellberg CCS Seminar: Water, life and politics in Durban, 10 March 
     Faith kaManzi, Nonhle Mbuthuma, Melissa Hansen & others International Women’s Day at the UKZN Centre for Civil Society: Resistance to Resource Cursing in KZN, the Eastern Cape and the DRC, 9th March 
     Israeli Apartheid Week Events 2 - 8 March 
     Baruti Amisi and Boaventura Monjane speak at US Power Africa conference, University of Illinois, 2-4 March 
     Baruti Amisi, Gerard Boyce & Patrick Bond CCS Workshop: 'False solutions' to climate and energy crises, 26 February 
     Carlos Cardoso CCS Seminar: Knowledge production and intellectual formation in Africa from Codesria's perspective, 20 February 
     Benny Wenda CCS Seminar: The campaign to free West Papua, 19 February 
     Gcina Makoba & Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: Campaigning against coal in KZN, 18 February 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS sherpa Anil Sooklal, UCT Centre for Conflict Resolution, 16 February 
     Desmond D'Sa, David Le Page, Bhavna Deonarain, Winnie Mdletshe & others: Launch of Fossil Free KZN, 13 February 
     Angus Joseph CCS Seminar: Climate justice and solidarity from Lima to Paris, 13 February 
     Nhamo Chikowore & China Ngubane Zimbabwe's new conjuncture and SA's new xenophobia, 6 February 
     Baruti Amisi, Brain Amza & and Jacky Kabidu DRC uprising, repression and solidarity, 5 February 
     Chris Coward CCS Seminar: New spaces of social activism, 28 January 
     Immanuel Ness CCS Seminar: Lessons from the labour movements of China and India, 27 January 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Electricity crisis scenarios, 20 January 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Oil spills, coal digs, resource cursing and resistance, 12 January 
     Events Index 2014 
     Gcina Makoba & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: United Front Preparatory Assembly assessment, 22 December 
     Thando Manzi, Au Loong Yu & John Devenish CCS Seminar: BRICS-from-below struggles for justice, 19 December 
     CCS hosts South Durban climate camp, 8-11 December 
     Patrick Bond, Bandile Mdlalose, Shauna Mottiar, Themba Mchunu & China Ngubane CCS press conference and workshop: Durban politics stressed to break-point, 5 December 
     Mondli Hlatshwayo CCS Seminar: Organised labour's losses since 1994, worker-community relations after 2014, 28 November 
     Patrick Bond critiques World Bank at UWC poverty conference, 27 November 
     CCS hosts launch of Fossil Free South Africa, 27 November 
     Faith ka-Manzi debates SA social protest at Gumede Lecture, Durban History Museum, 27 November 
     Melissa Hansen CCS Seminar: Struggles over conservation space in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, 24 November  
     Patrick Bond lectures on Africa's Resource Curse, Stellenbosch University, 20 November 
     Vuyiseka Dubula, Faith ka-Manzi & Mzamo Zondi CCS Seminar: Treatment Action Campaign reaches the knife-edge, 18 November, 2014 
     CCS hosts Durban environmental network, 15 November 
     Aziz Choudry CCS Seminar: Learning and research in social movements, 14 November 
     Aziz Choudry CCS Seminar: NGOization, 'civil society' and social change: Complicity, contradictions and prospects, 13 November 
     Gun Free South Africa workshop with CCS, 12 November 
     Creesen Naicker CCS Seminar: Sport for Development in South Africa, 11 November 
     Patrick Bond joins SA panel at Historical Materialism conference, London, 7 November 
     Patrick Bond lectures on neoliberalism and social policy at South-South Institute in Bangkok, 5 November 
     Patrick Bond keynote address on African IT, to the International Development Informatics Association, 3 November 
     Patrick Bond debates GDP with SA government, Pretoria, 31 October 
     Patrick Bond debates GDP reform at University of Pretoria, 28 October 
     China Ngubane and Patrick Bond at UKZN Geography workshop on community politics, 24 October 
     CCS hosts CT Social Justice Coalition training on sanitation advocacy, 22 October 
     CCS hosts Greenpeace film on climate and Arctic oil, Black Ice, 14 October 
     Diana Buttu CCS Seminar: The situation in Palestine, 8 October 
     Mithika Mwenda lecture on climate justice at Climate Change and Development Conference, Morocco, 7 October 
     Stefan Cramer CCS Seminar on Karoo fracking, 7 October 
     Omar Shaukat CCS Seminar: Thinking through ISIS, 1 October 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA social policy at University of Burgundy, Dijon, 25 September 
     Patrick Bond debates Mark Weisbrot on BRICS at IPS, Washington, 23 September 
     Mithika Mwenda and Patrick Bond talk on climate justice, Converge for Climate at Graffiti Church, New York City, 20 September 
     Awethu! network meets at CCS, 20 September 
     Patrick Bond lecture on South Africa at City University of New York, 18 September 
     John Saul and Patrick Bond launch books at Cape Town Open Book Fair, 17 September 
     The UKZN Centre for Civil Society and Palestine Solidarity Forum host a Gaza Documentary Screening, 11 September  
     Gcina Makoba update on recyclables project in Inanda, 15 September 
     Patrick Bond debates the causes and implications of Marikana at the Durban Democracy and Development Programme, 10 September 
     Mnikeni Phakathi & Asha Moodley CCS Seminar (with the Right to Know Campaign): Student Protest at UKZN 2014, 5 September 
     Patrick Bond debates climate and energy at Univ of Leipzig 'Degrowth' conference, Germany, 5 September 
     Gcina Makoba & Patrick Bond Durban water and sanitation policies, projects and politics, 1 September 
     Patrick Bond input on BRICS at Centre for Conflict Resolution seminar, Pretoria, 31 August 
     Patrick Bond on Resource Curses and antidotes, at Institute for Social and Economic Studies, Maputo, 28 August 
     China Ngubane & Sizwe Shiba Southern African people's solidarity dynamics, 28 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on South Durban strategy, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea, 22 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA political economy at Chinese Academy of Marxism, Beijing, 20 August 
     Mithika Mwenda CCS Seminar: Climate change and global policy battles, 15 August 
     Niall Reddy CCS Seminar: BRICS after Fortaleza, 14 August 
     Ilan Pappé Dennis Brutus Memorial Lecture: Israel’s ethnic cleansing of Palestine, 5 August 
     UKZN CCS Masters Student Mithika Mwenda testifies on Climate Justice on Our Common Planet, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA, 4 August 
     Loraine Dongo & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Climate, oil and activism in South Africa, 31 July  
     Patrick Bond debates Intensive Energy User Group's Shaun Nel on energy, SAfm, 23 July 
     Patrick Bond debates SACP's Alex Mashilo on SA politics, SA Democratic Teachers Union KZN Province, Durban, 24 July 
     Susan Spronk Contesting Water Privatisation through an Efficiency Narrative, 23 July 
     Matt Meyer The State of the Art in Non-violent Civil Disobedience, 22 July 
     Patrick Bond discusses infrastructure finance, Fortaleza, 15 July 
     CCS-Brazilian collaboration at the 2014 BRICS Summit, 14-16 July in Fortaleza 
     Patrick Bond debates JP Landman on SA poli econ, Ike's Books, 9 July 
     Bhekinkosi Moyo CCS Seminar: Southern African civil society, 7 July 
     Jack Dyer CCS Seminar: The economic consequences of Durban's port expansion, 25 June 2014 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA macroeconomic conditions, at UKZN SA Research Chair initiative workshop, 20 June 
     Patrick Bond debates SA soccer leader Danny Jordaan on the World Cup's legacy, BBC radio, 18 June 
     John Devenish CCS Seminar: Protests in India, South Africa & Brazil The issues participants & tactics, 17 June 2014 
     Patrick Bond debates the SA economy with MEC Mike Mabuyakhulu, UKZN Business School, 11 June 
     Patrick Bond debates sustainability at Governance Innovation conference, University of Pretoria, 5 June 
     CCS hosts mineworker solidarity event, 31 May 
     Patrick Bond lecture on South African water commodification, University of London, 30 May 
     Patrick Bond debates 'Africa Rising (or Uprising?)' in Maputo at Frelimo Political School, 29 May 2014 
     Patrick Bond speaks on global finance at the World Association for Political Economy, Hanoi, 24 May 
     Shauna Mottiar presents at 'Contentious Politics' seminar, University of Johannesburg, 22 May 
     Patrick Bond & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: BRICS from above, the middle and below: which directions for alliances and conflicts? 16 May 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS civil society, SA Institute of International Affairs, Johannesburg, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond presentation on climate justice governance via skype to Linkoping University, Sweden, 8 May 
     Gcina Makoba and Thuli Hlela host Miners Shot Down in Durban townships, 1 May 
