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South African oil spill pollutes rich whites’ playground



But suburban Durban’s disaster reveals wider planetary abuse and eco-racism
By Patrick Bond

Over the holiday season, the front pages of the newspapers in Durban – South Africa’s third-largest city – screamed out again and again about a diesel spill.

In the suburb of Hillcrest on December 23, a Durban-Johannesburg pipeline operated by the giant parastatal firm Transnet gushed 220000 liters into wealthy white residents’ gardens.

The pipeline, built in 1965 and now at least four years past its official retirement date, annually carries three billion litres of petroleum products for BP, Shell and Malaysian-owned Engen. An anonymous company
source
confirmed to The Witness newspaper, ‘The underground pipe had burst along a weld line which had given way.’ A Transnet spokesperson confessed that the Hillcrest clean-up would take ‘close to a year.’


Source: The Witness Twitter feed

Look more closely at the damage and how it might have been prevented. Not only should this become a case for rethinking both our addiction to climate-destroying petroleum and the geographically-illogical Johannesburg region’s excessive air pollution – and what narratives activists might deploy against fossil-fuel facilitators like Transnet.

Those were points made back in 2008 by one of the country’s finest civil society groups, the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance ( SDCEA, when they predicted this sort of incident based on experiences with multinational corporations at Africa’s largest oil refinery site. In 2001, one
pipeline used by Shell and BP spilled of 1.3 million liters of oil in the South Durban Bluff neighbourhood (disclosure: this is where I live).

In addition, the mainly white Hillcrest residents’ ‘Not In My Back Yard!’ (‘NIMBY’) tradition stands exposed, as does Transnet’s solution to the unreliable old pipeline: pump more oil through a brand new pipeline traversing former KwaZulu bantustan areas and South Durban neighbourhoods inhabited by
mainly low-income black people.

That ‘New Multi-Products Pipeline’ (NMPP) – whose piping was completed three years ago but which still awaits two new pump stations to reach full capacity – suffered huge delays and overruns, raising the cost from the initial estimate of R6.5 billion in 2006 to R23.4 billion at last count.

In September 2007, even Transnet’s oft-praised then CEO Maria Ramos had estimated the final cost at just R11.2 billion, less than half of what it would balloon to within a matter of three years after the route change through South Durban. Because different petroleum products ( unleaded petrol, diesel and jet fuel ) move through it, it was a complex pipe to lay out over 544 kilometers. The NMPP has been called the world’s largest pipeline of its kind.



As for timing, the new pipeline and pumping stations were meant to be completed by 2010 so the line running through Hillcrest should have been decommissioned, but April 2015 is Transnet’s latest target date. One reason for missing deadline after deadline is that dozens of kilometers were added by detouring via black residential areas.

The rerouting was done with excessive haste, resulting in an intense critique from SDCEA in 2008. Confirming SDCEA’s predictions, former Minister of Public Enterprises Malusi Gigaba conceded in parliament last April that Transnet’s management of the new pipeline project suffered ‘unsatisfactory safety performance , poor environmental compliance insufficient quality controls , and inadequate control and supervision.’




New Transnet pipeline route (green) versus old (dotted line)


Source:
Transnet NMPP Environmental Impact Assessment Draft Scoping Report, 2008


Earlier, in December 2012 after an investigation, Gigaba had admitted that ‘Transnet Capital Projects lacked sufficient capacity and depth of experience for the client overview of a megaproject of this complexity. There was an inadequate analysis of risks. Transnet’s obligations on the project such as securing authorisations – Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), land acquisition for right of way, water and wetland permits – were not pursued with sufficient foresight and vigour.’

In 2008 when the new pipeline design was approved, Transnet’s ‘systematic failings’ (in Gigaba’s words) were overseen by Minister of Public Enterprises Alec Erwin, a man who just four years earlier won endorsement from Foreign Affairs journal (the main voice of the US imperial establishment) to become the World Trade Organisation’s director-general, and by Ramos, who a year later was named by Fortune magazine as 9th most powerful woman in the world and who now leads the country’s second largest bank (Barclays’ subsidiary Absa).

In other words, this wasn’t rank incompetence, it was systemic eco-social abuse by some of South Africa’s leading public officials. As far as I can tell, they have faced no accountability for their own systematic failings in what was then Transnet’s largest-ever project. Erwin and Ramos were amongst a single handful of managers of South Africa’s neoliberal macroeconomic transition during the Mandela-Mbeki years (he was trade minister, she was finance director-general), but the damage they did also can be felt in many local contexts, including here in KwaZulu-Natal.

Neither Erwin, Ramos or others overseeing Transnet addressed widespread
collusion by construction companies
during tendering by one of the main Durban-Johannesburg pipeline beneficiaries, Group Five Civil Engineering. Many Transnet projects suffered unjustifiable 50% mark-ups thanks to the now notorious collusion. Corporate abuse of this sort affects the entire society, even the rich.

Indeed, the scene of the latest crime is Hillcrest’s Greenvale Village gated complex, built after 1965, under which the Transnet pipeline crossed in spite of servitudes dating back years. Greenvale boasts comfortable mansions
, and one reason for their desirability is the proximity (within 3 kilometers) of some of Durban’s finest schools . This mink, Merc and manure belt, stretching along two highways from Assagay to Kloof, is truly a site of local ruling-class reproduction, just as much as Umhlanga, Durban North and Glenwood.

It was in places like this, SDCEA uncannily predicted in 2008, that Transnet’s carelessness would become obvious. There is no emergency plan available regarding the existing pipeline so those living along its route have no way of knowing how to respond to an emergency or accident… There may be people living along the path of the existing pipeline who do not know it is there, what it may be doing to their land and water, and what to do if the aging structure bursts.’

In this bastion of smug wealth, the centre-right Democratic Alliance opposition political party is popular. Its eloquent local municipal councilor, Rick Crouch, appears aggressive in defending local interests. As he explained to The Mercury, ‘More than a year ago we addressed the issue with Transnet. They took me on an inspection in loco to show me how safe it was to have a pipeline near residential homes. I still had my doubts.’

Transnet’s serial carelessness and overcapacity
As well he should (though Crouch apparently kept them to himself), for Transnet was responsible for related disasters in 1998 and twice in 2013. Ramos’ celebrated endorsement of corporatisation apparently allowed managers to short-change broader social and ecological considerations. As an insider source told The Witness: ‘This is not the first time this has ­happened. Within close proximity to the previous rupture site, the pipe had burst [in 1998] and they were warned of operating the line at high pressure. History repeats ­itself.’

In 2013, the same pipeline leaked 300 000 liters on a dairy farm an hour west of Hillcrest. The incident was allegedly covered up
by Transnet, but revealed the weakness of piping that was punctured by a farmworker ploughing the land. Remarked Bobby Peek, director of one of the country’s leading environmental NGOs, groundWork, ‘The fact that it took Transnet Pipelines three hours to arrest the flow of fuel from the rupture was an indictment on their ability to safely monitor their systems and act promptly in an emergency.’

In contrast, brags a government website, ‘Transnet Pipelines continually monitors the integrity of its pipeline network. Internal inspection tools, known as Intelligent Pigs, are valuable devices for this work. They make use of the magnetic stray flux principle to determine and record possible areas of metal loss from corrosion or any other cause. The results of the most recent Intelligent Pig survey of the network indicate that the pipelines, which are methodically protected against electrolytic corrosion, are in a generally good condition.’

Right then, blame pipeline rot on what must have been a litter of rather Unintelligent Pigs.

But Transnet was also indirectly responsible for a very different Hillcrest attack in September 2013. Just a dozen kilometres from Greenvale Village along the main road to Durban, a driver named Sanele May lost control of his container truck as he rolled down the very steep Fields Hill on the M13 highway. May then crashed into two kombi taxis and killed 24 working-class black people after his brakes apparently failed.



Six weeks ago, the 23 year old Swazi immigrant pleaded guilty to culpable homicide, entering South Africa illegally, being in possession of fake driver’s licences, operating a vehicle without a valid professional driving permit, and failing to comply with a road traffic sign. But the Taiwanese firm which owns the container – the world’s fourth largest shipping company, Evergreen – and Sagekal Logistics truck company which hired May and encouraged him to avoid a toll station on the N3 (because the truck’s registration was outdated) were not prosecuted, though they are to blame, in a systemic sense.

The structural problems driving the transport chaos remain unresolved, and Field’s Hill remains a site of periodic fatal truck accidents.These reflect the risks involved when, after 1994, the government and Transnet consented to shifting the six-meter long containers from railways to road. Transnet had no sensitivity to the needs of ordinary commuters in Durban, to minimal regulatory safety measures or to climate change.

A year ago, Business Day newspaper put Transnet’s climate denialism on the
front page
due to the parastatal’s rejected EIA for the first phase of Durban’s port expansion. In June last year, the company’s revised EIA confirmed its lack of concern for sea level rise, as its Cape Town consultants (ZAA Engineering Projects ) simply misinterpreted a major United Nations climate study. Once again, SDCEA offered a devastating EIA critique.

The parastatal agency is only in the early stages of moving containers back from the road to its mainly idle rail lines. One result of such procrastination is that in 2011, 7000 truck crashes caused 70 fatalities in the Durban area alone. But since the post- apartheid trucking deregulation began, importers have built so much warehouse space and related logistics infrastructure along Durban’s main highways, that a shift back to rail will be nearly impossible under the logic of capitalist transport.

Moreover, at the South Durban port complex, Transnet’s planned R250 billion expansion of the existing harbour plus a new dig-out port at the site of the city’s old airport will, according to National Development Plan projections, raise Durban’s annual container throughput from 2.5 million in recent years to 20 million by 2040. Regardless of whether that estimate is accurate or yet another thumb-suck fantasy, nearly all the containers will continue to be transported by truck.

In contrast, the main merit of Transnet’s new oil pipeline is that far fewer truckloads of petrol and diesel are now being transported by truck. The new pipeline more than doubles the oil-transit capacity, because it uses 24-inch diameter size piping (double the old pipeline), and has a much stronger pumping system that, with much greater pressure possible, can triple the amount the Johannesburg region – with its 12 million residents – receives per year compared to the line that burst in Hillcrest.

Ironically, though, after a 2012 peak of 6.023 billion litres carried in the combined old and new Durban-Johannesburg pipelines (an increase of 87% from 2010 levels), the amount carried last year was only 5.340 billion litres. The assumption in 2006 was that petrol consumption would follow the ‘Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa’ economic plan, which in 2005 had projected annual GDP growth of 6% for the 2010-14 period. In reality, South Africa managed annual average growth of just 2.5% over the last five years.

As a result of aligning state mega-infrastructure spending to persistently optimistic macro-economic assumptions, South Africa’s overbuilding craze was responsible for not just white elephant soccer stadiums built for the 2010 soccer World Cup (which are now draining most municipal coffers), but also massive overcapacity in new and renovated airports, the R25 billion Gautrain Johannesburg-Pretoria fast train (with just half the ridership anticipated), and also that region’s hated e-tolled highway.

Oil flowing from Durban to Johannesburg, 2008-14

Source: Transnet 2014 tariff application to the National Energy Regulator of SA

Moving from trucks to piped petrol, while shifting pipes closer to
poor black areas

As for the extreme overcapacity now evident in the Durban-Johannesburg oil pipeline, the main official in the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa) responsible, Rod Crompton, also criticised Transnet for not understanding why petrol pipeline volumes soon began to fall: ‘This is a concern in view of the new pipeline capacity that Transnet has brought into operation.’

One reason for the disappointing performance, Crompton argued, was that ‘There still appears to be scope to move more volumes away from road and rail transport to pipeline transport.’ There is enormous scope, to be sure, but no incentive under the prevailing for-profit system.

Matters will probably not improve, because Transnet argues it must now charge customers vast increases to cover the new pipeline costs, and in March 2014 requested a 20% increase in overall revenue for the coming year. Crompton only awarded a 5% rise. This was not unusual, for in 2009, Transnet had requested a 74% pipeline-tariff increase but Nersa instead told it to cut tariffs by 10%.

However, it should be evident that the entire system needs rejigging, for as SDCEA pointed out back in 2008, The cost of petroleum does not truly reflect the environmental costs and the increase in availability of petroleum does not reflect diminishing supplies that can be anticipated over time. As a non-renewable finite resource, petroleum supplies will only decrease and their costs will rise as a larger population struggles to share less and less of it.
The availability of petroleum today should reflect its limited life-span as a fuel source.’

Even though oil prices fell 40% in 2014, the application of full-cost accounting to cover climate change and local pollution is long overdue. But this kind of logical response appears far beyond Crompton’s and the South African state’s conceptual capacity.

After the Hillcrest blowout, another critical question concerns the safety of the new pipeline – with its dozens of extra kilometres traversing the southern part of Durban – since so many people live alongside its path. As Peek remarked after the latest spill, ‘ Now the residents of South Durban have the new pipeline next to their houses. In Hillcrest, the pipes pass through big gardens and are quite far from the houses, but in Umbumbulu it is literally next to the houses, on people’s doorsteps.’

Back in 1965, when the original Durban-Johannesburg oil pipeline was commissioned, the ‘dirty steel’ used had ‘sulphur inclusions’ and also suffered weld defects including ‘fatigue crack growth and preferential corrosion of seam weld.’ Transnet commissioned an investigation into the pipeline by ‘international experts’ who ‘confirmed the multiple inherent defect phenomena of the pre-1970 pipe used and recommended replacement.’

If so, given the excess capacity in the new pipeline, why was the old pipeline still being used on December 23, as well as back in 2013 at Mooi River? According to government’s 2007 Energy Security Master Plan , ‘When it comes to infrastructure investments in the South African liquid fuels sector, in the next five years, the single most important recommendation is the approval of a new appropriately sized, properly integrated pipeline, which should come on line in the 2nd quarter of 2010 at the latest.’ The first diesel began flowing through the NMPP in January 2012, but failure to build two final pumping stations – in the case of the Durban harbour station, because of tank buckling – kept the pipe’s throughput at just 50% of capacity, requiring ongoing use of the old line.

But Transnet apparently received word from pipeline managers that there was no problem with the existing pipeline. PricewaterhouseCooper infrastructure expert Georg Hofmeyr told the Financial Mail a year ago, in the magazine’s words, that ‘An assessment of the original pipeline revealed that it was in better condition than originally thought, and drag-reducing agents were introduced to increase its capacity.’

In its 2008 EIA filing against the new Transnet pipeline, SDCEA offered several critiques, including a re-routing that is ‘suspiciously reminiscent of the environmental racism we in South Durban have become familiar with inadequate public participation; dubious motivations for the pipeline; government’s failure to prevent, detect or manage pipeline leaks; and climate change. According to SDCEA, ‘The pipeline threatens people with potentially severe environmental safety and health problems (well known to refinery victims in South Durban), in a manner that is discriminatory along class and racial lines.’

An oil spill can be devastating to people in the immediate vicinity, D’Sa warned Hillcrest residents: ‘Health studies in 2002 and 2007 found that the emissions from petro-chemical plants put the cancer risk at 500 times the norm (1:100 000) and that 75% of cancers in South Durban are caused by the release of chemicals from the petro-chemical facilities.’




Another threat to health posed by petroleum is its use in automobiles, an especially troubling phenomenon in Johannesburg since so much of the ambient air pollution there can be traced to highways in addition to the black townships whose low-income residents still rely upon dirty energy. As SDCEA argued in 2008, pollution‘ will be exacerbated by the petroleum and other fuels distributed in this area by the Transnet pipeline. Again, Transnet’s projections for fuel demands fail to reflect actual conditions by ignoring external factors such as deplorable air quality. ’ In May 2014, the World Health Organisation confirmed these fears, in a report that cited Johannesburg for particulate matters (10 microns) ten times the recommended maximum, putting Johannesburg in the same league as China’s ultra-polluted cities.

More petrol to Joburg requires more refining in South Durban, a site whose local ecology is already toxin-saturated, SDCEA argued: ‘Durban Bay, in which the harbour is situated, is struggling to cope with the pollution loads from harbour and associated activities, contaminated riverine and storm-water inflows. The expansion will require further removal of aspects of the Bay’s ecosystem, which will in turn further reduce the assimilative capacity of this threatened and fragile estuary.’

Global-scale pollution was also noted in SDCEA’s critique in 2008: The rise of CO2 emissions that will be facilitated by the pipeline is immense, and is only referred to in the [EIA] Draft Scoping Report as a potential legal problem, with no details provided.’ Three years later, at the end of 2011, SDCEA was the main local host for activists during the United Nations climate summit and its leader Desmond D’Sa led the march of 10 000 to protest what was termed the ‘Conference of Polluters.’

Reducing demand – or increasing supply and redirecting the pipeline
As SDCEA complained in 2008, We do not believe that Transnet should be rewarded by being allowed to install a new pipeline when they are unable to properly manage their existing one.’ What, then, should have happened in early 2008, as Transnet prepared its final pipeline proposal and as load-shedding first hit South Africa?

A rethink was eminently feasible because in February 2008, a great deal of infrastructure was reaching its full capacity. The chairperson of Standard Bank, Derek Cooper, even advised Mbeki to limit Eskom’s ultra-cheap electricity supply to BHP Billiton. In the words of BHP SA chairperson
Vincent Maphai, who was at the same meeting, Cooper believed ‘a quick way to the solution of our power crisis was shutting down Hillside’ smelter in Richards Bay, advice that Maphai hotly disputed, threatening to end the firm’s relations with the bank.

But the logic was inexorable, as Mining writer Michael Coulson
affirmed
in June 2008: The fact is that aluminium smelters, especially in a country with no supplies of the raw material, bauxite – which is one of the few minerals lacking in our rich resource base – are simply a way of exporting electricity. They don’t create many jobs, and the capital investment per job is enormous. They were a luxury we could afford in the 1980s, but are now expensive white elephants that absorb capital and power that could much more productively employed elsewhere. In terms of power alone, an aluminium smelter consumes as much electricity as a medium-sized town.’

In 2009, in what was an otherwise cautious critique of the call from African National Congress youth to nationalize the mines, SA Communist Party deputy leader (and deputy minister) Jeremy Cronin agreed: An analysis of the systemic realities that are reproducing under-development in our country, must surely lead us to call for greater use of renewable energy sources, for the phasing out of aluminium smelters, and for the re-nationalisation of SASOL.’

In 2012, when margins became dangerously low again, Eskom began
paying
smelters to shut down, saving 500 megaWatts of power. Just 140 high-consuming companies are responsible for 40% of South Africa’s electricity demand. BHP alone consumes in the 5-10% range of electricity depending upon the aluminium market’s profitability.

Sometimes it takes a crisis to focus thinking and redirect energies. If this degree of radical rethinking of South Africa’s electricity consumption was possible (and is needed again as more load-shedding looms), then why not rethink the shipping of petrol products to Johannesburg?

Indeed in 2005, there was a major petrol shortage in Johannesburg and Cape Town – but as with Eskom and electricity, instead of promoting economic sanity, resource conservation and public transport, the result was greater pressure for supply enhancement, especially a new Durban-Johannesburg oil pipeline.

In early 2008, there were two routes forward:
  • First, reconsider the costs of Johannesburg’s status as the most industrialised mega-city in Africa, and therefore decentralise new economic activity so as to better distribute future populations closer to the availability of resources such as water; or


  • second, simply continue to promote limitless consumption, suburban sprawl, the Sandton financial district’s growth (as Johannesburg’s economic motor) and other forms of maldevelopment, by ‘supply enhancement.’


  • That would entail mega-projects to provide Johannesburg consumers with more electricity (from three new coal-fired power plants), water (through new Lesotho dams) and transport (e.g. the OR Tambo Airport refurbishment and Gautrain for wealthy commuters).

    Since the second option was chosen, the next question was whether the largest single infrastructure project up to that point, the new Transnet pipeline, should cross the paths of rich white homeowners and farmers, or instead, poor black residents under the thumb of local ethnic rulers and ruling-party politicians.

    Out of white sight
    The latter route was chosen. One reason is that there were vocal opponents of new digging along (or nearby) the existing pipeline servitude, termed the ‘Northern Corridor’. Near Hillcrest, according to Transnet’s Zitholele consultancy, ‘Assagay landowners expressed grave concerns’ because ‘The likely construction damage and nuisance impact on the Northern Corridor is considered to be severe in the Assagay area as a result of the sensitivity of equestrian businesses to disruption.’ (South Africa’s 1% need their horses for recreation and showing off.)

    One of the most effective Hillcrest activists was Lilian Develing, who headed the Combined Ratepayers' Association in Durban. She was quoted as warning that Transnet’s existing pipeline developed underground leaks: ‘These took some time to discover, causing damage to grazing, and animals had to be moved.’

    Other reasons Zitholele gave for routing the pipeline through a Southern Corridor included ecological, agricultural and public open space. Yet just outside Durban, the existing servitude on one long section of the old pipeline – from Merrivale to Cedar’s Post through Umgeni Valley Nature Reserve – is being used for the larger pipe, apparently without any such concerns.

    The privileged Hillcrest community’s NIMBY strategy was apparently the key factor. As Peek argued in the wake of the December 2014 spill, Hillcrest residents did not want the new pipeline in their area, so they fought it and Transnet decided to move it.’

    Along with Peek, D’Sa was a recipient of the Goldman Environmental Prize for activism (in 1998 and 2014, respectively), and in an interview this week he too was fuming: ‘White monopoly capital had a huge influence in the new pipeline’s placement. Even in South Durban, for the majority of white people living here, the pipeline goes nowhere near their houses.’

    But, he added, local collaborators helped Transnet get access to black residential sites: ‘The ANC councilors and chiefs in the areas affected by the new pipeline also sold out. They told everyone it would create jobs there. The councilors blocked us even talking to the people there. They were gatekeepers. They also need to be blamed. And other groups taking money from Transnet should also be held accountable.’

    NIMBY or NOPE?
    There was a bit of resistance in South Durban, to be sure. In August 2010, the black residents of Adams Mission resisted Transnet’s 11-page temporary servitude agreement and an ‘angry resident’ complained about the construction: Our houses are beginning to crack because of the constant digging Transnet must take their pipes and find an alternate route far from our homes.’

    The NIMBY narrative needs reworking. Naomi Klein argues about the climate change threat, ‘ This changes everything Policy elites and community activists alike should be properly preparing for a post-carbon future. The appropriate narrative is then to question our overconsumption of fossil fuels, especially via an overpriced and dangerous pipeline whose long delay in construction resulted in the use of the existing pipe beyond its lifespan.

    What is missing is a set of arguments and pressure strategies aimed not at ‘an alternative route far from our homes’ (of whatever race or class orientation) but instead at a different economic and transport strategy not so reliant upon fossil fuels, so instead of supply enhancement, demand-side management leads to major conservation gains.

    The only way to do this is to realign community politics away from NIMBY and towards eco-socialism, and to insert bodies not just into EIA documents but onto the streets and into the fields to block pipelines like Transnet’s.
    As Klein puts it in This Changes Everything, ‘Blockadia is not a specific location on a map but rather a roving transnational conflict zone that is cropping up with increasing frequency and intensity wherever extractive projects are attempting to dig and drill, whether for open-pit mines, or gas fracking, or tar sands oil pipelines.’

    First,if ‘the trusty slur NIMBY has completely lost its bite’ in this climate justice movement, who is staffing Klein’s Blockadia? ‘The people at the forefront – packing local council meetings, marching in capital cities, being hauled off in police vans, even putting their bodies between the earth-movers and earth – do not look much like your typical activist, nor do the people in one Blockadia site resemble those in another.
    Rather, they each look like the places where they live, and they look like everyone: the local shop owners, the university professors, the high school students, the grandmothers.’

    For Klein, it is vital for people to link interests, in the way that has not yet happened between Hillcrest and South Durban: ‘What is clear is that fighting a giant extractive industry on your own can seem impossible, especially in a remote, sparsely populated location. But being part of a continent-wide, even global, movement that has the industry surrounded is a very different story. Blockadia is turning the tables.’

    She continues, ‘The fossil fuel companies, in short, are no longer dealing with those Big Green groups that can be silenced with a generous donation or a conscience-clearing carbon offset program. The communities they are facing are, for the most part, not looking to negotiate a better deal – whether in the form of local jobs, higher royalties, or better safety standards. More and more, these communities are simply saying “No.” No to the pipeline.’

    Instead of NIMBY, the new call-out is simply ‘NOPE’: Not On Planet Earth.

    The NOPE demand was made by SDCEA back in 2008, as it contemplated Transnet’s expenditure of billions on the pipeline, but the organisation also expressed the perceived need for a short-termist NIMBY narrative.
    Nearly every aspect of this pipeline project is contrary to national and global efforts to achieve environmental sustainability…
    The money should instead be invested in finding other ways of powering Johannesburg via renewable energy sources, or in the meantime, developing a shorter – and less environmentally racist – route for fuel delivery compared to the southerly route.’

    There was more NOPE logic in SDCEA’s submission: ‘Global, climatologic and economic forces are pushing toward a sustainable energy package. It will ultimately cost South Africa more to put off adopting environmentally responsible programs because if we wait decades before working on the Long Term Mitigation Scenario commitments, the changes will not be able to occur gradually.’

    Combining NIMBY and NOPE, SDCEA concluded. If the north route is found to be unacceptable then the pipeline idea needs to be abandoned in full. The billions of rand that it will cost to build the pipeline should be spent on renewable energy and other more sustainable means. This would be the preferred option in SDCEA’s view because we feel that the presence of the pipeline will have adverse effects not only on the people of south Durban, but on the whole of South Africa, as it represents a major investment in an unsustainable energy program.’

    Specifically, SDCEA suggested Refurbishing the existing pipeline in an incremental manner (instead of doubling capacity), as maintenance is required, replacing the sections with a larger pipeline, using the existing route and servitudes, and installing additional pump stations, as and when required. Accelerating the upgrade of railways and public transport in Johannesburg, so as to get more people and product off the roads to minimise transport-related congestion, fuel burning, emissions and associated health effects, by establishing urban transport networks to enable safe and affordable rail transport, linked to park and ride centres with connections to bus and taxi routes.’