     Admos Chimhowu CCS Seminar: Food Sovereignty Discourses, Land and Labour in Southern Africa, 30 April 
     Patrick Bond presents on BRICS geopolitics and BRICS banking, Rio de Janeiro, 28-29 April 
     Shauna Mottiar delivers paper on popular protest in South Africa, Oxford University, 26 April 
     Floyd Shivambu, Innocent Ndiki, Louise Colvin and Patrick Bond CCS Workshop: Which critiques of post-Apartheid malgovernance - and which counter strategies - come next?, 25 April 
     Bram Buscher CCS Seminar: ‘I Nature’: Web 2.0, Social Media and the Political Economy of Conservation, 25 April 
     Patrick Bond discusses DeSutcliffisation at Durban University of Technology Urban Futures Centre, 24 April 
     Patrick Bond talk on SA@20 in New York, 19 April 
     Patrick Bond keynote lecture on climate, health and risk, University of Washington, Seattle, 17 April 
     Ken Walibora Waliaula CCS Seminar: Remembering and Disremembering Africa, 16 April 
     Ben Turok School of Social Sciences & CCS Seminar: With my head above the parapet: An insider account of the ANC in power, 15 April 
     Thando Manzi CCS Seminar: Brazilian civil society contests the World Cup, economic injustice and BRICS, 10 April 
     Patrick Bond gives three talks at the Association of American Geographers, Tampa, 10 April 
     Patrick Bond on comparative solidarity with Palestine and South Africa, Johns Hopkins University, 7 April 
     Patrick Bond paper on Climate Change, Debt and Justice in Africa at University of North Carolina conference, 5 April 
     Zackie Achmat, Thando Manzi, Paul Routledge Dennis Brutus Memorial Debate: The state of our social movements, from SA to BRICS to the world 31 March  
     Paul Routledge CCS/Development Studies seminar on politics of climate change, 31 March 
     Zackie Achmat and Ndifuma Ukwazi offer activist Autumn School, 31 March - 2 April 
     Prince Mashele CCS Seminar: The fall of the ANC, 28 March 
     Patrick Bond seminar on a Redistributive Eco-Debt Payment system, University of Lund, 28 March 
     Waldemar Diener CCS Seminar: Identity formation amongst immigrant traditional healers, 27 March  
     Charles Mangongera & Toendepi Shonhe CCS Seminar: Who rules Zimbabwe - and what should civil society do now? , 25 March 
     Patrick Bond and Xolani Dube debate 20 years of liberation (plus booklaunch), Time of the Writer festival, 20 March 
     Lukhona Mnguni, Molaudi Sekake & Lesiba Seshoka (invited)CCS Seminar: UKZN student woes and freedom of expression, 20 March  
     Patrick Bond responds to Deputy Foreign Minister Ebrahim Ebrahim foreign policy presentation, 19 March 
     Vanessa Burger and Faith kaManzi support Durban harbour mobilisation, Dalton Hostel, 16 March 
     Israeli Apartheid Week talk by Miko Peled, CCS co-sponsorship with Palestine Solidarity movement, 14 March 
     Peter McKenzie CCS Seminar: Cato Manor Between hope and Possibility, 13 March 
     Patrick Bond testimony on water politics at SA Human Rights Commission, 11 March 
     Patrick Bond lecture at Rosa Luxemburg centenary of Accumulation of Capital, Berlin, 9 March 
     Patrick Bond seminar on SA's Resource Curse, Harare, 28 February 
     Sreeram Chaulia CCS Seminar on Brazil-Russia-India-China-SA, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond seminar on 'tokenistic' social policy at UKZN Development Studies, 19 February 
     Patrick Bond addresses PanAfrican Climate Justice Alliance challenges, Dakar, 10 February 
     China Ngubane addresses conference on Community Serving Humanity, UKZN, 12 February 
     Vishwas Satgar runs workshop on the United Front approach, 30 January 
     Patrick Bond addresses Numsa shopstewards on economic crises, Johannesburg, 25 January 
     Patrick Bond testifies to Parliament against mega-projects, 16 January 
     Shauna Mottiar Protest and participation in Cato Manor, Merebank and Wentworth, 15 January  
     Patrick Bond lecture on development and political economy and method, Birzeit University, Ramallah, Palestine, 6 January 
     Events Index 2013 
     China Ngubane and Patrick Bond speak at the People's Dialogue BRICS strategy session, Johannesburg, 10-12 December 
     Thando Manzi and Patrick Bond discuss Durban slum research at the Institute of International Affairs, Oslo, 10 December 
     Patrick Bond, Farai Maguwu and Khadija Sharife testify to African Union commission against corruption, Arusha, 7 December 
     Mithika Mwenda CCS Seminar: Report-back from Warsaw climate summit, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond debates natural capital and GDP at Wits University, Johannesburg, 5 December 
     CCS hosts Democracy from Below citizenship movement 30 November - 1 December 
     Giuliano Martinello CCS Seminar: Dispossession and resistance to SA agribusiness in the new scramble for Southern and Eastern African land, 28 November  
     Patrick Bond at South Durban BRICS-from-below campaign against port-petrochemical expansion, Wentworth, 27 November 
     Film Screenings: Non-Violence as a Strategy for Social Change: CCS Seminar room, 19 September, 17 October, 21 November 
     Patrick Bond debates climate and capitalism at COP19 in Warsaw, 17 November 
     CCS participates in South Durban People's Climate Camp, 14-17 November 
     Patrick Bond lectures on global finance in Brussels, 13-15 November 
     Patrick Bond presents on Commoning, Rights and Praxis at Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Berlin, 8 November 
     Patrick Bond public lecture on the New Africa Scramble in Berlin, 7 November 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Financial crises and social resistance, from household to global scales, 6 November 
     Gcina Makoba & Muna Lakhani CCS Seminar: Mapping Waste From Cradle to Grave: the Inkanyezi Community Recyclers and Global Zero-Waste Movement, 31 October 
     CCS founder Adam Habib launches South Africa's Suspended Revolution, Ike's Books, 29 October 
     Brutus Memorial Debate: "From democracy to kleptocracy", 26 October 
     Faith Manzi CCS Seminar: The Anatomy of a Cato Manor 'Popcorn Protest', 24 October 
     Patrick Bond critiques financial markets at Unemployment Insurance Fund board meeting, 15 October 
     Waldemar Diener CCS Seminar: Cartooning race and class after Marikana, 10 October 
     Molaudi Sekake, Christelle Terreblanche & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Commoning as an antidote to uneven development in Southern Africa, 9 October 
     CCS PhD student Vuyiseka Dubula leads AIDS research workshop, Johannesburg, 4 October 
     CCS co-organises workshop on 'Beyond Uneven Development' in Maputo, 1-3 October 
     Patrick Bond on Durban's urban neoliberalism, Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, NYC, 29 September 
     Margherita di Paola Film Screening - On the Art of War, 20 September 
     Patrick Bond speaks on the World Economic Crisis and BRICS, at the Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, 13 September 
     Patrick Bond speaks at 'Rising Powers' workshop, Fudan University, Shanghai, 12 September 
     Patrick Bond at Shanghai Academy of Social Science, 11 September  
     Patrick Bond lecture on geopolitics at Institute for International Relations, Prague, 9 September 
     Patrick Bond at G20 Post-Globalisation Initiative G20 counter-summit, St Petersburg/Moscow, 2-6 September 
     Geoff Harris & Sylvia Kaye CCS Seminar: Nonviolence in social-change strategy and tactics, 30 August 
     Patrick Bond on BRICS and 'natural capital' at Centre for Natural Resource Governance, Harare, 29 August 
     Khadija Sharife at 'No REDD in Africa Network,' Maputo, 27-29 August 
     China Ngubane helps launch Diakonia's KZN School of Activism, Albert Falls, 27 August 
     Patrick Bond at Durban Flatdwellers conference, 24 August 
     China Ngubane, Joy Mabenge & Tafadzwa Maguchu Regional and Zimbabwean civil society challenged, 22 August 
     Ed Harriman, Khadija Sharife & Sarah Bracking CCS Workshop: Corruption, corporate bribery, arms deals and social critique, 21 August 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza & Richard Kamidza CCS Seminar: Neoliberal water, neoliberal trade, 19 August 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS, UKZN Student Union, 14 August 
     Simphiwe Magwaza, Simangele Manzi, Thando Manzi, Niki Moore, Knut Nustad, Jabulile Wanda & Philani Zulu CCS seminar on Cato Manor politics, Thursday, 15 August 
     Patrick Bond discusses SA's economic crisis at National Union of Metalworkers, Johannesburg, 8 August 
     Christine Jeske CCS Seminar: Social conceptualizations of work, unemployment, and blame in KwaZulu-Natal, 6 August 
     Larry Swatuk CCS Seminar on water resource conflicts, 1 August 
     Lorenzo Fioramonti Centre for Civil Society Seminar: Gross Domestic Problem, 18 July 2013 
     CCS hosts Open Society's Sustainable Development course for Southern Africa, 15-27 July 