    What tools are available? Klein endorses fossil fuel corporate divestment, and this tool is one that, as in its use against Transnet by anti-apartheid activists during the 1980s, can be very powerful.

    After all, Transnet is not financially healthy. Although its March 2014 annual report showed profits of R5.2 billion on revenues of R56.6 billion, the Sunday Times offered a corrective: The bottom line is flattered to some extent by technicalities such as a sharp drop in the revaluation of assets, a drop which helped the 12.3% increase in earnings before interest, tax and depreciation to translate into a 25% increase in bottom-line profit.’ In June 2014, Transnet’s credit rating was cut to BBB-, just one level above junk status. There were further financial ‘ problems in the pipeline for Transnet ,’ Business Day reported, as a result of declining confidence in the parastatal’s ability to deliver. In mid-2013, for example, when Transnet offered a R750 million security to overseas investors, only R122 million was bid for, leading to the bond’s abandonment.

    SDCEA has threatened Transnet with a financial sanctions campaign
    before, due to the R250 billion port-petrochemical expansion in South Durban. The last such campaign it initiated, in early 2010, created a near-crisis for Eskom because once campaigning began, major World Bank shareholders ranging from Norway to the United States refused to support the Bank’s largest-ever loan: $3.75 billion for the Medupi coal-fired powerplant, even after a high-profile appeal from then finance minister Pravin Gordhan.

    Infrastructure of this sort, wrote University of Manchester geographers Erik Swyngedouw and Maria Kaika in a pathbreaking article in the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research fifteen years ago, needs special attention. Projects like the Durban-Johannesburg pipelines are ‘largely hidden, opaque, invisible, disappearing underground, locked into pipes, cables, conduits, tubes, passages and electronic waves. It is exactly this hidden form that renders the tense relationship between nature and the city blurred, that contributes to severing the process of social transformation of nature from the process of urbanization. Perhaps more importantly, the hidden flows and their technological framing render occult the social relations and power mechanisms that are scripted in and enacted through these flows.’

    It is our work in society, regardless of whe ther we live in South Durban, Hillcrest, Johannesburg, inbetween or far beyond, to unveil these power relations and wreck them, hopefully faster than Transnet’s pipelines – old and new – continue to wreck and be wrecked.

    (Patrick Bond–
    pbond@mail.ngo.za
    – directs the UKZN Centre for Civil Society and is author of Politics of Climate Justice

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    Ukuchitheka kwamafutha aseNingizimu Afrika kungcolise lapho kubusa khona izicebi ezimhlophe
    Kodwa lenhlekelele eyenzeke kulesisigceme saseThekwini siveze obala ukuhlukunyezwa komhlaba okusabalele kanye nokubandlululwa ngezemvelo

    NguPatrick Bond Yahunyuswa nguFaith ka-Manzi

    Ngesikhathi samaholidi, amakhasi aphambili amaphephandaba aseThekwini – idolobhakazi elikhulu lesithathu eNingizimu Afrika –ayememeza ngokuphindelela ngkuchitheka kwamafutha kadizili. Lapho kuhlal akhona abadla izambane likapondo eHillcrest mhlazingu23 kuZibandlela, ipayipi elisuka eThekwini liya eGoli eliphethwe imboni enkulu kakhulu ezimele kuthi engxenye iphathwe nguhulumeni iTransnet yachitha amalitha angu220 000 ezingadini zemizi zezakhamizi eziyizicebi.

    Lomzila wepayipi, owakhiwa ngonyaka ka1965 futhi manje osekudlule iminyaka emine uphelelwe isikhathi sawo, njalo ngonyaka uthwala amalitha ayizigidigidi ezintathu zemikhiqizo yamafutha ezimboni Obp, iShell kanye noEngen abanikazi bayo bangesizwe saseMalaysia. Othize ongafunangwa ukuthi laziwe igama lakhe osebenzela lemboni waqinisekisa kwiphephandaba iThe Witness ukuthi, ‘Lelipayipi elingaphansi komhlaba laqhuma kanye nolayini wokuwelda owavela wadlebeleka.’ Okhulumela iTransent wafakazela ukuthi ukuhlanzwa kweHillcrest kuzothatha isikhathi ‘cishe esingangonyaka’.

    Awusondele ubukele eduze umonakalo nokuthi ubungavinjwa kanjani. Lokhu akufanele-nje kube udaba lokucatshangwa kabusha mayelana nokudakwa kwethu ngamafutha acekela phansi isimo sezulu kanye nesifundazwe saseGoli esingcolisa umoya ngokungenamqondo –futhi iziphi izinkulumo izishoshovu ezizoqhamuka nazo kwizimboni zamandla amafatha ezifana neTransnet.

    Lawa ngamaphuzu enziwa kudala ngonyaka ka2008 ngenye yezinhlangano zomphakathi eziphambili, ithe South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA), lapho basho ukuthi lengozi iyokwenzeka beshiso izinto abazaziyo esezike zenzeka ngaphambilini esizindeni esikhulukazi sezimboni ezisabalele emhlabeni wonke okuncibilikiswa khona amafutha eAfrika. Ngonyaka ka2001, umzila owodwa wepayipi owawusetshenziswa nguShell kanye neBP wachitha amalitha angu1.3 wezigidi zamafutha komakhelwane baseBluff eNingizimu neTheku (isaziso: ilapho ngihlala khona).

    Ngaphezu kwalokho, umkhuba wokuthi ‘Hayi ngemuva kwezindlu zethu’ wezakhamizi iningi lazo okungabamhlophe zaseHillcrest uvele wahlala obala, njengoba kwenza isixazululo seTransnet kulomzila omdala wepayipi: ompompa amafutha amaningi kusetshenziswa umzila omusha wamafutha odlula emaphandleni abantu abamnyama kanye nasezigcemeni ezingomakhelwane baseNingizimu neTheku lapho kuhlala khona ikakhulukazi abantu abamnyama abahola amaholo aphansi.

    Lomzila Omusha Wemikhiqizo Eminingi –ipayipi lakhona elaqedwa eminyakeni emithathu edlule kodwa esalinde izigceme ezimbili ezintsha ukuthi igcwale ngokuchichima –libe nokubambezeleka kakhulu kanye nangokuchichimayo, kwanyuka imali ebibekiwe kusukela kwizigidgidi ezingu6.5 zamarandi ngonyaka ka2006 kuya kwizigidigidi ezingu23.4 kugcina ukubalwa.

    Ngenyanga kaMandulo ngonyaka ka2007, ngisho nomphathi omkhulu weTransnet wangalesosikhathi owayejwayelwe ukunconywa uMaria Ramos wayeqagele ukuthi ukubiza kokugcina kwakuyizigidgidi ezigu11.2 zamarandi, okungaphansi kwengxnye eyanga kakhulu eminyakeni emithathu emva kokuba umzila usushintshiwe usudlula eNingizimu neTheku. Ngenxa yemikhiqizo ehlakahlukene yamafutha (okumbandakanya kwangahlaziwe, udizili kanye namafutha ezindizamshini)udlula kuwona, kwakuyipayipa elinenkinga ukulendlala kumakhilomitha ngu544. LOmzila Omusha Wemikhiqizo Eminingi ubizwa ngohlobo lomzila omkhulukazi emhlabeni wonke.

    Mayelana nesikhathi, ipayipi elisha kanye nezigceme zokumpompa kwakufanele ziqedwe ukwakhiwa ngonyaka ka2010 ngakho-ke umzila onqamula eHillcrest kwakse kufanele uyekwe, kodwa-ke usuku lwangenyanga kaMbasa ngo2015 ilona olungumlamlajuqu olubekwe yiTransnet. Isizathu mayelana nalokho kuthi usuku oluhlale lumiselwe lokho luhlale luqhutshezelwa phambili ngenxa yamashumi shumi amakhilomitha abuye andiswa ngokuthi kususkwa kumzila owawukade uhleliwe okyiwa kulona osunqamula ezindaweni lapho kuhlala khona izakhamizi ezimnyama.

    Ukwenziwa umzila kabusha wenziwa ngokukhulu ukuxhamazela, okwaholela ekugxekweni okumnangalisayo okwaqhamuka kwiSDCEA ngonyaka ka2008.Eqinisekisa ngokusho kwabo ngokwakuzokwenzeka owakushiwo yiSDCEA, lowo owayekade enguMongameli Wezemisebenzi Yemiphakathi uMalusi Gigaba wavuma ephalamennde ngenyanga kaMbasa kunyaka odlule ukuthi ukulwawula kukaTransnet kweprojekti yomzila omusha wepayipi ubekhane nezingqinamba ‘zokwenza okungagculisi, ukumelana nezemvelo okusesimeni esibi, kanye nokungalawulwa kokulawulwa kwamazinga ngokwanenele kanye nokunganeli kokulawula kanye nokuhlolwa.
    I

    Umzila omusha wepayipi leTransnet (umbala oluhlaza) ubhekene nomzila omdala (umzila onezindingiliza ezimnyama)
    Source: Transnet NMPP Environmental Impact Assessment Draft Scoping Report, 2008

    Ngaphambilini, ngenyanga kaZibandlela ngonyaka ka2012 emva kophenyo, uGigaba wavuma ukuthi iTransnet Capital Project yayingenakho ukufukameleka okwanele kanye nokujula ngolwazi ngokubhekisisswa kwaloluhlelokazi olujule kakhulu. Akubanga khona ukuhlaziya okwanele ngokungase kube nobungozi. Ukuzibophezela kweTransnet kuloluhlelo njengokuthola izimvume - njengeEnvironmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), ukutholakala komhlaba ngelungelo lomzila, amanzi kanye nezimvume zomhlaba omatile – azizange zilandelwe ngokubhekelea okunobuhlakani kanye nomfutho.’

    Ngonyaka ka2008 ngesikhathi ukudwetshwa kwepayipi elisha sekwamukelwe, ukwehluleka kweTransnet (ngamazi kaGigaba) kwakubhekelelwa nguNgqongqoshe Wezemisebenzi Yemiphakathi uAlec Erwin, indoda eminyakeni emine ngaphambilini eyayiphumelele ekuxhasweni ngumquluweForeifg Affairs ( okuyilona izwi elihamba phambili kwisizinda sokubusa amanye amazwe ngokusabalala saseMelika) ukuthi abe ngumqondisi-jikelele weWorld Trade Organisation,nguRamos, futhi kwathi emva konyaka wethiwa iphephabhuku iFortune (uRamos) njengowesifazane wesishagalolunye onamandla kakhulu emhlabeni wonke futhi manje ohlola ibhange lesibili elikhulukazi kulelizwe (iABSA eyingxenye yeBarclays).

    Ngamanye amazwi, lokhu kwakungekhona ukwehluleka ngamazinga obuholi, kwakungukuqhubeka kwendlela yokuhlukunyezwa kwezemvelo kanye nezenhlalakahle ngezinye zezikhulu ezhola phambili eNingizimu Afrika. Uma-nje ngingasho-nje, abazange babhekane nalokhu kwehluleka kulonahlelo noma projekti enkulukazi eyake yenziwa yiTransnet. UErwin kanye noRamos bayingxenye yabanye abaphathi abambalwa bokushintsha kombuso wezomnotho wakuleli eNingizimu Afrika ukuthi kube ngowobungxiwankulu ngesikhathi seminyaka kaMandela benoMbeki (yena uErwin wayengungqongqoshe wezokuhweba, bese kuthi uRamos abe ngumqondisi-jikelele wezezimali), kodwa umonakalo abawenza ubonakala kakhulu ezindaweni eziningi kuleli, okumbandakanya nalapha KwaZulu-Natal.

    Futhi bona oErwin, noRamos kanye nabanye abaphathi baseTransnet abazange babhekane nokushayisana okusabalele phakathi kwezimboni ezakhayo ngesikhathi kwukhishwa amathenda ngababezozuza ngalelipayipi elisuka eThekwini liya eGoli. iGroup Five Engineering. Ziningi izinhlelo zeTransnet ezahlangabezana nezinkinga ngokungafanele okwenyukela ngamaphesenti angamashumi amahlanu futhi ngalokho kubongwa lokhu kungaboni ngaso linye. Ukuxhaswazwa okwenziwa yizimboni kwalendlela kunomthelela kwisizwe sonke, ngisho nabacebile.

    Empeleni, okusanda kwenzeka okuyicala eHillcrest eGreenvale Village esakhiweni esicvikelelekile, esakhiwa emva konyak aka1965, lapho umzila wepayipi leTransnet wadlula khona noma kwakukhona ukungazibusi okusuke eminyakeni eminingi edlule. IGrrenvale iziqhayisa ngezakhiwo zezindlu ezinkulukazi, futhi esinye isizathu esenza lendawo ithandeke ukusondela kwayo (ngamakhilomitha mathathu) kwizikole ezibiza izambane likapondo zaseThekwini. Lendawo yezicebi, nezimoto eziphambili kanye nomhlaba ovundile kusukela eAssagay kuya eKloof, ngempela uyindawo lapho kukhiqizwa khona ababusi bendawo, njengoba kwenzeka nasezindaweni ezinjengaseMhlanga, eNtshonalanga neTheku kanye naseGlenwood.

    Kwakusezindaweni ezinjena, lapho, iSDCEA ngokushaya emhloleni ngonyaka ka2008 yasho ukuthi ukungacopheleli kweTrnasnet kogcina kuvele obala: ‘Akukho cebo eliphuthumayo elikhona mayelana nalelipayipi elikhona ngakho-ke labo abaphila kulomzila abanayo indlela abazi ukuthi kufanele benzenjani uma kunesimo esiphuthumayo nomangase kudaleke ingozi… Kungenzeka kube nabantu abahlala kulomzila walelipayipi elikhona abangazi ukuthi likhona, nokuthi ngabe lenzani kumhlaba walo kanye namanzi, nokuthi benzenjani umangase lelipayipi eselilidala lingase liqhume.’

    Kulesisinda lapho kuvikelwa khona ingcebo yomntakabani, iqembu lezombusazwe elimaphakathi ngokuyela ngakontamolukhuni iDemocratic Alliance ilona elinedumela. Ikhansela lendawo liamaspilala eliyiciko lokukhuluma, uRick Crouch, ubonakala enodlame ngokuvikela izidingo zabantu bakulendawo, Njengoba ayechaza kwiphephandaba iMercury, ‘Sekuphele unyaka sikhuluma ngaloludaba neTransnet. Bangiyisa kohlola ukuze bangikhombise ukuthi lelipayipi livikeleke kangakanani ukuthi libe seduze nalabo kunemizi khona yabantu. Kodwa ngaqhubeka ngaba nokungabaza.

    Ukuhlala njalo ukungacopheleli kukaTransnet kanye nokumumatha ngokwedlulele
    Njengokuba kwakufanele (noma-ke uCrouch loluzwazi azigcinela yena), uTransnet futhi wawumbandakanywa nezinye izinhlekelele ezifanayo ngonyaka ka1998 kwathi ngonyaka ka2013 zenzeka kabili. URamos wajabulelo ukuxhaswa kwokwenziwa kwesincomo semboni futhi kubonakala sengathi wasevumela abaphathi ukuthi bangabhekeli ngokeanele izimo eziningi zezenhlalakahle kanye nezemvelo. Njengoba omunye umnyombo oqhamuka eTrasnet watshela iphephandaba iThe Witness ukuthi: ‘Akukona okokuqala lokhu kwenzeka. Eduzane nalapho kuqhume khona, ipayipi laqhuma [ngonyaka ka1998] futhi baxwayiswa ngokusebenzisa ipayipi ngengcindezi ephakeme. Umlando-ke uyaziphinda phinda.’

    Ngonyaka ka2013, lelipayipi lavuza amalitha angu300 000 liters kwelinye lamaplazi obisi indawo engangehora uma usuke empumalanga neHillcrest. Lesisiphihli kusolakala sengathi safihlwa yiTransnet, kodwa savezela obala ubuthakathaka bepayipi elalijojekile ngesikhathi umsebenzi waseplazini elima. Kubeka umbono umqondisi wasegroundWork enye yezinhlangano ezizimele ehamba phambili mayelana nobulungiswa kwezemvelo, uBobby Peek wathi, ‘Indaba yokuthi kwathatha uTransnet Pipelines amahora mathathu ukunqamula amafutha ayevuza okwakuqhamuka lapho laliqhume khona ipayipi kwakukhombisa khona ukuthi benze icala mayelana nezindlela abahlola ngazo ukuvikeleka kwezinqubo zabo nokubhekana nalesisimo esiphuthumayo ngokushesha okukhulu.’

    Mase futhi kubhekwa ngokuphikisana nalokhu, ngokuqhosha kwewebsite kahulumeni, ‘iTransnet Pipelines ihlale ihlola isithunzi sabaxhumana mayelana nnalelipayipi. Ukuhlolwa kwamathuluzi angaphakathi, okwaziwa njengamaIntelligent Pigs, kuyizinto ezibalulekile kulomsebenzi. Bangasebenzisa amathuluzi okubamba ukubhekelela kanye nokuqopha izindawo okungenzeka kube khona ukulahleka kwezinsimbi ngenxa yokushayisana noma uikuphi okungadala lokho. Imiphumela yokuhlonza okusanda kwenziwa yiIntelligent Pigs ukuthi imizila yamapayipi, evikelekelwe ekusahyiseni ngeelctrolyte, kujwayele ukuba sesimweni esihle.’

    Kulungile-ke, akusolwe ukubola komzila wepayipi okubonakala sengathu kuyimfucuza yamaUnintelligent Pigs.

    Kodwa uTransnet futhi nawo ufanele ukusolwa noma kungabhekene nakho ngqo ngokuhlaselwa okwehlukile okwenzeka eHillcrest ngenyanga kaMandulo ngo2013. Amakhilomitha ambalwa usuka eGreenvale Village uma uya emgaqweni oya eThekwini, umshayeli uSanele May waphulukudlelwa yitrukhi ayeyishayela ngesikhathi ehla ngalomgwaqo owehlelayo kuFields Hill kuthelawayeka uM13. UMay wakhwela amakhumbi amabili athutha abantu kwisibhicongo esabulala abasebenzi abamnyama abangamashumi amabili nane emva kokuba amabrakes avele ahluleka.

    Emasonwteni ayisithupha edlule, lesisakhamuzi saseSwazini esineminyaka engu23 esikuleli ngokufika savuma ukubulala abantu ngokungenhloso, ngokungena eNingizimu Afrika ngokungemthetho, ukuba nencwadi zokushayela ezingekho emthethweni, ukusebenzisa isithuthi ngaphandle kwemvume esemthethweni yokushayela, kanye nokwahluleka ukuhlonipha uphawu olulawula ukushayela emgaqweni. Kodwa imboni owakuyiyona abanikazi becontaniner – okuyimboni enkulukazi yesine ngezokuthutha ngemikhumbi emhlabeni wonke, iEvergreen – kanye neSagekal Logistics imboni yetrukhi eyayiqashe uMay futhi yamgqugqzela ukuthi angahambi ngomgwaqo okhokhelwayo okuN3 (ngoba ukubhaliswa kwetrukhi kwase kuphelelwe isikhathi) futhi bona bazange bashushiswe, kodwa bebe nabo benecala, ngendlela ababeqhuba ngayo.

    Izinkinga ezibhekene nenyakanyaka mayelana nezokuthutha azikaxazululwa, futhi isizinda sakuField’s Hill siyaqhubeka nokuba indawo lapho kuhlale kunezinhlekelele zezingozi zamatrukhi. Lokhu kukhombisa ubungozi obukhona lapho, emva kuka1994, uhulumeni kanye nohulumeni bavumela ukushenxa amacontainer amade ngamamitha ayisithupha ukuthi asuke kumzila wezitimela angene emigwaqeni. UTransnet awunazwelo mayelana nezidingo zabagibeli baseThekwini, ukuthi kube izindlela ezincane zokulawula izindlela zokuvikela noma ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu.

    Esikhathini esingangonyaka esedlule, iphephandaba iBusiness Day yashicilela ukuphika kweTrasnet kwikhasi lokuqala ngenxa yokuthi lesisikhondlakhondla sanqaba ukwamukela umbiko wokuqala weEIA wokwandiswa kwechweba laseThekwini. Ngenyanga kaNhlangulela ngonyaka odlule, ukubuyekezwa kweEIA kwalembni kwaqinisekisa ukungabi namdlandla kwayo ngokunyuka kwamazinga olwandle, nejngoba abasebenza nabo waseKapa (iZAA Engineering Projects) yahluleka ukuhlaziya isifundo esenziwa Inhlangano Yezizwe. Kanti-ke futhi, iSDCEA yakwazi ukugxeka ngokuthi lesisimo siyoba nomphumela omubi kakhulu.

    Lesisikhondlakhondla sisasekuqaleni kumalungiselelo okususa amacontainer kusukela emigwaqeni kuya emizileni yezitimela esajamile. Umphumela owodwa walobubuvila ukuthi ngonyaka ka2011, kwaba khona izinhlekelele ezingu7000 zokushayisana kwamatrukhi okwaholela ekutheni kudlule imiphefumulo engamashumi ayisikhombisa eThekwini-nje kuphela. Kodwa kusukela kuqala ukwenziwqa kabusha kwemigomo eyayilawula ngesikhathi sobandlululo, abathuthela izimpahla zangaphandle beziletha kuleli sebakhe izindawo ezinkulu zokugcina izimpahla kanye nezinye izingqlasizinda kothelawayeka bemigwaqo yaseThekwini, kangangokuthi ukushintsha kubuyelwa emzilweni yesitimela kunbonakala kuzoba nzima uma sekubhekwana nendlela ongxiwankulu abathutha ngayo.

    Ngaphezulu kwalokho, esakhiweni saseThekwini echwebeni, iTransnet ihlele ukwandisa ngezigidigidi ezingu250 zamadola kulelichweba elikhona kanye nokumbiwa kwalo kulesisizinda lapho kwakuyindawo yokusuka nokufika kwezindiza, lokhu, ngokubuka kweNational Development Plan projections, kuyonyusa isibalo samacontainer kusukela kwizigidi ezingu2.5 kuleminyaka kuya kumacontainer ayizigidi ezingamashumi amabili ngonyaka ka2040. Noma ngabe-ke ukuqagela kushaya emhloleni noma akukhona, cishe wonke amacontainer azoqhubeka athuthwe ngamatrukhi.

    Ngokuphikisana nalokhu, okuhle-nje ngomzila omusha wepayipi leTransnet ukuthi asembalwa amatrukhi athutha udizili kanye namafutha ngamatrukhi. Umzila omusha wepayipi uphindaphindeke kabili ngaphezulu mayelana nokumumatha amafutha, ngoba usebenzisaamaintshi angu24 (ngokuphindaphindiwe umzila omdala wepayipi), futhi enendlela enamandla yokumpompa okungathi, uma kungase kusetshenziswe ingcindezi kakhulu, kungenzeka ngokuphindwe kathathu isibalo sesifunda saseGoli –esinezakhamizi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nambili –okutholakala njalo ngonyaka uma kuqhathaniswa nalomzila oqhume eHillcrest.

    Futhi ngokungakholakali, noma-ke, emva kokwenyuka kwango2012 ngamalitha ezigidigidi ezingu6.023 okwakuthwelwe kwimizila yamapayipi ahlanganisiwe amadala namasha aseThekwini kanye naseGoli (ukunyuka kwamaphesenti angu87 kusukela kumazinga angonyaka ka2010), isibalo esathwalwa ngonyaka odlule sasingamalitha ayizigidigidi ezingu5.340. Umcabango ngonyaka ka2006 kwakungukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamafutha ezokuthutha kuyolandela uhlelo lwezomnotho olwaziwa nge‘Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa’, lapho ngonyaka ka2005 yabheka ukukhula kweGDP kwangonyaka kwamaphesenti ayisithupha kwesikhathi esisuka ku2010 kuya ku2014. Empeleni, iNingizimu Afrika yakwazi ukukhulisa ngamaphesenti angu2.5 eminyakeni emihlanu edlule.

    Njengomphumela wokuhlanganisa ukusetshenziswa kwakhulu kwezimali mayelana nezinqalasizinda ezinkulukazi mayelana nemicabango engapheli yezomnotho wezwelonke. Ukwakha okunobuhlanya baseNingizimu Afrika ikona okwaholela ukuthi kungabikhona-nje ukwakhiwa kwezinkundla zebhola likanobhutshuzwayo ngonyaka ka2010 ngesikhathi seNdebe Yomhlaba (okumanje enze imali kamasipala iphelele kuzona ngenxa yokunakekelwa), kodwa nezikhumulo zezindiza ezintsha nezilungisiwe ezimumatha ngokwedlulele, isitimela esigijima kakhulu esabiza izigidigidi ezingu25 zamarandi iUgatrain esuka eGoli iya ePitoli (njengoba abagibeli bayo beyingxenye yalabo abalindelwe ukuba basisebenzise), kanye nothelawayeka abazondwa kakhulu abakhokhelwayo esifundazweni saseGoli.

    Ukuyeka ukuthuthwa kwamafutha upetroli ngamatrukhi, kusetshenziswa amapayipi abekwe eduzane nalapho kwakhe khona abantu abamnyama abanhlwempu
    Njengoba kunokuchichima okukhulu okusobala kumzila wepayipi lamafutha elisuka eThekwini liya eGoli, isikhulu okuyisona esihamba phambili esilawulayo ngokusemthethweni kwisikhungo iNational Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa) esiholela kulokhu, uRod Crompton, naye wayigxeka iTransnet ngokungaqondi ukuthi kwakungani ukuchichima kwalomzila wamafutha kwaqala kwahluleka:‘Lokhu kuletha ukukhathazeka mayelana nombono wokumumatha kwepayipi elisha uTransnet alisebenzisayo.’

    Isizathi esisodwa esijabhisayo ngalokhu kwenza, kusho uCrompton, ukuthi, ‘Kusalokhu kubonakala kunethuba lokuthutha amaningi amafutha kusukwa emgwaqweni kanye nasemzileni wesitimela kuthuthwa ngomzila wepayipi.’ Alikho ithuba elikhulu kangaka, ukuqiniseka, kodwa ayikho indlela engaphansi ehamba phambili ukuze kwenziwe inzuzo.