     Faith ka-Manzi, Anne-Marie Debbané & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar on Durban hotspots (Cato Manor service delivery and South Durban privatised wastewater and port/petrochem expansion), 10 July 
     Thamsanqa Mthembu & Hylton Alcock Video Screening: Participatory video as a tool for social transformation, 4 July 
     Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja CCS Seminar: Southern Africa and the Challenge of the Congo, 27 June 
     Patrick Bond debates Blade Nzimande on 21st Century Socialism, Chris Hani Institute, Johannesburg, 25 June 
     China Ngubane & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The state of eco-social justice campaigning in East Asia and the Americas, 18 June 
     Khadija Sharife and Shauna Mottiar Analysis of illicit flight presented at the UN Economic Commission on Africa conference on illicit capital flight, Lusaka, 18 June  
     Patrick Bond at Ecuador conference on eco/economic crises, Quito, 12 June 
     Patrick Bond at Left Forum,New York City, 7-9 June 
     Patrick Bond lecture on Enviro Impact Assessments at Savannah School of Law in Georgia, 6 June 
     Amanda Huron, Amanda Thomas & Victoria Habermehl CCS Seminar: Geographies of Justice: experiences from three continents, 3 June 
     China Ngubane speaks at the Tokyo International Conference on African Development counter-summit, 1 June 
     Nik Theodore & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Migration and the Struggle for Urban Space, from Chicago to Durban, 28 May 
     CCS hosts Antipode Institute for the Geographies of Justice, 27 May to 1 June 
     Abby Neely CCS Seminar: Local Biologies, and ART Protocols: A Political Ecology of Tuberculosis and the Body, 24 May 
     Silke Trommer CCS Seminar: Transformations in Trade Politics - Participatory Trade Politics in West Africa, 23 May 
     Patrick Bond at AIDC National Development Plan seminar, Cape Town 22 May 
     Thuli Hlela CCS Seminar: Mapping Water/Sanitation Services in KwaNyuswa, Valley of 1000 Hills, 21 May 
     China Ngubane participates in the Gumede Lecture Series 17 May 
     Maia Green CCS Seminar: Youth empowerment on South Africa's Wild Coast, 14 May 
     Patrick Bond talk on African poli-econ at OilWatch-Africa conference, Johannesburg, 13 May 
     China Ngubane, Joy Mabenge & Tafadzwa Maguchu CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe's Election Preparations and Civil Society Politics, 10 May 
     Blessing Karumbidza CCS Seminar: Government Clumsiness in Rural Entrepreneurial and Coop Support, 30 April 
     Khadija Sharife and Patrick Bond presentation on climate finance at SADC Basic Income Group strategic workshop, 25 April, Johannesburg 
     Sarah Bracking & Patrick Bond at SDCEA workshop, Clairwood, 20 April 
     Patrick Bond, Des D'Sa, Megan Lewis, China Ngubane and Bobby Peek CCS Seminar: Assessing BRICS, Friday 19 April  
     Patrick Bond paper on geopolitics at Univ of California-Riverside, 13 April 
     Patrick Bond presents on South Durban to Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, 10 April 
     Patrick Bond on territorial alliances at International Studies Association, 6 April 
     Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: UMkhumbane (Cato Manor) ilokishi elithuthuka ngamandla kodwa elibhekene nezingqinamba ezahlukahlukene, 5 April 
     Patrick Bond on 'Making of Global Capitalism', International Studies Association, 4 April 
     Patrick Bond presentation on BRICS at International Studies Association, San Francisco, 3 April 
     Patrick Bond lectures on BRICS and the Dennis Brutus legacy, University of Pittsburgh, 2 April 
     Patrick Bond on skype to World Social Forum, 28 March 
     Ondøej Horký-Hlucháò CCS Seminar: The depoliticisation of civil society in post-communism, 28 March 
     Ashwin Desai & Kagiso Molope seminar on SA oppressions, 22 March 
     BRICS EVENTS 22 -27 MARCH 
     Patrick Bond at Ejolt workshop in Abuja, Nigeria, 20-21 March 
     Susan Abul Hawa workshop on Palestine liberation today, 20 March 
     Patrick Bond lectures on climate justice, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 15 March 
     Candido Grzybowski BRICS seen from Rio, 13 March 2013 
     Patrick Bond at community BRICS briefing, Wentworth, 11 March 
     Choice Mahridzo, China Ngubane & Toendepi Shone CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe's future, from inside and out, Thursday 7 March 
     Patrick Bond gives UKZN Development Studies seminar on BRICS, 6 March 
     Patrick Bond debates Ebrahim Ebrahim on BRICS, ActionAid in Joburg, 28 February 
     Patrick Bond panel sessions on climate and BRICS at the Global Studies Conference, Univ of California-Santa Barbara, 23 February 
     Gcina Makoba & Thuli Hlela CCS Seminar: Mapping Inanda rubbish and Valley of 1000 Hills sanitation, 21 February 
     Patrick Bond talks about climate justice at Institute for Policy Studies in Washington on 19 February 
     Thandokuhle Manzi & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Mapping Cato Manor sewage, animals and protest; and an Umlazi update, 13 February 
     Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: Mapping AIDS, from body to city, 11 February 
     Delwyn Pillay CCS Seminar: A recent spatial history of Durban student unrest, 7 February 
     Patrick Bond briefing on BRICS at AIDC, Cape Town, 1 February 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: BRICS as Pretoria's next site to 'talk left, walk right' 31 January 
     Patrick Bond at crisis & inequality seminar at Focus on the Global South, Bangkok, 28-29 January 
     China Ngubane, Patrick Bond & the Brutus Community Scholars CCS Seminar on social conflict mapping in Durban, 22 January 
     Patrick Bond testimony to NERSA against Eskom price hikes, Durban, 17 January 
     Bill Carroll CCS Seminar: Global corporate power and a new transnational capitalist class? 17 January 
     Don Chen CCS Seminar: Smart growth, urban equality and environmental justice, 16 January 
     Bill Carroll CCS Seminar: Research institutes dedicated to social justice - a global survey, 15 January 
     Mfundo Mtshwelo CCS Seminar: New critiques of South Africa's ruling party post-Mangaung, 11 January (Cancelled) 
     Events Index 2012 
     Phillip Lühl & Guillermo Delgado CCS Seminar: Unitary urbanism, towards maximal difference, 8 January  
     Khadija Sharife, Min-Jung Kim, Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Doha's COP18 crash and climate justice (skypecast), 20 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on BRICS in Moscow, 15 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on Marikana and SA Resource Curse, Institute for African Studies, Moscow, 13 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on environmental commodification, Manchester, 11 December 
     Khadija Sharife presentation on land-grabbed Africa at South South Forum 2, Chongqing China, 8 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture to African economic journalists on global economic governance, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond at IG Metall conference on inequality, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond on debt at Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Berlin, 30 November 
     Faith ka-Manzi delivers UKZN World AIDS Day Lecture, 29 November 
     Khadija Sharife Illicit flight and mining presentation at Economic Justice Network regional tax conference 27-29 November  
     Patrick Bond keynote address on Climate Justice to Norwegian Development Association, Oslo, 27 November 
     Pamela Ngwenya CCS Course: An introduction to video production 26-30 November 
     Patrick Bond on water rights and climate at Norwegian Development Studies panel, Oslo, 26 November 
     Primrose Sonti, Mbuso Ngubane, Mametlwe Sebei and Rudolph Dubula at Brutus Memorial Debate on Marikana, 22 November 
     Patrick Bond on SA's Resource Course at Amandla! colloquium, Gauteng. 16 November 
     Pamela Ngwenya & Ben Richardson CCS Seminar - Aid for trade and Southern African agriculture: the bittersweet case of Swazi sugar, 15 November 
     Patrick Bond on BRICS/G20 at SA Forum for International Solidarity, Johannesburg, 14 November 
     Ruth Castel-Branco CCS Seminar - Why unions still matter: the case of domestic worker organizing in Maputo, 8 November 
     CCS cohosts State of Zimbabwe Transition, Diakonia, 2 November 
     Liane Greeff CCS Seminar: ‘You can’t have your gas and drink your water!’ - the incompatibility of fracking to water rights, 29 October 
     Patrick Bond with Helmi Shawary at the Jozi Book Fair on Fanon in contemporary Africa, 28 October 
     Thami Mbatha, Faith ka-Manzi, China Ngubane & Percy Ngonyama Ukucwaswa kwabokufika (CCS seminar on xenophobia, in isiZulu) 26 October 
     Patrick Bond on Marikana narratives, at Leeds University School of Politics and African Studies, 26 October 
     Patrick Bond on South Africa resource cursed, at Manchester University Development Studies, 26 October 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture to ClimateMediaFactory, Berlin, 25 October 