    Lokhu mhlawumbe ngeke kube neqnubekela phambili, ngoba uTransnet ulokhu uthi kufanele ukhokhise abantu imali enkulu ukuze ukwazi ukumelana nokukhokhela umzila omusha wepayipi, futhi ngenyanga kaNdasa ngo2014 wafuna ukwenyukisa ngamaphesenti angamashumi amabili kwinzuzo kulonyaka ozayo. UCrompton yena wayinyusa ngamaphesenti ayisihlanu. Lokhu kwakungeyona into engajwayelekile, ngoba ngonyaka ka2009, uTransnet wayefuna amaphesenti angamashumi nesikhombisa nane okuthi kunyuswe imali yomzila wepaiyipi kodwa iNersa kodwa yathi ayiyehlise leyomali ngamaphesenti ayishumi.

    Kodwa-ke, kufanele kube sobala ukuthi loluhlelo lonke ludinga ukwenziwa kabusha, ngoba njengoba iSDCEA yakhombisa kudala ngo2008, ‘Ukubiza kwamafutha akukhombisi ngempela okwenzeka emvelweni kanye nokubiza kokubakhona kwamafutha akukhombisi ukuncipha ukulethwa kwalomkhiqizo okulokhu kuya ngokuphela ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Njengoba kungumkhiqizo okwazi ukuthi wenziwe kabusha, ukulethwa kwalomkhiqizo wamafutha kyokwehla kuthi ukubiza kwawo kunyuke futhi ngalesosikhathi iningi labantu lazabalaza ukuthi liwuthole lomkhiqizo. Ukuba khona kwamafutha namhlanje ufanel ngabe kukhombisa impilo yawo engaqhubeki njengomsuka wawo.’

    Noma ngabe amanani amafutha awa ngamaphesenti angamashumi amane ngo2014, isicelo senani eligcwele ukubhekana nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nokungcola komoya kulendawo kufanele ngabe kade kwenzeka. Kodwa loluhlobo lwempendulo enomqondo lubonakala kokucabanga kombuso waseNingizimu Afrika kanye noCrompton.

    Emva kwalenhlekelele eyenzeke eHillcrest, omunye umbuzo obalulekile umayelana nokuphepha komzila omusha wepayipi –kuhlangene nesibalo esiningi samakhilomitha anqamula inngxenye yeningizimu yaseThekwini –njengoba abantu abaningi behlala lapho kuhamba khona lelipayipi. Njengoba uPeek ephawulile emva kokuchitheka kwamafutha okusanda kwenzeka, ‘Manje izakhamizi zaseNingizimu neTheku sezinomzila wepayipi elisha eduzane nemizi yazo. EHillcrest, amapayipi adlula ezinsimini ezinkulu futhi akude nemizi, kodwa eMbumbulu liseduze kwezindlu, phambi kweminyango yabantu.’

    Kudala ngo1965, lapho umzila wamafutha wokuqala osuka eThekwini uya eGoli kwakuthiwe awakhiwe, insimbi ‘engcolile’ eyzyisetshenziswa ‘yayihlanganisa nesulphur’ futhi yaba nenkinga ngokushiselwa okwakuhlanganisa ‘ukuhlephuka okwakudala ukukhulu kokukhathala kanye nokushayisana kwalapho kwakushiselwe khona.’ UTransnet wawusuyalela ukuthi kube khona uphenyo olwenziwa ‘izazi ezaziqhamuka emazweni aphesheya’ ezaqinisekisa ukuba khona kokukhubazeka okuningi kwepayipi elalenziwe ngaphambi kuka1970 elalisetshenziswa zase zigqugquzela ukuthi kube khona elisha elizosesthenziswa.’

    Uma kunjalo, uma sekubhekwe lokhukuchichima okukhulu kumzila wepayipi elisha, kungani umzila omdala wepayipi wawusasetshenziswa ngoZibandlela mhlazingu23, ngisho nango2013 eMooi River? Ngokusho kukahulumeni kwiEnergy Security Master Plan ngo2007, ‘Uma sekuziwa ekutshalweni kwezimali kwizinqalasizinda eNingizimu Afrika ikakhulukazi kwimboni yamafutha, eminyakeni emihlanu ezayo, into eyodwa ebalulekile okufanele yenziwe ukuvunyelwa kwepayipi elisha elikahle ngokulingana, okufanele libe khona ngengxenye yesibili yango2010.’ Udizili wokuqala owahamba ngalomzila udlula eNMPP ngenyanga kaNhlangulana ngo2012, kodwa ukwahluleka ukwakha izizinda ezimbili zokumpompa –njengasesezindeni sechweba laseThekwini, ngenxa yokuxega kwamathangi –okwenza ukuthi ukusebenza kwepayipi likwazi ukumumatha amaphesenti angamashumi amahlanu, okudinga ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa komzila omdala.

    Kodwa kubukeka sengathi uTransnet uthole izwi eliqhamuka kubaphathi bomzila wepayipi ukuthi akukho nkinga mayelana nomzila wepayipi elikhona njengamanje. Ungcweti wezinqalasizinda wasePricewaterhouseCooper uGeorg Hofmeyr watshela iFinancial Mail ngonyaka odlule, ngokusho kwaleliphephabhukua, ‘Ukuhlolwa komzila wokuqala wepayipi wakhombisa ukuthi lisesimweni esingcono kunengendlela okwakucatshangwa ngayo, futhi izinto zokwehlisa ukuthatha zalethwa ukunyusa ukumumatha.’

    Ukugcwalisa kweEIA ng2008 kumelene nomzila omusha wepayipi leTransnet. iSDCEA yaqhamuka nokugxeka okumbalwa ezimbalwa, okumbandakanya ukuthi ukuhambisa ngomunye umzila ‘kwakufana nobandlululo ngezemvelo lapha eNingizimu neTheku esesikujwayele’; ukungabikhona ngokwanele ukungenelela komphakathi; izizathu ezingathembekile zokwakha lomzila wepayipi; ukuhluleka kukahulumeni ukuvimba, ukusola kanye nokulawula ukuvuza komzila wepayipi; kanye nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu. Ngokusho kweSDCEA, ‘Umzila wepayipi uzofaka engcupheni abantu mayelana nokuvikelela kwezemvelo kanye nezinkinga zezempilo (okwaziwa kakhulu yizisulu zezingcibilikisi zamafutha eNingizimu neTheku), ngendlela ekhombisa ukubandlululwa ngamazinga okuphila kanye nangebala.’

    Ukuchitheka kwamafutha kuba nomthelela omubi kakhulu kubantu absondelene nalapho kusuke kwenzeke khona lomonakalo, uD’Sa wazixwayisa izakhamizi zaseHillcrest: ‘Izifundo zezempilo ngo200 nango2007 zathola ukuthi ukuphafuka kwezisisi ezingcolisa umoya okuqhamuka ezizindeni noma ezimbonini zamafutha kanye namakhemikhali kwenza ubungozi bomdlavuza bunyuke ngezikhathi ezingamakhulu amahlanu kunokujwayelekile (oyedwa enkulungwaneni -1:100 000) (nokuthi amaphesenti angamashumi ayisikhombisa nesihlanu emidlavuza eNingizimu neTheku adalwa ukuphumela kwamakhemikhali aqhamuka ezimbonini zamafutha kanye namakhemikhaliand.’

    Obunye ubungozi kwezempilo obulethwa ngamafutha ukusetshenziswa kwawo ezimotweni, ikakhulukazi lokhu okuyisimangaliso okwenzeka eGoli kusukela njegoba umoya omningi obukeka umuhle ongcoliayo uqhamuka kothelawaye bemigwaqo kanye nokuthi izakhamizi eziningi ezihlala emalokishini abamnyama zisasebenzisa amandla kagesi angcolile. Njengoba iSDCEA yahso ngo2008, ukungcola komoya ‘kuyoqhutshezwa ngamafutha kanye nokunye okusabalaliswa kulendawo ngumzila wamafutha wepayipi likaTransnet. Futhi ukuqagela kweTrasnet mayelana nokudingeka kwamafutha ezokuthutha kwahluleka ukusho izimo nngokuqondile ngokuzibana nezino eziqhamuka ngaphandle njengozinga elimbi kakhulu lomoya.’Ngenyanga kaMbasa ngo2014, Inhlangano Yomhlaba Yezempilo yaqinisekisa lokhu kwesaba, kumbiko okwaphawulwa ngawo Goli mayelana nalezizindaba enokuphindaphindwe ngeshumi ukungcola komoya njengokuvumelekile, okubeka iGoli libe sezingeni elilinganayo neChina mayelana namazwe anomoya abangcole ngokwedlulele.

    Amafutha maningi aya eGoli adinga ukucwengwa eNingizimu neTheku, isizinda lapho ezemvelo zakulendawo vele isigcwele ukungcoliswa izisisisi, iSDCEA yathi: ‘Isiznda lapho kunechweba laseThekwini, siyazabalaza ukubhekana nobuningi bokungcola komoya okusuka echwebeni kanye nezinye izenzo ezenziwa khona, imifudlana esinelazezisisi kanye nokungenelela kwamanzi adalwa izikhukhula. Ukunetshwa kuyodinga ngokudlulele ukuthi kususwe eminye imikhiqizo yemvelo, okuyobuye kwehlise ukusebenza ngokwanele kwalendawo yezemvelo vele esisengcupheni.’

    Ukungcola komoya okusabalele emhlabeni wonke futhi kwakhulunywa ngakho ngenkathi kumbono weSDCEA ngo2008: ‘Ukunyuka kokuphafuza kwesisisi icarbon eyaziwa ngeC02 okuyodalwa ngumzila wepayipi kukhulu, futhi kubalwa yiuDraft Scoping Report yeEIA njengenkinga yezomthetho, noma-ke ingekho imininingwane ecacisiwe.’ Emva kweminyaka emithathu, sekuphela unyaka ka2011, iSDCEA eyayibhekelele izishoshsovu ezazifikele kuleli ngessikhathi sengqungquthela yomhlaba mayelana nesomo sezulu seNhlangano Yezizwe kanye nomholi wayo uDesmond D’Sa bahola imashi yabantu abangu10 000 ababebhikilishela okubuzwa ngokuthi Ingqungquthela Yabangcolisi Bomoya phecelezi ‘Conference of Polluters.’

    Ukwehlisa isidingo – noma ukunyusa ukuletha lomkhiqizo noma ukuhambisa ngenye indlela umzila wepayipi
    Njengoba iSDCEA yakhononfa ngo2008, ‘Asikholelwa ekutheni iTransnet kufanele ingixabezwe ngokuthi ivunyelwe ukufaka umzila wepayipi elisha ngesikhathi ingakwazi ukulawula kahle leli elikhona.’ Ngabe, kwwakumele kwenzekeni kusaqala unyaka ka2008, njengoba uTransnet walungiselela ukucelela ipayipi futhi nagesikhathi lapho ukunqamuka kukagesi kwakuqala kwasabalal eNingizimu Afrika?

    Ukucabanga kabusha kwakungenzeka ngoba ngenyanga kaNhlolanja ngo2008, izinqalasizinda eziningi zase zizogcwala. Usihlalo weStandard Bank, uDerek Cooper, futhi wabonisa uMbeki ukulawula ukulethelwa kwamandla akagesi wamanani aphansi kakhulu kwimboni iBHP Billiton. Ngamazwi akhulunywa ngusihlalo weBHP eNingizimu Afrika uVincent Maphai, owayekhona kulowomhlangano, uCooper wayekholelwa ‘indlela esheshayo kwisixazululo kwinkinga yethu yamndla kagesi ukuthi kwakungaba ukuvala isincibilikisi saseHillside eRichards Bay, ukubonisa uMaphai akuphikisa kakhulu, esabisa ngokuqeda ubudlelwano balemboni kanye nebhange.

    Kodwa lomqondo awuzangwe uyekwe, njengoba umbhali ngezezimayini uMichael Coulson waqinisekisa ngenyanga kaNhlangulana ngo2008 ethi: ‘Iqiniso ukuthi izincibilikisi zealuminium, ikakhulukazi ezweni elinengenayo imikhiqizo yokuzimilela, ibauxite –okungenye yemikhiqizo esingenayo kwisizinda sethu esicebile esikhiqiza okumbiwa phansi –lokhu kuyindlela elula yokuthuthela emazweni angaphandle amandla kagesi. Akudali imisebenzi eminingi, futhi nokutshalwa kwezimali umsebenzi ngamunye kukhulu kakhulu. Kwakungumkhiqizo esasingakwazi ukuwukhokhela ngeminyaka yama1980s, kodwa manje sekuyimikhiqizo edla kakhulu ibali kunokungenisa inzuzo futhi edla kakhulu amandla kagesi okungabayizinto ezingasetshenziswa ngokunomphumela kwezinye izindawo. Mayelana namandal kagesi wodwa, isincibilikisi se-aluminium sidle kakhlu ugesi ngokulinganayo kanye nedolobha ububanzi balo obuphakathi nendawo.’