     Patrick Bond on the Politics of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, at Limerick University, 24 October 
     Ewok's 'Letters to Dennis' at Poetry Africa, 19 October 
     Allan Kolski Horwitz Kebbleism, politics and art, 19 October 
     Philo Ikonya Centre for Civil Society and Centre for Creative Arts Seminar: Are there limits to the freedom of expression? 16 October 
     Patrick Bond debates Brazilians on the World Cup and human rights, Sao Paolo, 15 October 
     Maia Green CCS Seminar: Love and Power on the Wild Coast, 15 October 
     David van Wyk & Chris Molebatsi CCS Seminar: Marikana: Why? What next? 9 October 
     Peace Workshop, 4 October  
     Muhammed Desai seminar on Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions against Israel, 2 October 
     Patrick Bond plenary address to Muslim Youth Movement 40th conference, 30 September 
     Patrick Bond on MDGs, Redi Tlabi Radio 702 show, 25 September 
     Patrick Bond debates KZN provincial planner, 25 September 
     GreenSquad Alliance sponsors Nonviolence training, 21 September 
      Patrick Bond speaks on Resource-Cursed Southern Africa in Harare, 18 September 
     CCS film screening about 'post'-shopping, 18 September 
     Milford Bateman CCS Seminar: Civil society's microfinance mistakes, 13 September 
     Patrick Bond on detoxing South Durban at Umbilo community meeting, 12 September 
     Patrick Bond briefs OECD-Watch on Marikana and the SA Resource Curse, 11 September, Johannesburg 
     Melanie Müller CCS Seminar: What did COP17 do to SA environmentalism? 7 September 
     Patrick Bond at the Lost in Transformation book launch seminar, 6 September 
     Patrick Bond at Cosatu/AIDC seminar on employment, Port Elizabeth, 6 September 
     Muhammed Shabat & Asad Asad CCS Seminar: Israeli apartheid's challenge for academics in Gaza, 6 September 
     Adrian Nel CCS Seminar: Ugandan carbon forestry, community resistance and environmental management, 4 September 
     Jonathan Nkala CCS anti-xenophobia drama: The Crossing, 1 September 
     Patrick Bond debates Pravin Gordhan on South Durban's port expansion, Clairwood, 1 September 
     Youngsu Kim Trade union politics in South Africa and South Korea, 31 August 
     Patrick Bond on SA transition at Arab Spring conference, Pretoria, 30 August 
     Patrick Bond paper on environmental and social rights at Christian Michelsen Institute workshop, Norway, 27 August 
     Molefi Ndlovu on Qwasha! Durban street narratives about COP17, Christian Michelsen Institute, Norway, 26 August  
     Environmental Teach-In, 25 August  
     Delwyn Pillay, Dimple Deonath & Vanessa Black South Durban civil society confronts Back of Port planning, 23 August 
     Sarah Bracking CCS Seminar: Contesting the frontiers of value in society, nature and capitalism, RESCHEDULED FOR EARLY SEPTEMBER FROM 22 August 
     Nonhle Mbuthuma, John Clarke & Luc Hoebeke CCS Seminar: Avatar on the Wild Coast - lessons from Xolobeni against national and global commodification, 21 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on White Elephants to S.Durban Community Environmental Alliance at Austerville Community Centre, 21 August 
     CCS brainstorm on Marikana Massacre, 21 August 
     Michael Dorsey CCS Seminar: Can the Green Climate Fund provide appropriate finance to Africa? 20 August 
     Percy Nhau CCS Seminar: Implications of the Secrecy Bill for Academic Research, 16 August 2012 
     Farai Maguwu & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Democratic Transitions from Top Down and Bottom Up: Prospects in Zimbabwe, 15 August 
     Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: Izingqinamba ngezemvelo zaseThekwini, 8 August 
     Neima Adamo, Sergio Brito, Ester Uamba, Patrick Bond & Dimple Deonath CCS Seminar: Climate, water and destructive development from Maputo to South Durban, 3 August 
     CCS celebrates Brutus legacy at From Roots to Fruits non-violence conference, Durban Univ of Technology, 1 August 
     Matt Meyer & Elavie Ndura CCS Seminar: Nonviolent pedagogies of Africa's oppressed, from South Africa to the Great Lakes, 31 July 2012  
     Ravindra Kumar CCS Seminar: Gandhi, Democracy and Fundamental Rights, 30 July  
     Patrick Bond lecture on African political economy to Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Johannesburg, 26 July 
     Ewok does Durban (with a French connection) UKZN Jazz Centre, 6pm, 25 July 
     Peter Muzambwe & Dean Chahim CCS Seminar: Solidarities of international urban residents and 'development' students, 25 July 2012 
     Terri Barnes CCS Seminar: Gender, autobiography and social justice, 24 July 
     Jim Kilgore meets Zimbabweans in central Durban, 23 July 
     Jim Kilgore CCS Seminar: Freedom never rests, when it comes to water commodification and service delivery protests, 23 July 
     Shalini Sharma CCS Seminar: Bhopal's catastrophe and representations of social mobilisation, 20 July 
     Jane Duncan CCS Seminar: Voice, political mobilisation and repression under Jacob Zuma, 19 July 
     Patrick Bond at Rio+20 reportback, 17 July, Diakonia Centre 
     Khadija Sharife & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The Decommissioning of Durban's Emissions Trade Pilot, 11 July 
     Bheki Buthelezi & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Interpreting Umlazi's Unrest, Repression and Occupy Resistance, 9 July 
     Farai Maguwu CCS Seminar - Resource-cursed Zimbabwe's Marange blood diamonds, 6 July 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice at Johannesburg Workshop in Theory and Criticism, Goethe Institute, Johannesburg, 5 July 
     Eric Baldwin CCS Seminar: Housing Policy and Liberal Philosophy in Post-Apartheid South Africa, 5 July 
     Patrick Bond course lectures on political economy, ecology and social policy, 2-13 July 
     Khadija Sharife & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar - Rio+20 report-back, 2 July  
     Monica Fagioli CCS Seminar - State-building in practice: the Somali diaspora and processes of reconstruction in Somaliland, 28 June  
     Fidelis Allen at African politics conference, Dakar, 26 - 28 June 
     Patrick Bond on SA subimperialism and resistance, Rio+20 Intercoll.net seminar, 21 June 
     Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu, Niall McNulty & Lwazi Gwijane CCS Seminar: QWASHA! An online archive of community digital content, 21 June 2012 
     Patrick Bond on social and environmental justice strategies, Rio+20 Cupula dos Povos plenary, 18 June 
     Patrick Bond, Khadija Sharife & Baruti Amisi on African CDMs at the International Society for Ecological Economics, Rio de Janeiro, 17 June 
     Patrick Bond and Eddie Cottle discuss SA World Cup lessons for Brazil, 13 June, Rio 
     Kim Min-Jung speaks on climate activism and the COP17 at Gyeongsang Univ Institute of Social Studies, Korea, 15 June 
     Fidelis Allen & Khadija Sharife CCS Seminar: CDM cannot deliver: Lessons from Nigeria, 11 June 
     Patrick Bond at the Building and Wood Workers International debate on Green Economy and Sustainable Development, 11 June, Rio de Janeiro 
     Michela Gallo CCS Seminar: Zimbabwean civil society in South Africa, 7 June  
     Patrick Bond speaks at faculty strike support committee, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 6 June 
     Patrick Bond lecture on carbon trading at the Brazilian Society of Political Economy, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, 5 June 
     Patrick Bond on debt crises at Queens University, Canada, 30 May 
     Dennis Brutus Memorial Debate: Durban's Corruptions & Disruptions, 24 May 
     Maria Schuld CCS Seminar: Small wars ‑ A micro‑level analysis of violence in KwaZulu‑Natal, 17 May 
     Iain Ewok Robinson MCs the Brutus Sessions, 16 May 
     Patrick Bond on 'Imperial and subimperial interests in neoliberalised nature', keynote address at Sussex Univ SouthGovNet conference, Brighton, 16-17 May 
     Patrick Bond booklaunch on climate justice at Bookmarks, London, 14 May 
     Film & discussion on Genetic Engineering hosted by Green Squad Alliance, 11 May  
     Sasha Kramer & Anthony Kilbride CCS Seminar: Improving access to sanitation on a global scale, 10 May 
     Khadija Sharife talks on Tax Justice to the Economic Justice Network, Cape Town, 9 May 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture on media and climate policy, Bergen, Norway, 7 May 
     China Ngubane & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The Africa People's Charter, Zimbabwe People's Convention Charter and South African Reconstruction and Development Programme, 7 May  
     Patrick Bond unpacks eco-imperialism at People's Dialogue 'Green Economy' seminar, Johannesburg, 5 May 
     Patrick Bond at Comrade Babble play on Kebbleism, Johannesburg, 5 May 
     Durban can 'connect‑the‑dots' to climate change with 350.org, 5 May 
     Nosipho Mngoma, Percy Nhau and Murray Hunter CCS seminar on Right2Know for researchers and journalists, 4 May 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture on Green Capitalism to Rhodes Univ, 3 May 
     Ransom Lekunze CCS Seminar: Implications of global economic crisis for Africa, 25 April 
     Patrick Bond talks to Hospice AGM on 'From Caring about Stuff to Caring about Caring' , 25 April  
     CCS participates in the Global Teach - In 25 April 
     Michele Maynard CCS Seminar: African climate change and carbon trading politics, 23 April  
     Fidelis Allen at the Social Theory Forum at Univ.Massachusetts/Boston, 19 April 
     Baruti Amisi CCS Seminar: Will the Inga Hydropower Project meet Africa’s electricity needs?, 20 April  
     Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar: Ideology, agency and protest politics, 18 April 
     Fidelis Allen & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The World Bank presidential race - African interests and personality profiles, 11 April 
     CCS Seminar: Dennis Brutus' life and times - film documentaries and discussion, 10 April 
     Molefi Ndlovu at Young Adult Review workshop of COP 17, South Durban Community and Environmental Alliance, 4 April 
     CCS Seminar: 'Occupy': what kind of social movement is it?, 3 April 
     Jens Andvig, Tiberius Barasa, Stein Sundstøl Eriksen, Sanjay Kumar, Faith Manzi & Knut Nustad CCS Seminar: Slums, states and citizens in Durban, Nairobi Delhi, 29 March 
     Henrik Ernstson CCS/DevStudies seminar on urban ecology, 28 March 
     Ronnie Kasrils CCS Seminar: Corruption, authoritarianism and the challenge for civil society, 23 March 
     Bahaa Taher CCS Seminar: Post-Arab Spring: Literary freedom of expression in Egypt, 22 March  
     Zero Fossil Fuels meeting, 20 March 
     Felix Platz CCS Seminar: Climate Change narratives – experiences from the COP 17, 20 March 
     Molefi Ndlovu presents at the Foundation for Human Rights event on 19 March 
     Trevor Ngwane at Rosa Luxemburg anti-xenophobia panel, Johannesburg, 16 March 
     Patrick Bond reviews RDP for Zim opposition leaders, Nyanga, 16 March 2012 
     David Hallowes and Tristen Taylor CCS Seminar: A hostile climate - civil society impact on the COP17, 15 March 
     Leigh Collingwood CCS Seminar: Presentation of book: “Deforestation: Why YOU need to stop it NOW”, 13 March  
     Lubna Nadvi & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Why boycotting Israeli apartheid follows South Africa’s liberation strategy, 6 March  
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza CCS Seminar: Durban’s state-sponsored climate change chaos, 1 March 
     Comrade Fatso CCS Seminar: Zim spoken-word liberation struggles, 29 February  
     Patrick Bond on service delivery protests, Nadel AGM, Mthatha, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice at Santa Barbara Global Studies Conference, 25 February 
     Lushendrie Naidu CCS Seminar: The state of South Durban's industrial basin, 23 February  
     Alex Comninos CCS Seminar: Twitter revolutions and cyber-crackdowns, 22 February 
     Patrick Bond debates WWF's Saliem Fakier at AIDC, Cape Town, 17 February 
     Fumhiko Saito CCS Seminar: Shifting to local governance?, 16 February 
     Patrick Bond delivers New Zimbabwe Lecture, Harare, 15 February 
     Patrick Bond banned from delivering New Zimbabwe Lecture, Harare, 8 February 
     Said Ferjani CCS Seminar: The Tunisian democratic revolution, Islam and the left, 1 February 
     Tom Heinemann, Patrick Bond & Khadija Sharife CCS Seminar/film: Politics of microfinance, 25 January  
     Patrick Bond booksigning climate justice titles at Sandton Square Exclusives Books, Johannesburg, 24 January  
     Bobby Peek CCS Seminar: What went right and what went wrong at the COP17?, 19 January 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: What’s going on in China? Boom, bust and battles from below, 10 January  
     Keyvan Kashkooli CCS Seminar: Governing markets from below? From e-commerce to emissions trading, 6 January 
     Events Index 2011 
     Faith Manzi & Oliver Meth CCS Seminar: AIDS, rape and climate, 13 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on world financial crisis at Lingnan Univ, Hong Kong, 12 December 
     Patrick Bond on CJ at TransNational Institute meeting, 10 December 
     Patrick Bond & Baruti Amisi on climate induced migration at People's Assembly, 7 December  
     Patrick Bond on ecological debt, World Council of Churches, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond & Nnimmo Bassey Book Launch, Ike's Books, Durban: 6 December 
     Patrick Bond on culture and climate at Durban City Hall, 5 December 
     Pablo Solón Wolpe lecture: “Rights of Nature and Climate Politics”, 2 December 
     Patrick Bond presentation on labour-community-eco solidarity at International Transport Federation, People's Space, 1 December* 
     Patrick Bond on puppet statehood and climate, Unctad conference (via video), Geneva, 1 December 
     CCS Teach‑In on Climate Justice, evenings from 29 Nov‑8 Dec 
     Everyone's Downstream 25-26 November 
     Patrick Bond, Lars Gausdal, Molefi Ndlovu & Khadija Sharife on climate politics and narratives, South Durban, November 25-26 
     Patrick Bond at Rosa Luxemburg Political Cafe on climate/energy, Johannesburg, 21 November 
     Molefi Ndlovu & Michael Dorsey lead youth/climate workshop, 21 November  
     Janis Rosheuvel CCS Seminar: U.S. 'Migrant Management' & Grassroots Resistance to Criminalization of Immigrant Life, 18 November 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture on climate politics to Lahore Cafe Bol series, Pakistan, 16 November 
     Patrick Bond keynote speech to Cornell Univ development conference, 12 November 
     Michele Maynard CCS Seminar: The African Peoples Petition: What Durban COP17 must deliver!, 11 November 
     Emanuele Leonardi CCS seminar: The Environmental Side of the Current Economic Crisis: Toward an Ecological Critique of Neoliberalism, 10 November 2011 
     Patrick Bond at City Univ of NY on climate justice strategy, 9 November 
     Patrick Bond on COP17 politics at Institute for Policy Studies, Washington, 8 November 
     Rehana Dada CCS Seminar: The One Million Climate Jobs Campaign, 4 November 
     Lars Gausdal CCS Seminar: Bolivia at the Crossroads, 3 November 2011  
     Patrick Bond talk on population and climate, Pretoria, 1 November 
     Patrick Bond, Dudu Khumalo, Orlean Naidoo, Thando Manzi, Molefi Ndlovu & Noah Zimba Wolpe Lecture: Community Climate Summit, 28 October  
     Patrick Bond on water politics, the IMF and climate in Dublin, 25‑26 October 
     Patrick Bond on energy as a public good in Rome, 24 October 
     Patrick Bond talks on climate justice in Stockholm, 22 October 
     Patrick Bond on climate, land and Africa's exploitation, at Uppsala University, Sweden, 20-21 October 
     Shailja Patel CCS Seminar: Seen And Unseen: Windows On The ICC-Kenya Trials, 18 October 
     Patrick Bond on COP17 mobilisations at PanAfrican Climate Justice conference in Addis Ababa, 15‑16 October 
     Fidelis Allen CCS Seminar: Climate Change, Poverty and Public Policy in Nigeria's Niger Delta, 11 October 2011  
     Patrick Bond on electricity and climate crises, Newlands and Meerbank, 10-11 October 
     Marie Kennedy & Chris TillyCCS Seminar: Latin America’s third left: Autonomy and participation in the new political landscape, 6 October  
     Peter Waterman Emancipatory Global Labour Studies and Social Movements, 5 October  
     Patrick Bond on climate and capitalism at the International Labour Rights Information Group Globalization School, Cape Town, 3 October 
     Trevor Ngwane CCS seminar on protest ideology, 30 September 
     John Saul & Trevor Ngwane Wolpe lecture on South Africa's transition, 29 September 
     CCS hosts Democratic Left Front climate conference, 23-25 September 
     Climate Justice Now! South Africa meets at CCS, 22-23 September 
     Patrick Bond on Electricity Prices and Climate Crisis at SDCEA, 21 September 
     Patrick Bond at People's Dialogue on climate politics, 21 September 
     Solani Ngobeni CCS Seminar: Challenges facing scholarly publishers in South Africa: Towards a turnaround strategy or tilting at windmills, cancelled 
     Anton Harber & Ruth Teer-Tomaselli Amnesty International seminar on the Secrecy Bill, 15 September 
     Sarah Bracking CCS Seminar: How do investors value the environment? Why a pile of stones is not a house, 13 September 
     Climate Justice Protest US, Consulate, 9 September 
     Ashwin Desai & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The World Conference Against Racism and 9/11 ten years after, 8 September 
     Patrick Bond on climate injustice and the World Bank, London, 5 September 
     Tehmina Brohi CCS Seminar: Contention in response to neoliberal policies in post-apartheid South Africa: The case of basic services delivery in Durban, 1 September 
     Climate Justice Protest at the US Consulate, 31 August 
     Otieno, Wamuchiru, Todd, Lorimer CCS Seminar: In Hot Water ‑ Climate change and water adaptation in Nairobi and Durban, 26 August 
     Wolpe lecture by Mustafa Barghouti on how to free Palestine, 25 August 