    MNgo2009, mayelana nokwakubonakala njengendlela yokumemezela yokugxeka enokucophelela eyayivela kwilusha lukaKhongolose ukuthi izimboni zekombiwa phansi zilawulwe ngumbuso, isekela lomholi weNhlangano Yamakhomanisi aseNingizimu Afrika (futhi owayeyisekela likangqonqgoshe) uJeremy Cronin wavuma wathi: ‘Ukuhlaziya ngezindleal eziyiqiniso ezingakhiqiza kabusha ezwei elingathuthukile kakhulu lakithi, kufanele nakanjani lisiholele ekumemezeleni ukusetshenziswa kabusha kwezizinda zamandla kagesi, ukuze kuqedwe izincibilikisi ze-aluminium, knaye futhi nokulawula kabusha ngumbuso kweSASOL.’

    Ngo2012, ngesikhathi imali eyayikhona isincipha kakhulu futhi, uEskom waqala ukukhokhela izincibilikisi ukuthi zivale, kwagcinwa amamewatts angu500 kamandla kagesi. Izimboni ezingu140 eNingizimu Afrika ezisebenzisa kakhulu amandla kagesi angamaphesenti angamashumi amane. IBHP-nje iyodwa isebenzisa phakathi kwamaphesenti amahlanu kuya kwayishumi kamandla kagesi lokhu futhi kuncike kwizinzuzo etholakalayo emaketheni lapho kwenziwa khona inzuzo.

    Ngesinye isikhathi kuye kuze kudaleke inking ukubhekana nokucabanga nokuthi amandla ethu siwabhekisa kwenye indawo. Umangabe lelizinga lokucabanga kabusha mayelana nokusetshenziswa kwamandla kagesi aseNingizimu Afrika kwakungenzeka (futhi okudingekayo njengoba ukunqamuka kukagesi futhi sekuzoqala phansi), kungani njani uma singacabanga kabusha ukuthutha imikhiqizo yamafutha eGoli siyithuthe ngemikhumbi?

    Empeleni ngo2005, kwakunokusweleka okukhulu kwamafutha eGoli kanye naseKapa –kodwa njengoba-ke uEskom kanye namandla kagesi, esikhundleni sokugqugquzela ukuphila ngomqondo mayelana nezomnotho, ukugcinwa kwemikhiqizo engumsinsi wokuzimilela kanye nezokuthutha imiphakathi, umphumela waba ingcindezi enkulu yokunyusa ukulethwa kwamafutha, ikakhulukazi kumzila wepayipi yamafutha osuka eThekwini uyaEgoli.

    Usaqal u2008, kwakunemizila emili eyayiphambili:

    • okokuqala, ukubhekelela kabusha ukubiza kwendawo yaseGoli njengelinye lamadolobhakazi elinezimboni kakhulu eAfrika, kanye nokusabalalisa izenzo zomnotho ukwenza kangcono uyisa kwezinye izindawo kwizizukulwane zangomuso ukuthi zibe seduze nezidingo ezifana namanzi; noma
    • okwesibili, kalula-nje kuqhutshekwe nokugqugquzela ukusetshenziswa okungenamkhawulo, ukusabalala kwezindawo zezakhamizi ezidla izambane likapondo, ukukhula kwesizinda sezimali eSandton (njengesithuthi sezomnotho waseGoli) kanye nezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa okucekela phansi, ngokusabalalisa ukulethe.’

    Lokho kuyohlanganisa izinhlelo ezinkulukazi ukulethela abathengi baseGoli amandla kagesi ngokwengenziwe (okusuka ezizindeni ezintathu ezintsha zamandla kagesi eziphehlwe ngamalahle0, amanzi (azodlula emadamini amasha aseLesotho) kanye nezokuthutha (isibonelo-nje ukwenziwa kabusha isikhumulo sezindiza iOR Tambo Airport kanye nesitimela iGautrain kubagibeli abayizicebi).

    Kusukela lokhu okwesibili kukhethiwe, umbuzo olandelayo kwakungabe uhlelo lwenqalasizinda eyodwa enkulukazi ngalesosikhathi, umzila omusha wepayipi likaTransnet, kufanele udlule lapho kunemizi khona yezakhamizi ezimhlophe kanaye nabanikazi bamapulazi, noma esikhundleni salkho, ezakhamizini ezimnyama ngaphansi kwesithupha noma kwengcindezi yamakhosi endabuko noma abezombusazwe beqembu elibusayo.

    Lokho okungekho emehlweni abantu
    Lomzila wokugcina iwona owakhethwa. Isizathu esisodwa ukuthi kwakunokuphikisana okwakhishelwa ngaphandle ngokumbiwa okusha eduzane nomzila wepayipi elalikhona. Eduzane naseHillcrest, ngokusho kwababesebenzisana noTransnet, iZitholele, ‘Abanikazi bomhlaba baseAssagay bazwakalisa ukukhathazeka kakhulu’ ngoba ‘Umonakalo owawungase wenzeka kwakhiwa kanye nomphumela kuMzila OseNyakatho ubonakala uzoba mubi kakhulu endaweni yase- futhi umphumela kube ukuphazamiseka ekuhwebeni ngamahashi.’ (Iphesenti elilodwa labaseNingizimu Afrika lidinga amahashi ngokuzijabulisa noma ngokukloloda.)

    Omunye wezishoshovu ezinemiphumela kwezikwenzayo eHillcrest kwakunguLilian Develing, owayehola iCombined Ratepayers' Association eThekwini. Wezwakala exwayisa ukuthi lomzila vele okhona wepayipi leTransnet owawakhiwe ngaphansi komhlaba uyavuza: ‘Bathatha isikhathi eside ukwazi lokhu, benza umonakalo ekudleni kwemfuyo, futhi izilwane kwafanele ukuthi zisuswe.’

    Ezinye izzithathu ezashiwo iZithulele mayelana nokujika indlela ipayipi elalihamba ngawo ukuthi lithuthele eninghizimu kwakumbandakanya ezemveleo, ezolimo kanye nendawo evulelekile yomphakathi. Kodwa ngaphandle kwaseThekwini, ukuba ngaphansi kwabanye kwinxgenye ende yomzila omdala wepayipi – kusukela eMerrivale, kuya eCedar’s Post kudlule eMgeni Valley Nature Reserve – kusetshenziselwa ipayipi elikhulukazi, kodwa ngaphandle kokuba nandaba nalokho.

    Indlela yeNIMBY yezicebi eziwumphakathi waseHillcrest iyona eyaba isizathi esiphambili. Njengoba uPeek asho ngesikhathi kuchitheka amafutha ngenyanga kaZibandlela ngo2014, ‘Izakhamizi zaseHillcrest zazingawufuni umzila omusha wepayipi endaweni yazo, ngakho-ke zalwa futhi-ke uTransnet wavele wanquma ukuwususa.’

    Kanye nePeek, uD’Sa waklonyeliswa ngeGoldman Environmental Prize ngobushoshsovu (ngo1998 nango2014, ngokulandelana kwabo), futhi kwinkulumo kulelisonto wayedinwe eqhuma: ‘Ukwenza kwabamhlophe ngenxa yokuthi banezimali ikhona okwaholela ekutheni umzila wepaiyipi elisha ushintshwe. Ngisho naseNingizimu neTheku ngalapho kuhlala khona abanye abantu abamhlophe, umzila wepayipi awusondeli nhlobo eduze kwezindlu zabo.’

    Kodwa, eqhubeka, abasebenzisana neTransnet baseduzane bona bathola kalula ukungenelela ezizindeni zezakhamizi ezimnyama: ‘Amakhansela kaKhongolose kanye namakhosi kulezizindawo ezibhekene nalengwadla yomzila wepayipi elisha ibona abdayise ngabantu. Batshela bonke abantu ukuthi kuyodaleka imisbeenzi kulezizindawo. Amakhansela avimba ngisho nathi ukuthi sikhulume nabantu kulezizindawo. Babengabagcini balezizindawo. Nabo kufanele basolwe. Kanye namanye amaqembu athatha imali eqhamuka kwiTransnet kufanele asolwe.’

    HEL – or HE? (PHECELEZI NIMBY AND NOPE)
    Kwaba khona ukumelana nalokhu okuncane owkavela eNingizimu neTheku, ukuqinisekisa, Ngenyanga kaNcwaba ngo2010, izakhamizi ezimnyama zaseAdams Mission zaphikisana namakhasi ayishumi nanye esivumelwano ayeqhamuka kuTransnet akuthi abuswe futhi elinye ilunga eliyisakhamuzi elalidinwe liganwe unwabu lakhononda ngalokhu kwakhiwa: ‘Izindlu zethu seziqala ukuqhekeka ngenxa yokuhlala kumbiwa uTransnet kufane uthathe lamapayipi futhi uthole omunye umzila okude kunamakhaya ethu.’

    Izingxoxo zeHEL zidinga ukusetshenzwa kabusha. Njengoba noNaomi Klein esho mayelana nenkinga elethwa ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, ‘Lokhu kushintsha Yonke Into.’ Umgomo wababusi kanye nezishoshovu ngokufanayo kufanele bazilungiselele ikusasa elingenaso isisisi secarbon. Inkulumo elungele lokho ukuthi simbuze mayelana nokusetshenziswa ngokwedlulele kwemikhiqizo yemvelo yokubasa, ikakhulukazi okudlula kumzila onobungozi futhi obiza ngokwedluele, ukulibaziseka kwawo ekwakhiweni onomphumela wokusetshenziswa kwepayipi elisakhona ngale kuze kudlule isikhathi ebesibekiwe.

    Okungekho izinkulumo mpikiswano kanye nezindlela zokufaka ingcindezi ezibhekelele ‘hayi umzila okude nemizi yethu’ (noma ngabe iliphi ibala noma izinga lokuphila) kodwa esikhundleni salokho indlela ehlukile yezomnotho kanye nednlela yokuthutha engancikile kumandla emikhiqizo yezemvelo, ngakho-ke esikhundleni sokunyusa ukuletha komkhiqizo, akufunwe ezinye izindlela eziseceleni zokulawula eziholela lapho uzozua ukugcinwa kwezemvelo.

    Indlela eyodwa yokwenza lokhu eyokuhlanganisa ezombusazwe zemiphakathi zisuke kwiNIMBY zisondelele kwezenhlalakahle-zemvelo, kanye nokufaka imizimba hayi-nje efana nemibhalo yeEIA kodwa kuyiwe emigwaqeni kanye nasezindaweni lapho kuzovinjwa imizila yamapayipi afana nawakwaTransnet. Njengoba kubeka uKlein kwi ‘Lokhu Kushintsha Yonke Into, ‘Ukuvimba akukhona-nje endaweni ethile ekwibalazwe kodwa izindawo zokuvimba okusabalele emhlabeni wonke okuvela ngesivinini esikhulu kanye nangokujula noma ikuphi lapho izinhlelo zokumba phansi zizama ukumba, noma ngabe imigodi evulelekile njalonjalo.’

    Okokuqala, umangabe ‘ukukhuluma ngokungacacile okwethenjwe kweNIMBY sekungasasebenzi’ kumbuthano obhekelele ubulungiswa mayelana nesimo sezulu, ubanié ozoba ilunga laBavimbeli bakaKlein? ‘Abantu abaphambili – abazogcwalisa imihlangano ebizwe ngamakhansela, ukumasha emadolobheni amakhulu, ukufakwa emavenini amaphoyisa, ukubeka imizimba yabo phakathi kwezokuthutha ezigudluza umhlaba kanye nenhlabathi – lokhu akubonakali kakhulu njengendlela izishoshsovu ezijwayele ukwenza ngayo, noma futhi abantu absesizindeni esisodwa Sokuvimba abazokwenza ngendlela efanayo nabakwesinye isizinda. Kodwa, zonke lezizindawo zifane nalapho behlala khona, futhi bafana nalabantu abahlala kulezozindawo: abanikazi bezitolo basendaweni, osolwazi basezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme, abafundi basezikoleni zamabanga aphezulu, kanye nogog.’

    NgokukaKlein. kubalulekile ukuthi abantu abahlanganisa izinto eziyizidingo zabo ngokufanayo, ngendlela engakaze yenzeke phakathi kweHillcrest kanye neNingizimu neTheku: ‘Okusobala ukuthi ukulwa nemboni enkulukazi yezokumbiwa phansi uwedwa kubonakala kungenzeke, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni ezikude ezingenazo izakhamizi eziningi. Kodwa ukuba yingxenye yombuthano wezwekazi lonke, noma umhlaba wonke ezungeze imboni ngolunye udaba lolo. Ukuvimba kuguqula amatafula.’

    Eqhubeka uthi, ‘Lezizimboni zemikhiqizo yokubasa yemvelo. ngamagfushane-nje, awasabhekani nalawoqembu Amakhulu Aluhlaza (Big Green) akwaziyo ukuthuliswa ngokunikelelwa izimali ezinkulu noma ngokuthi kwenziwe izinhlelo zokugudluzwa kweisisi icarbon okubhekene nonembeza. Imiphakathi abhekene, ingxenye enkulu, hayi ukuthi axoxisane ngendlela engcono – mhlawumbe njengokuthi ithole imisebenzi, izimali eziphezulu, noma izindlela zokuphepha ezingcono. Ngokunyukela njalo, lemiphakathi kalula-nje ithi “Cha.” Cha asiwufuni umzila wepayipi.’