     Patrick Bond on climate finance to SADC parliamentarians, Johannesburg, 25 August 
     Shauna Mottiar at the ISTR African Civil Society Research Network conference, 24 August  
     Kate Skinner seminar on media democracy, 22 August 
     Patrick Bond addresses metalworker shopstewards, Durban, 22 August 
     Patrick Bond on climate at the Johannesburg Book Fair, 8 August 
     Paul Routledge CCS Seminar: Translocal Climate Justice Solidarities, 5 August  
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Lessons for Durban from Ecuador's 'leave the oil in the soil' eco/indigenous movement, 2 August  
     Patrick Bond on the 'green economy' at New Global Hegemonies conference, Quito, 21‑22 July 
     Franco Barchiesi CCS Seminar: Labour and Precarious Liberation, 20 July 
     Patrick Bond on climate and Just Transition at National Union of Metalworkers of SA in Johannesburg, 18 July 
     Sarah Ives CCS Seminar: “Rooibos land is high sentiment, low potential: Preliminary Reflections on a Year in Rooibos Country, 18 July 
     Danny Schechter CCS Seminar: Citizen Media Advocacy, 15 July  
     Chene Redwood CCS Seminar: Voices of the Subaltern: Music within community struggles against environmental degradation in South Durban, 14 July 2011 
     Patrick Bond on SA political economy at Renmin Univ (China) conference via skype, 11 July 
     Patrick Bond on climate and justice at UKZN Peace Studies conference, 9 July 
     Philip Rizk CCS Seminar: Critiquing the Nation State: The Gaza Strip, 8 July  
     Philip Rizk CCS Seminar: Multi-media presentation: “The hard hit is still to come”- An Intifada Imaginary, 7 July 2011  
     Ida Susser CCS Seminar: Organic intellectuals and AIDS social movements: jumping scales, postponed 
     Patrick Bond on neoliberal climate policy at Nature, Inc conference (via skype), The Hague, 30 June 
     Patrick Bond input on African economies to International Labour Organisation industrial relations conference at UCT Business School (via skype), 28 June 
     Peter McKenzie & Doung Jahangeer CCS Seminar: People in Spaces Make Places, 28 June 2011 
     Immanuel Wallerstein Wolpe Lecture on the Arab revolt, the US and Africa, 23 June 
     Patrick Bond on SA climate policy at UKZN Business School, 23 June 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar on the global climate justice movement, 21 June 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza & Mary Galvin on sanitation politics, 20 June 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza and Geasphere debate water and climate at Alliance Francaise, 9 June 
     Mvuselelo Ngcoya & Shauna Mottiar Seminar: Understanding horizontal philanthropy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2 June 
     Patrick Bond at Univ of Georgia Antipode Institute for Geographies of Justice, Athens, 30‑31 May 
     Orlean Naidoo, Ma Dudu Khumalo, Thandiwe Zondi, Sam Moodley, Mrs Perumal, Lubna Nadvi, Shauna Mottiar Discussion: Women in Social Movements and Community Organizing 30 May  
     Patrick Bond on climate politics at Korean conference, Jinju, 27 May 
     Florian Kunert, Phillip Hol & Justin Davy Wolpe Lecture: Shack Theatre, 26 May  
     CCS and Zimbabweans celebrate Africa Day, 25 May 
     Patrick Bond on dangers of a neoliberal Palestine, at TIDA-Gaza, Gaza City, 19 May 
     Chris Morris CCS Seminar: Notes on Pharmaceutical Patent Lawfare: The Umckaloabo Case, 19 May 2011  
     Durban Community Video Collective workshop, 14 May 
     Patrick Bond at City Univ of NY conference on precarious labour and socialism, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond on environmental justice at Autonomous University of Barcelona, 28 April 
     Mazibuko Jara, Alan Murphy & Orlean Naidoo Wolpe Lecture Panel on the Local Government Elections, 21 April 2011 
     Patrick Bond at Univ of San Francisco sustainability symposium, 19 April 
     Patrick Bond in Montreal for Cochabamba+1 climate justice conference, 15‑17 April 
     Ron Carver Reflections on organising US labour and community campaigns, 13 April 
     Patrick Bond on Palestine & Durban at American Association of Geographers conference, Seattle, 12‑14 April 
     Shauna Mottiar at the International Research Society for Public Management Conference, Dublin, 11- 13 April 
     Wiebe Nauta CCS Seminar: Civic Engagement and Democratic Consolidation in South Korea ‑ Lessons for South Africa, 5 April 
     Patrick Bond on climate politics with Polaris Institute/Ontario Public Interest Research Group at Univ of Toronto, 31 March 
     Patrick Bond climate lecture at Carleton Univ, Ottawa, 29 March 
     Adekeye Adebajo CCS/SDS Seminar: The Curse of Berlin: Africa after the Cold War, 23 March 
     Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu at Keleketla Library Johannesburg, 21-31 March 2011  
     John Devenish Seminar CCS research on protests in South Africa 2009 - 2011, 17 March 
     Nancy Lindisfarne & Jonathan Neale Seminar: Climate Justice, Global Alliance-Building and Climate Jobs, 22 March 
     Patrick Bond seminar on Palestine, water and the University of Johannesburg, 16 March 
     Seminar: Documentary Screening of 'Zimbabwe's Blood Diamonds, 10 March 
     Patrick Bond gives lectures in Michigan and California, 8-14 March 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice, Northern overconsumption & African resistance at '6 Billion Ways' conference in London, 5 March 
     Wolpe Lecture by Hein Marais: Song & Dance: Power, Consent and the ANC, 3 March  
     China Ngubane hosts Zimbabwe monitoring discussion, 1 March 
     Patrick Bond, Rehana Dada, Blessing Karumbidza & Molefi Ndlovu Seminar on the 2011 World Social Forum, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond delivers Brutus Memorial Lecture, Nelson Mandela Metro Univ, 23 February 
     Danielle Carter CCS Seminar on Sources of State Legitimacy in Contemporary SA, 22 February 
     Blessing Karumbidza, Siziwe Khanyile, Bongani Mthembu, Bobby Peek in Wolpe Lecture 'Climate Teach-In', 19 February 
     Niall Bond Seminar: The history of 'civil society', 14 February 
     Molefi Ndlovu, Rehana Dada & Patrick Bond CCS seminars at the WSF, Dakar, 6-11 February 
     Teppo Eskelinen Seminar: Global justice - some emerging topics and responses 25 January 2011 
     Patrick Bond at Zuma's Own Goal booklaunch, Bluestockings, NYC, 24 January 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice in Sacramento, CA, 20 January 
     Patrick Bond at Resource Rights conference and Eskom protest, Washington, 13-14 January 
     Events Index 2010 
     Patrick Bond radio debate on climate justice politics, 22 December 
     Film screening: The Uprising of Hangberg, 14 December  
     Patrick Bond at global climate summit, 6‑11 December, Cancun 
     Pumla Gqola, Andile Mngxitama, Baruti Amisi & others Seminar on Xenophobia and Racism in SA, 10 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on uneven development, migration and xenophobia to Univ.Delhi conference, 25 November 
     Patrick Bond, Horace Campbell, Patricia Daley and Eunice Sahle panel at African Studies Association, SF, 21 November 
     CCS Wolpe film screenings with Pamela Ngwenya and community videomakers 20 November 
     Cesia Kearns Seminar: Sierra Club's Beyond Coal Campaign: Transforming the US Electric Sector, 19 November 2010 
     Patrick Bond on oil and financial crises with Attac-Norway in Oslo, 18-19 November 
     Baruti Amisi skype seminar on xenophobia to Roskilde University, 17 November 
     Patrick Bond at Race, Class & Developmental State conference in PE, via Skype, 16 November 
     Ashwin Desai and Goolam Vahed Wolpe Lecture in Honour of Fatima Meer, 16  
     Patrick Bond seminar on ecosocialism at Inst of Social Studies, The Hague, 16 November 
      Patrick Bond at Historical Materialism conference, London, 12-14 November 
     John Harvey Seminar: US Philanthropy and the Global South: Trends, Opportunities and Challenges, 8 November 
     Patrick Bond at The ‘Progress’ in Zimbabwe Conference, 4-6 November 
     Nicholas Smith Seminar: Lynch Violence and the Governance of Evil, 26 October 
     Ela Gandhi & Dilip Menon Wolpe Lecture: Indians in South Africa: 150 Years, 21 October 2010 
     Patrick Bond seminar on climate justice at Univ of California-Davis, 18 October 
     Mariem el Bourhimi and Peter McKenzie Seminar: Saharawi liberation struggle status, 15 October 
     Rolf Schwermer CCS Seminar: pro-poor technology, 14 October 
     Patrick Bond seminar on climate politics at Trinity College Dublin, 1 October 
     Baruti Amisi lecture on xenophobia for National Association of Democratic Lawyers, KwaZulu‑Natal Law Society, Pietermaritzburg, 30 September 
      Patrick Bond on transition-neoliberalism at Birzeit Univ conference, Palestine, 28 September 
     Patrick Bond in Ramallah on Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions, 26 September 
     Patrick Bond and Lungisile Ntsebeza launch Zuma's Own Goal at African Studies Association-UK conference, Oxford University, 19 September 
      Hayley Leck Seminar: Rising to the Adaptation Challenge? Responding to Global Environmental Change in the Durban metropolitan and Ugu district regions, South Africa, 17 September 
      Dudu Khumalo, Baruti Amisi, Molefi Ndlovu, Daniel Ribeiro, Terri Hathaway, Lori Pottinger Seminar: Civil society v Southern African dams, 10 September 
     Patrick Bond and Rick Rowden on the IMF and public health, San Francicso, 7 & 14 September 
     Brij Maharaj, Ashwin Desai, Patrick Bond launch new book Zuma's Own Goal, Elangeni Hotel, Durban, 5pm on 3 September 
     Patrick Bond speaks on rights/commons debate at the International Commission of Jurists Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Camp, 31 August, Johannesburg 
     Margaret Gärding Donor power in the international aid industry, 27 August  
     Makhosi Khoza, Fikile Moya, Patrick Mkhize, Tony Carnie, Pritz Dullay and Brij Maharaj on the Wolpe Lecture Panel: Media Information & Freedom, 26 August 2010 
     Ralph Borland Seminar: Radical Plumbers and PlayPumps - Objects in development, 25 August  
     Patrick Bond speaks at Jubilee South Africa conference on ecological debt, 21 August, Johannesburg 
     Dudu Khumalo and Simphiwe Nojiyeza presentation on sanitation at Umphilo waManzi seminar, 13 August, Durban 
     Patrick Bond at South Africa‑Norway climate research seminar, Christian Michelsen Institute, Bergen, 12 August 2010 
     Patrick Bond at Southeast Asia climate justice seminar, Focus on the Global South, Chulalungkorn University, Bangkok, 10 August 
     Trevor Ngwane at Solidarity Peace Trust report on Zimbabwe, 30 July, Johannesburg 
     Wolpe Lecture: Social justice ideas in Civil society politics, global & local: A Colloquium of scholar activists, 29 July 
     Press Conference on Xenophobia, 28 July  
     Padraig Carmody Seminar: Chinese Geogovernance in Africa: Evidence from Zambia, 20 July  
     CCS and Gyeongsang University Institute for Social Science (Korea) joint seminar on political economy of social movements, 14 July 
     Giuliano MartinielloCCS Seminar on Inanda's socio-spatial change, 9 July 
     Pamela Ngwenya Seminar on Video as a tool for outreach, communication, advocacy and community expression, 8 July 
     Anti Xenophobia Rally City Hall 3 July 
     Renee Horne CCS Seminar on Black Economic Empowerment, 2 July 
     Roithmayr, Adonis, Galvin, Bond, Khumalo CCS Colloquium on Water, Rights, Prices, 28 June (skypecast)  
     Blessing Karumbidza CCS Seminar on climate change and carbon trading controversies in Tanzania, 24 June 
     Trevor Ngwane and Rehana Dada at workshop on climate advocacy at the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance, 22 June 
     Wolpe Lecture: Durban Social Forum members, 'World Cup for All!', Durban City Hall, 16 June 
     David J. RobertsCCS Seminar: Re-branding Durban through the 2010 World Cup, 14 June 
     Patrick Bond (with Briggs Bomba and Dave Zirin) on the World Cup, Washington, 9 June 
     Patrick Bond on global justice movements, at Grantmakers without Borders conference, SF, 8 June 
     Patrick Bond presents on climate justice at conference, Alter-globalization movements and the alternative ideas of Korea, Seoul, 28 May 
     Patrick Bond lecture on National Health Insurance with Oxfam, 26 May 
     Patrick Bond on 'Poli Econ of the World Cup' in Seoul, 27 May 
     Jessie Lazar KnottCCS Seminar: Identity/Spatial Relations: scholar‑activism in the greater Kei region of the Eastern Cape, 25 May 
     Patrick Bond at Osisa conference on climate and development in Africa, Pretoria, 21 May 
     Patrick Bond on energy policy and the World Bank, at Democracy and Development Programme, Durban, 20 May 
     Eunice N. Sahle Wolpe Lecture: World orders, Ike's Books, 5pm, 20 May 
      Barak Hoffman & Orlean Naidoo Seminar: Chatsworth politics and municipal advocacy, 17 May 
     Patrick Bond on SA climate policy on TEDxUKZN, 14 May 
     Khadija Sharife & Eunice SahleCCS Seminar: Oil, minerals and maldevelopment in Africa, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond speaks on climate debt to the Economic Justice Network, Johannesburg, 5 May 
     Erin McCandless & Shepherd Zvavanhu CCS Seminar on Zimbabwe Civil Society, 3 May  
      Patrick Bond and Khadija Sharife address African tax authorities, 29 April 2010 
     Nathan Geffen (with Faith ka Manzi) CCS Seminar: Debunking Delusions: The inside Story of The Treatment Action Campaign, 29 April  
     Alan Freeman & Radhika Desai CCS Seminar on The world capitalist crisis, 23 April  
     Memorial Tribute to Professor Fatima Meer, 23 April 
     Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu facilitates Krogerup College and Durban Sings, 18‑20 April 
     Patrick Bond on carbon trading at Manchester conference on environment and finance, 15‑16 April 
     Patrick Bond in Boston v WB-Eskom loan, 9 April 
     Patrick Bond at Clark University, 8 April 
     World Bank protest, 7 April, Washington 
     Patrick Bond seminar on climate politics, City Univ of NY, 6 April 
     Patrick Bond at NYU on South African political economy, 5 April 
     Trevor Ngwane at Marxism 2010 conference, Melbourne, 1-4 April 
     Patrick Bond in SF Bay Area on World Bank loan to Eskom, 4 April 
     Patrick Bond on water commons, Syracuse University, 29-30 March 
     Trevor Ngwane seminar on activism and global campaigns, Univ of Helsinki, 26 March 
     CCS/VANSA KZN Panel discussion: 'What is Art and what is not?', March 25 
     Patrick Bond on 'Organising for Climate Justice', Left Forum, NYC, 21 March  
     Workers, Zama Hlatshwayo, Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar on UKZN labour outsourcing crisis 19 March 
     Carol ThompsonCCS Seminar on resisting agro‑industry, 18 March 
     David Zirin Seminar on Fifa's Looting of SA, 13 March  
     Dennis Brutus memorial, 11 March 
     Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar on SA's social protest wave, 9 March 
     Molefi Ndlovu and Claudia Wegener seminar at the Centre for Critical Research on Race and Identity, 2 March 
     Patrick Bond testifies to parliament on economic policy, 2 March 
     CCS anti‑xenophobia research workshop, 27 February 
     Patrick Bond speaks on The ebb and flow of water rights, Univ of Cape Town Department of Public Law, 25 February 
      Patrick Bond at Power Indaba privatisation conference, 22 February 
     Press Conference: Keep our South African Coal in the Hole! 22 February 2010 
     CCS Economic Justice course, with Trevor Ngwane, Samson Zondi and Patrick Bond, from 20 Feb‑29 May 
     Climate Justice Now! SA‑KZN chapter hosted at CCS, 13 February 
     Hallowes, D'Sa, Ngwane, Bond , Dada: Seminar on proposed World Bank coal loan to Eskom, Friday, 12 February* 
     Durban renewable energy site visits by Minnesh Bipath, SA National Energy Research Institute with Muna Lakhani and Patrick Bond 10 February 2010 
     Susan Galleymore CCS Seminar: A Dearth of Imagination Leads to Wasting Perfectly Good Waste, 5 February 
     Patrick Bond paper for Socialist Register workshop, 6 February 
     Durban Sings Follow-up and planning session with 8 Editorial Collectives, 4 February  
     Patrick Bond on climate change & Dennis Brutus Memorial at World Social Forum, Porto Alegre, 28 January 
     Rehana Dada & Patrick Bond Seminar: Copenhagen Climate and Eskom Energy Conflicts, 26 January 
     Dennis Brutus tribute, with Social Movements Indaba and Durban community groups, 23 January 
      Peter McKenzie & Doung Jahangeer Seminar: The Saharawi,Warwick Junction and Footsak Politics, 20 January 
     Patrick Bond debates NHI at Idasa, CT, 19 January 
     CCS cohosts Climate Justice Now! on electricity hearings strategy, 15 January 
     Events Index 2009 
     Patrick Bond at SF protest against Danish repression of civil society and Copenhagen climate 'deal', and radio interview, 18 December 
     Patrick Bond addresses climate seminar at Univ of Lund Business School, 15 December 
     Kristine Wasrud Participation and Influence in Water Policy in Durban, South Africa, 11 December  
     Climate Justice Film Festival, 10 December  
     Umesh de Silva Seminar: Traditional farming in Umzinyathi, 9 December 
     Oliver Meth at the CCS Workshop on women & child abuse Cato Crest Library, 8 December  
     Patrick Bond at Roskilde Univ Civil Society Centre, 7 December 
     Patrick Bond keynotes Leeds 'Democratisation in Africa' conference, 4 December 
     Sinegugu Zukulu & John Clarke CCS Seminar: Resilience, Resolarisation and Relocalisation, 30 November  
     Nick Smith CCS Seminar Politics of protection/crime/policing, 26 November 
     Patrick Bond speaks at Mandela Foundation about SA economic disasters, 26 November 
     Seminar on outsourced and contract workers at UKZN, 24 November 
     3rd Climate Justice Now! KZN meeting, 20 November 
     CCS and Durban Sings! at the Global Crisis and Africa: Struggles for Alternatives hosted by the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation; Randburg, Johannesburg 19-21 November 
     MAKE SOME NOISE! Concert 6 November  