    Esikhundleni sokuthi HEL, isismemezelo esisha sithi kalula-je ‘HE’: HAYI EMHLABENI.

    Ukuthi HEW kwenziwa iSDCEA kudala ngo2008, ngesikhathi isacabanga ukusetshenziswa kwezigidigidi zezimali nguTransnet kumzila wepayipi, kodwa lenhlangano futhi yamemezela isidingo esasibonakala sesikhashana esifushane senkulumo yeNIMBY: ‘Cishe yonke idlela yaloluhlelo lwalomzila walelipayipi uphikisana nemizamo yezwelonke kanye neyomhlaba ukuthi kubhekwane nendlela ezogcina ezemvelo…Imali kufanele itshalelwe ekutholakaleni kwezinye izindlela yokulethwa amandla eGoli ngkusebenzisa amandla kagesi asetshenziswa kabusha, noma-ke ngalesisikhathi, ukuthuthukisa umzila omfushane, futhi ongabandlululi ngezemvelo- ukuze kulethwe amafutha kunokusebenzisa umzila odlula eningizimu.

    Wawungekho umqondo kaHEW ngesikhathi iSDCEA iyothula inkulumo: ‘Emhlabeni, ezesimo zezulu kanye namandla ezomnotho ziphushela kwindlela ezovikela amandla okubasa. Lokhu kuyogcina kubiza Iningizimu Afrika kakhulu ukulokhu iziba ukuthatha izinhlelo ezibhekelela ukunakekela ezemvelo ngoba uma silinda amashimi eminyaka ngaphambi ngokusebenzisa izibophezelo zeLong Term Mitigation Scenario, ushintsho ngeke lwenzeke ekugcineni.’

    Ukuhlanganisa iNIMBY neHEW, sekuqeda Isdcea yathi, ‘Umangabe umzila wasenyakatho utholakala ukuthi awamukelekile ngakho-ke umqondo womzila wepayipi kufanele uyekwe wonke. Izigidigid zamarandi kufanele isetshenziswe kumandla kagesi akwazi ukusetshenziswa kabusha kanye nezinye izindlela zokugcina. Lokhu kuyoba indlela enye engamukeleka ngombono weSDCEA ngoba sibona ukuthi ukubakhona komzila wepayipi kuyoba nomphumela omubi hayi-nje kubantu baseningizimu neTheku, kodwa eNingizimu Afrika yonke, njengoba kuyimali enkulu kakhulu etshaliwe kuhlelo olushabalalayo lwamandla kagesi.’

    Ikakhulukazi, ngokubeka umbono kweSDCEA: ‘Ukwenza kabusha umzila wepayipi elikhona ngokwandisa (esikhundleni sokuphinda phinda kabili ukumumatha), njengoba ukuligcina kudinga lokho, ukubeka kabusha ezinye izingxenye zomzila wepayipi, kusetshenziswa lomzila okhona kanye nokukhothama abanye ngenxa yebala, nokwakhwa izizinda zokumpompa, uma kudingeka. Ukwenyusa ukwenza kangcono ezokuthutha zemizila yezitimela kanye nezomphakathi eGoli, ukuze kutholwe abantu ngokwedlulele kanye nokukhipha lomkhiqizo emgaqweni ukwehlisa ukugcwala okudalwa ezokuthutha, ukushisa kwamafutha, ukukhiqizela umoya ongcolile emkhathini kanye nemiphumela yezempilo ehambisana nakho, ngokuqala izindlela zokuxhumana zokuthutha ukuthi kukwazeke ukuba khona okuphephile kanye nokungakhokheleka kwezokuthutha kwezitimela, okuxhumana namapaki nezindawo zokugibela kanye nemizila yamatekisi kanye namabhasi.’

    Imaphi amathuluzi akhona? UKlein umemezela ukuthi kungabe kusatshalwa izimali kwizimboni ezisebenza amadnla kagesi emvelo. futhi nokuthi lelithuluzi ileli, elalisetshenziswa kumelenwe neTransnet yishoshovu ezaziphikisana nobandlululo ngeminyaka yama1980s, futhi elinamandla kakhulu.

    Phela vele emva konke, uTransnet akaphilile ngezezimali. Noma-ke ngenyanga kaMbasa ngo2014 umbiko wonyaka wakhombisa inzuzo yezigidigidi ezingu5.2 zamarandi kwezentela yezigidigidi ezingu56.6 zamarandi. kodwa-ke iphephandaba iSunday Times yalilungisa lelophutha : ‘Eqinisweni imali eshiwoyo ihaba uma usubheka ukuncishiswa kokubuyekezwa kwezimpahla (zeTransnet), okwasiza ngokunyuka ngamaphesenti angu12.3 emaholweni ngapahmbi kwenzuzo, intela okuyikhona-ke okungathiwa ukunyuka ngamaphesenti angu25 kwinzuzo seyiyonke.’

    Ngenyanga kaNhlangulana ngo2014, isikweletu seTransnet sasifike kwizinga leBBB-, izinga elingaphezudlwana kwemfucuza. Futhi kwaqhubeka kwaba khona izinkinga zezimali ngomzila wepayipi likaTransnet,’ kubika iphephandaba iBusiness Day, umphumela walokho kwaba ukwehla kwethemba kulemboni ukuthi ingakwazi ukwenza. Maphakathi nonyaka ka2013, ngokwesibonelo-nje, ngesikhathi uTransnet ehambisa izigidi ezingu750 zamarandi njengesibophezelo kubathsali bezimali basemazweni aphesheya, kwakukade kucelwe izigidi ezingu122 zamarandi, okwenza leyomali igcinwe ingatholakalanga.

    ISDCEA isabise uTransnet ngomkhankasela wokuthi iTransnet inswinywe ngezimali ngaphambilini, ngenxa yokwandiswa kwechweba lamafutha elidla izgidigidi ezingu250 zamarandi eNingizimu neTheku. Umkhankaso onjalo wokugcina owawuyenzile, usaqala unyaka ka2010, wadala ukuthi kucishe kube khona inkinga kaEskom ngoba ngesikhathi umkhankaso usuqalile, abanamasheya amakhulu beBhange Lomhlaba kusukela ezweni laseNorway kuya eMelika banqaba ukuxhasa imali enkulukazi yokubolekisa eyake yaba khona eyayenziwa yilelibhange: izgidigidi ezingu3.73 zamadola kwisizinda samandla kagesi aphehlwa ngamalahle eMedupi, ngisho emva kwesicelo esasiqhamuka phezulu kulowo ngalesosikhatho owayengqungqongqoshe wezezimali uPravin Gordhan.

    Inqalasizinda yaloluhlobo, kubhala izazi zebalazwe oErik Swyngedouw kanye noMaria Kaika kumbhalo onobuyoninco kwiInternational Journal of Urban and Regional Research eminyakeni eyishumi nesihlanu edlule, sidinga ukunakekelwa ngokucophelela. Izinhlelo ezifana nemizila esuka eThekwini iya eGoli, zijwayelwe ukufihlwa, azivezwa obala, ziyicashiswa, ziphelele ngaphansi, zikhiywe kumapayipi kanye namakhebula. Iyona impela lendlela yokufihla eyenza ukuthi bube nzima ubudlelwane phakathi kwezemvelo kanye ndolobha futhi bungacaci, futhi okuholela ekwenzeni bucayi indlela yokushintsho ezenhlalakahle zemvelo uma kusukwa ekwakhiweni kwamadolobha. Mhlawumbe okubalulekile kakhulu, ukuhamba ngokufihla kanye nezobuchwepheshe kuthakathaka ubudlelwane bezenhlalakahle kanye nezindlela zamasemandlelni okubhaliwe futhi okufanele kwenziwe kuleminyakazo efihliwe.’

    Kungumsebenzi wethu emphakathini, noma ngabe sihlala eNingizimu neTheku, eHillcrest, eGoli, noma phakathi nendawo noma kude ngaphesheya, ukuveza obala lobubudlelwano bamandla futhi bese sibucekela phansi, ngokuthemba futhi lokhu kwenzeke ngokushesha kakhulu kunomzila wepayipi leTransnet –emisha noma emidala –eqhubeka nokucekela phansi ekufanele icekelwe phansi.
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    UPatrick Bond ungumqondisi eCentre for Civil Society esesikhungweni semfundo ephakeme eUKZN futhi ungumbhali wePolitics of Climate Justice.