     Immanuel Wallerstein Wolpe Lecture: Crisis of the Capitalist System Where to from Here?, 5 November 
     The Crises and the Commons: Durban debates on politics, economics and environment 4-7 November  
     Solidarity with Durban's oppressed: Bottom-up resistance strategies of shackdwellers, pollution victims and labour-brokered workers, 4 November 
     Faith Manzi & Oliver Meth at the Gender Based Violence Workshop, Durban 27 & 28 October 
     Seminar on Problems faced by UKZN workers, Westville campus, 28 October 
     Bengt Brülde & Stellan Vinthagenand Seminar: Ethics, Resistance and Global Justice, 26 October  
     Baruti Amisi, Trevor Ngwane & Patrick Bond Anti-Xenophobia research project with Strategy&Tactics 19- 20 October 
     Durban Sings (Molefi Ndlovu & Claudia Wegener) at National Oral History Conference, 13-16 October 
     Tri-Continental Film Festival Durban community screenings – (hosted by Oliver Meth) at Inanda, Chatsworth, Wentworth, CBD, & Folweni, 1-12 October 
     Patrick Bond lectures at Suffolk Univ, Boston, 29 Sept-2 Oct 
     Helen McCueCCS Seminar: Grassroots Mobilising within Refugee Communities: Perspectives on Palestine and Australia, 18 September 
     Dennis Brutus honored by War Resisters League, 18 September 
     Patrick Bond Booklaunch: Climate Change, Carbon Trading & Civil Society, 18 September 
     Patrick Bond skypecast on climate and ecological debt to Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke, Copenhagen, 16 September 
     Oliver Meth People to People International Documentary Conference, 10-12 September  
     Dick Forslund & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: South Africa's capitalist crisis and civil society, 7 September 
     Dudu Khumalo on the Durban public transport crisis, 1 September  
     John Berg CCS Seminar: Barack Obama's presidency and civil society reactions, 24 August  
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: National Health Insurance: Can SA afford it?, 24 August  
     Norman Finkelstein Wolpe Lecture: Resolving the Israel-Palestine Conflict: What we can learn from Gandhi, 20 August  
     CCS Seminar with outsourced workers at UKZN, 12 August  
     Patrick Bond debates Sampie Terreblanche (Stellenbosch), 6 August, UCT 
     Dr Essop Pahad CCS Seminar: Thinking about the Legacy of Mbeki's Politics, 4 August 
     Patrick Bond addresses Ecuador eco-finance conference (videolink), 4 August 
     Patrick Bond at the South African Civil Society Energy Caucus Meeting, 29-30 July  
     Barak Hoffman CCS Seminar: Democracy and Civil Society Research in Ghana and SA, 27 July 
     CCS hosts free screenings of Durban International Film Festival, 25 July - 1 August  
     Sean Flynn & Maj Fiil CCS Seminar on water rights, ( SKYPECAST ) 24 July 
     Patrick Bond lecture at carbon trading conference, Johannesburg, 22 July 
     Sein Win Seminar by Burmese prime minister (exiled) on solidarity (SKYPECAST), 21 July 
     Tunde Adegbola A Pan-African Harold Wolpe Lecture & cultural events, 16 July 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA Political Economy, San Francisco socialist conference, 4 July  
     Orlean Naidoo on participation at DDP seminar, 30 June 
     Patrick Bond speaks on 'World Slump: Financial Crisis and Emerging Class Struggles in the Global South', 28 June, Toronto 
     Patrick Bond on African social resistance to economic crisis, 26 June, Moscow 
     Oliver Meth and Orlean Naidoo facilitate Diakonia Council of Churches Democracy Course, 24 -26 June 
     Alex Callinicos Wolpe Lecture: Economic crisis and prospects for social revolution, 18 June*  
     Blair Rutherford CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe farm labour, social justice and citizenship, 17 June 
     Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar: Community resistance to energy privatisation and ecological degradation, 11 June 
     DURBAN SINGS central editorial workshops, 8 & 22 June 
     Gaby Bikombo, Judy Mulqueeny, Harry Ramlal, Caroline Skinner CCS Seminar: War of Warwick Junction, 9 June 
     Patrick Bond, Abedian, Dumisa, Maharaj et al on 'Zumanomics', UKZN Biz School, 3 June 
     Rehana Dada keynote address to Southern African Faith Communities' Environment Institute AGM, 2 June 
     Patrick Bond on African underdevelopment at Sussex IDS conference (via skypecast), 1 June 
     Trevor Ngwane presents at the International Conference on Ideas and Strategies in the Alterglobalisation Movement, Seoul, 29 May 
     Peter McKenzie cultural seminar on 'Footsak: On the Ball for 2010', 28 May 
     Björn SurborgCCS Seminar: Contesting Johannesburg's extractive industries, 25 May  
     Paul Verryn, Methodist Bishop of Johannesburg: Wolpe Lecture: Poverty and xenophobia, 21 May 
     Robert Jensen, Univ of Texas: CCS Seminar: Whiteness and social change in the US, 21 May 
     Tony Clarke, Polaris Institute: CCS Seminar: The state of the world water wars, 15 May 
     Molefi Ndlovu CCS Seminar: Azania Rising: The demise of the 1652 class project, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond debates 'The G20 Global Deal' at Wits/Osisa, Johannesburg, 12 May 
     Rehana Dada,CCS Seminar: Climate mitigation case studies, 11 May 
     CCS/DYFS - Anti-xenophobia film screening facilitators workshop, 9 May 
     Orlean Naidoo CCS Seminar: Chatsworth upgrading struggles and victories, 8 May 
     Patrick Bond, Joburg Wolpe Lecture at Wits Univ, 7 May 
     Patrick Bond at Cosatu electricity workshop, Joburg, 6 May 
     Joan Canela and Helena OlcinaCCS Seminar: Social movements in Bolivia and Catalan, 5 May 
     William Gumede Wolpe Lecture: SA’s “Democracy Gap”, 30 April  
     Three representatives of the Tamil liberation movement youthCCS Seminar: The Tamil people under seige, 21 April  
     Leading eco-social spokespersons from political parties and civil society Seminar: Environmental confrontations - Political parties meet civil society, POSTPONED 
     Rehana Dada at York Univ climate ecojustice conference, Toronto, 16-17 April 
     John Minto CCS Seminar: The Legacy of Anti-apartheid Sports Boycotts, 16 April 
     Dennis Brutus celebrations, honorary doctorates conferred at both Rhodes Univ and Mandela Univ, 16-17 April 
     Nelson Muhirwa & Jean Chrisostome Kanamugire CCS Seminar: The Rwandan Genocide 15 Years On, 8 April 
     Oliver Meth Seminar: Wentworth Crime, Gangs and Civil Society, 7 April  
     Dennis Brutus on Reconciliation and Memory in Post-Apartheid SA, Nelson Mandela Foundation, Johannesburg, 2-3 April 
     Ida Susser booklaunch, 'AIDS, Sex and Culture', with Quarraisha Abdool Karim, at Ike's Books, 2 April 
     Sofie Hellberg CCS Seminar: Governing lives through hydropolitics in eThekwini , 1 April 2009 
     Claudia Wegener & Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu Digital Soiree Durban Sings Internet Radio project, 24 March  
     Simone Claar Seminar: Post-Apartheid Political Economy and State Policy, 19 March 
     Oliver Meth presents at the HSRC Violent Crime and Democratization in the Global South Conference, 18-20 March 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza CCS Seminar: African Development Bank water projects, 12 March 
     Deniz Kellecioglu CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe Civil Society confronts Mugabe's Economy, 11 March 
      Patrick Bond debates ANC economic policy, 9 March, Durban 
     Kalinca Copello Seminar: ICTs and social movements: From Chiapas to Brazil to South Africa, 6 March 
     Lisa Ramsay & Schwarzanne Leafe Seminar & Film: Climate Change and Eco-Social Resistance in South Durban, 27 February 
     Patrick Bond presents to ActionAid/Nepad conference on global financial crisis, 24 February, Midrand 
     Molefi Ndlovu Johannesburg: Market Photo Workshop, 22-28 February  
     Orlean Naidoo & Patrick Bond seminar on Free Basic Water, and screening of Flow, 18 February 
     Ida Susser Seminar: AIDS, Sex, Culture and Civil Society, 11 February 
     Dennis Brutus and Moya Atkinson film/seminar on US anti-war movement, 9 February 
     Patrick Bond seminar on the ongoing global financial crisis, University of Johannesburg, 6 February 
     Durban Sings internet audio and community radio with Molefi Ndlovu and Claudia Wegener, 2-6 February 
     Patrick Bond in dialogue with Jeremy Cronin on financial crisis, Johannesburg, 28 January 
     Dennis Brutus, Lubna Nadvi, Monica Rorvik and Salim Vally Seminar: Should Israel be boycotted? If so, how?, 27 January 
     Giyani Dube, Lubna Nadvi, Kate Griffiths and Timothy Rukombo Wolpe Lecture: Civil Society Internationalism - from Lindela to Gaza to Washington, 22 January 
     Pamela Ngwenya, Molefi Ndlovu, Claudia Wegener Seminar: Participatory community audio/video as a tool for social research, 21 January  
     Dale McKinley, Orlean Naidoo, Dudu Khumalo, Bryan Ashe Seminar on the World Water Forum, 19 January 
     Mavuso Dingani film/seminar on the Zimbabwean exile in Durban, 6 January 



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