     Events Index 2017
     Shauna Mottiar, Mvuselelo Ngcoya BOOK LAUNCH: Philanthropy in South Africa - Horizontality, ubuntu and social justice, 22 March 2017 
     Peter McKenzie Photo Exhibition - Durbanity, 09 March 2017 
     Elisabet Van Wymeersch On change, conflicts and planning theory: the transformative potential of disruptive contestation, 2 March 2017 
     Daniel Byamungu Dunia, Africa Solidarity Network (ASONET) Community Building Workshop: CRIMINALISATION OF HATE CRIMES AND HATE SPEECH, 24 February 2017 
     Jasper Finkeldey, Centre for Civil Society Seminar: (No) Limits to extraction? Popular Mobilization and the Impacts of the Extractive Industries in KZN, 9 February 2017 
     Bandile Mdlalose, New Urban Agenda’ – Report Back from Habitat III, United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development Ecuador, 28 November 
     Patrick Bond, From Trump to BRICS, where is civil society headed? 18 November 
     Duduzile Khumalo, Sibongile Buthelezi, Cathy Sutherland, Vicky Sim, Social constructions of environmental services in a rapidly densifying peri-urban area under dual governance in eThekwini Municipality, 26 October  
     Gerard Boyce, Arguments in favour of putting the South African government's nuclear plans to a popular referendum, 28 October  
     Alex Hotz CCS Seminar: Challenging Secrecy and Surveillance: Building Anti-Surveillance Activism, 19 August 
     Itai Kagwere, Daniel Byamungu Dunia and Gabriel Hertis CCS Seminar: Challenges of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Migrants in South Africa, 26 August 
     Delwyn Pillay CCS Seminar: Sight on the target: Tackling destructive fishing, 12 August 
     CCS Co-Hosts: The Governance and Politics of HIV AIDS, 19 July 
     Carolijn van Noort CCS Seminar: “Strategic narratives of infrastructural development: is BRICS modernizing the tale?”, 26 July 
     Moises Arce CCS Seminar: The Political Consequences of Mobilizations against Resource Extraction, 12 July 
     Zimbabwe's Despondent Political Economy - a Durban workshop to honour Sam Moyo 13-14 June 2016 
     Patrick Bond gives political economy lecture to Durban Chamber of Commerce and Industry's Women in Business Forum, 26 April 2016 
     CCS hosts mining critics for press conference, 7 April 
     Assassination in Xolobeni: Film screening and memorial meeting for Sikhosiphi Bazooka Rhadebe, 6 April 
     Patrick Bond & Ana Garcia launch BRICS in Toronto, 31 March 
     Akin Akikboye CCS Seminar: KZN's Internally Displaced People, 31 March 
     Patrick Bond & Ana Garcia present critique of world ports, New York, 30 March 
     Hafsa Kanjwal CCS Seminar: India in Turmoil, 23 March 
     Dieter Lünse CCS Seminar: Strength of nonviolent action, 22 March 
     Patrick Bond testifies at public hearing on Transnet's South Durban plans, 21 March 
     Patrick Bond lectures on BRICS and Pan-Africanism, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 15 March 
     Yaa Ashantewaa K. Archer-Ngidi CCS Seminar: The role of Black women in liberation, 10 March 
     Patrick Bond reports on research into urban economic and ecological violence, IDRC & UKAID conference, Johannesburg, 8 March 
     Patrick Bond addresses Women in Mining (Womin) conference on movement building, Johannesburg, 7 March 
     Allen & Barbara Isaacman CCS Seminar: Dams, displacement, and the delusion of development, 4 March  
     Patrick Bond presents South Durban paper in Merebank, 2 March 
     Andrew Lawrence CCS Seminar: Why nuclear energy is bad for South Africa, bad for the world—and how it can be opposed, 29 February 2016  
     China Ngubane , Chumile Sali & Dalli Weyers CCS Seminar: Social Justice Coalition Citizen Oversight of Policing in Khayelitsha Court Case Presentation, 26 February 
     CCS hosts groundWork, SDCEA and FrackFreeSA for climate and energy workshop, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Can the SA budget afford #FeesMustFall demands and other social spending? 23 February  
     Patrick Bond joins Mondli Hlatshwayo & Aziz Choudry to launch Just Work, Ike's Books, 22 February 
     Peter Cole CCS Seminar: A History of Dockers, Social Movements and Transnational Solidarity in Durban and San Francisco, 17 February 
     Patrick Bond lectures on BRICS at Univ of the Western Cape, Cape Town, 15 February 
     Delwyn Pillay, Jorim Gerrad, Madaline George & Nozipho Mkhabela CCS Seminar: A return to MUTOKO, Zimbabwe, 10 February  
     Nick Turse CCS Seminar: AFRICOM’s New Math and “Scarier” Times Ahead in Africa, 5 February 
     Menzi Maseko & Mandla Mbuyisa CCS Seminar: Black Consciousness, Fees Must Fall and Lessons from the Life of Ongkopotse Tiro, 1 February  
     Gabriel Hertis, China Ngubane & Daniel Dunia CCS Seminar: Central African and Zimbabwean geopolitics and their implications for Durban civil society II, 27 January  
     Patrick Bond keynote at Tata Institute Development Studies conference, 23 January 
     Patrick Bond, Thando Manzi, Bandile Mdlalose & China Ngubane present urban analysis at Tata Institute, Mumbai, 19-22 January 
     Patrick Bond, Achin Vanaik, Ajay Patnaik & Alka Acharya launch BRICS book, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 18 January 
     Gabriel Hertis, China Ngubane, Daniel Dumia & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: African geopolitics and their implications for Durban civil society I, 11 January 
     Events Index 2015 
     CCS students Boaventura Monjane, Mithika Mwenda, Tabitha Spence & Celia Alario at the COP21 climate summit, Paris, 1-12 December 
     Jorim Gerrard & Paul Steffen CCS Seminar: Influencing society's views of refugees, 9 December  
     Workshop on Climate Change and Environmental Justice with the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance, 7-10 December  
     Ashwin Desai, Betty Govinden, Crispin Hemson & Andile Mngxitama CCS Seminar: The Gandhi debate, 27 November 
     Stefano Battain & Daniela Biocca CCS Seminar: Alternative development or alternative to development? 27 November 
     Patrick Bond debates Sihle Zikalala & Vasu Gounden on the state of South Africa, eThekwini Progressive Professionals Forum, 25 November 
     CCS Seminar: Remembering Sam Moyo, 25 November  
     Christelle Terreblanche debates Ubuntu at the University of Pretoria, 23 November 
     Patrick Bond & Toendepi Shonhe CCS Seminar: BRICS crumble, commodities crash and Africa's climate changes, 20 November 
     Patrick Bond seminar on BRICS banking at University of Cape Town School of Economics, 16 November 
     Delwyn Pillay CCS Seminar: KZN civil society responses to the Paris Climate Change Conference, 9 November 
     Patrick Bond with Numsa and BRICS climate critique at Historical Materialism conference, London, 5-6 November 
     Patrick Bond seminar on BRICS as sub-imperialism at Open University, 4 November 
     Andile Mngxitama CCS Seminar: Black First! but what is Black? 4 November 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS and climate change at Sussex University, 3 November 
     Mondli Hlatshwayo CCS Seminar: Numsa, technological change and politics at ArcelorMittal's Vanderbijlpark plant, 22 October 
     Tri Continental Film Festival Screenings at CCS 21-24 October 
     Patrick Bond launches BRICS book in New York 19 October 
     Patrick Bond delivers keynote at Cyprus conference on mining and sustainable development, 16 October 
     Brian Minga Anza, Mwamba Kalombo Thithi & Sinqobangaye Magestic Pro Sibisi CCS Seminar: Creative challenges to xenophobia, 15 October 2015 
     Patrick Bond, Bandile Mdlalose & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Inequality, the criminalisation of protest and internecine social conflict, 9 October 
     Patrick Bond delivers sustainability keynote to SA Public Health Association conference, 8 October 
     Patrick Bond debates UN Sustainable Development Goals, ClassicFM, Johannesburg, 1 October 
     Patrick Bond talks on African uprisings at Mapungubwe Institute, Pretoria, 30 September 
     Patrick Bond debates Africa in the world economy, Channel Africa, Johannesburg, 29 September 
     Ana Garcia presents BRICS critique at Geopolitical Economy conference, Winnipeg, 26 September 
     Patrick Bond lectures on degrowth in Berlin, 16 September 
     CCS welcomes World Social Science Forum to Durban, with talks by Vuyiseka Dubula, Patrick Bond & others in CCS, 13 - 16 September  
     CCS welcomes Codesria and WSSF to Ike's Books, 12 September 
     CCS hosts the South-South Institute during the World Social Science Forum, 10-18 September 
     Patrick Bond lectures at Codesria/Osisa Economic Justice Institute, 8-9 September 
     Patrick Bond, Boaventura Monjane & Mithika Mwenda at Africa Climate Talks, Dar es Salaam, 3-5 September 
     Vladimir Slivyak What's wrong with Russia's nuclear energy deal-making? 4 September  
     John Devenish CCS Seminar: Mapping social unrest in South Africa, 1 September  
     Patrick Bond lectures on climate and deglobalisation alternatives at Attac University, Marseille, 26 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on legacy of Rosa Luxemburg at New School for Social Research, New York, 21 August 
     China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Xenophobia as symptom, 20 August  
     Justine van Rooyen CCS Seminar: The Social Inclusion/Exclusion of Intersex South Africans, 12 August 
     Patrick Bond keynote speech at BRICS-in-Africa conference, Livingstone, 7-11 August 
     Patrick Bond and Sam Moyo speak at Trust Africa conference on Illicit Financial Flows, Harare, 3 August 
     Patrick Bond delivers paper on climate and the blue economy, Wits University, 2 August 
     Patrick Bond in economic debate at M&G Literary Festival, Johannesburg, 1 August 
     Yaa Ashantewaa Ngidi CCS Seminar: The state of the Pan Africanist movement, 30 July 
     Ryan Solomon CCS Seminar: Belonging, inclusion and South African civil society in the campaigns against AIDS and xenophobia, 29 July 
     Patrick Bond moderates UKZN College of Humanities debate on xenophobia and higher ed transformation, 28 July 
     Lloyd Sachikonye CCS Seminar: Social research and civil society in Zimbabwe, 28 July 
     Patrick Bond & Mithika Mwenda at Climate Futures symposium, Italy, 13-17 July 
     China Ngubane, Bandile Mdlalose & Nonhle Mbuthuma CCS Seminar: The state of social activism against xenophobia, human rights violations and mining exploitation - three case sites, 3 July 
     CCS co-hosts (with Chris Hani Institute) World Association for Political Economy, Johannesburg, 19-21 June 
     CCS workshop with ASONET, Action Support Centre and South African Liaison Office, on South Africa, Peace and Security in the post-2015 Development Agenda, 10-11 June 
     CCS/ASONET workshop on xenophobia, 5 June 
     Alf Nilsen launches his book We Make Our Own History, at Ike's Books, 4 June 
     Patrick Bond addresses civil society electricity crisis summit on load-shedding, Johannesburg, 2 June  
     Patrick Bond talks on extractivism, BRICS sub-imperialism and South Africa at Left Forum, New York, 30-31 May 
     China Ngubane, Gabriel Hertis, Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Persistent Durban xenophobia and Operation Fiela, 20 May 
     CCS hosts Colgate University students for social movement research, June 
     Nonhle Mbuthuma CCS Seminar: Xolobeni mining, unobtanium-titanium battle update, 14 May 
     Patrick Bond lecture on carbon markets and climate debt, Gyeongsang University, Jinju, Korea, 12 May 
     Patrick Bond speaks on South African political economy, Hong Kong Reader bookshop, 11 May 
     Gcina Makoba, Bandile Mdlalose & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Rhodes' walls must fall! 30 April  
     CCS Film Screening: The GAMA Strike A victory for all workers, 24 April 
     Faith ka Manzi & Bandile Mdlalose at Climate Justice strategy meeting, Maputo, April 21-23 
     Patrick Bond lectures on degrowth and the green economy, Berlin, 21 April 
     Paul Kariuki, Bandile Mdlalose, China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Xenophobia in Durban, 14 April 
     CCS joins Greenpeace and R2K in solidarity meeting with Somkhele coal victims, northern KZN, 12 April 
     Patrick Bond lecture on water commodification and resistance at Zimbabwe Sustainable Economics Forum, Harare, 9 April 
     China Ngubane & Jean-Pierre Lukamba CCS Seminar: Xenophobia in Isipingo, 7 April 
     Alice Thomson, Desmond D’Sa & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Liberal and radical approaches to Environmental Justice campaigning, 1 April 
     Patrick Bond speaks on coalitions for national economic sovereignty, World Social Forum, University of Tunis el Manar, 25 March 
     Akin Akiboye & Jorim Gerrard CCS Seminar: Xenophobia and displacement, 17 March 
     Sofie Hellberg CCS Seminar: Water, life and politics in Durban, 10 March 
     Faith kaManzi, Nonhle Mbuthuma, Melissa Hansen & others International Women’s Day at the UKZN Centre for Civil Society: Resistance to Resource Cursing in KZN, the Eastern Cape and the DRC, 9th March 
     Israeli Apartheid Week Events 2 - 8 March 
     Baruti Amisi and Boaventura Monjane speak at US Power Africa conference, University of Illinois, 2-4 March 
     Baruti Amisi, Gerard Boyce & Patrick Bond CCS Workshop: 'False solutions' to climate and energy crises, 26 February 
     Carlos Cardoso CCS Seminar: Knowledge production and intellectual formation in Africa from Codesria's perspective, 20 February 
     Benny Wenda CCS Seminar: The campaign to free West Papua, 19 February 
     Gcina Makoba & Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: Campaigning against coal in KZN, 18 February 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS sherpa Anil Sooklal, UCT Centre for Conflict Resolution, 16 February 
     Desmond D'Sa, David Le Page, Bhavna Deonarain, Winnie Mdletshe & others: Launch of Fossil Free KZN, 13 February 
     Angus Joseph CCS Seminar: Climate justice and solidarity from Lima to Paris, 13 February 
     Nhamo Chikowore & China Ngubane Zimbabwe's new conjuncture and SA's new xenophobia, 6 February 
     Baruti Amisi, Brain Amza & and Jacky Kabidu DRC uprising, repression and solidarity, 5 February 
     Chris Coward CCS Seminar: New spaces of social activism, 28 January 
     Immanuel Ness CCS Seminar: Lessons from the labour movements of China and India, 27 January 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Electricity crisis scenarios, 20 January 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Oil spills, coal digs, resource cursing and resistance, 12 January 
     Events Index 2014 
     Gcina Makoba & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: United Front Preparatory Assembly assessment, 22 December 
     Thando Manzi, Au Loong Yu & John Devenish CCS Seminar: BRICS-from-below struggles for justice, 19 December 
     CCS hosts South Durban climate camp, 8-11 December 
     Patrick Bond, Bandile Mdlalose, Shauna Mottiar, Themba Mchunu & China Ngubane CCS press conference and workshop: Durban politics stressed to break-point, 5 December 
     Mondli Hlatshwayo CCS Seminar: Organised labour's losses since 1994, worker-community relations after 2014, 28 November 
     Patrick Bond critiques World Bank at UWC poverty conference, 27 November 
     CCS hosts launch of Fossil Free South Africa, 27 November 
     Faith ka-Manzi debates SA social protest at Gumede Lecture, Durban History Museum, 27 November 
     Melissa Hansen CCS Seminar: Struggles over conservation space in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, 24 November  
     Patrick Bond lectures on Africa's Resource Curse, Stellenbosch University, 20 November 
     Vuyiseka Dubula, Faith ka-Manzi & Mzamo Zondi CCS Seminar: Treatment Action Campaign reaches the knife-edge, 18 November, 2014 
     CCS hosts Durban environmental network, 15 November 
     Aziz Choudry CCS Seminar: Learning and research in social movements, 14 November 
     Aziz Choudry CCS Seminar: NGOization, 'civil society' and social change: Complicity, contradictions and prospects, 13 November 
     Gun Free South Africa workshop with CCS, 12 November 
     Creesen Naicker CCS Seminar: Sport for Development in South Africa, 11 November 
     Patrick Bond joins SA panel at Historical Materialism conference, London, 7 November 
     Patrick Bond lectures on neoliberalism and social policy at South-South Institute in Bangkok, 5 November 
     Patrick Bond keynote address on African IT, to the International Development Informatics Association, 3 November 
     Patrick Bond debates GDP with SA government, Pretoria, 31 October 
     Patrick Bond debates GDP reform at University of Pretoria, 28 October 
     China Ngubane and Patrick Bond at UKZN Geography workshop on community politics, 24 October 
     CCS hosts CT Social Justice Coalition training on sanitation advocacy, 22 October 
     CCS hosts Greenpeace film on climate and Arctic oil, Black Ice, 14 October 
     Diana Buttu CCS Seminar: The situation in Palestine, 8 October 
     Mithika Mwenda lecture on climate justice at Climate Change and Development Conference, Morocco, 7 October 
     Stefan Cramer CCS Seminar on Karoo fracking, 7 October 
     Omar Shaukat CCS Seminar: Thinking through ISIS, 1 October 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA social policy at University of Burgundy, Dijon, 25 September 
     Patrick Bond debates Mark Weisbrot on BRICS at IPS, Washington, 23 September 
     Mithika Mwenda and Patrick Bond talk on climate justice, Converge for Climate at Graffiti Church, New York City, 20 September 
     Awethu! network meets at CCS, 20 September 
     Patrick Bond lecture on South Africa at City University of New York, 18 September 
     John Saul and Patrick Bond launch books at Cape Town Open Book Fair, 17 September 
     The UKZN Centre for Civil Society and Palestine Solidarity Forum host a Gaza Documentary Screening, 11 September  
     Gcina Makoba update on recyclables project in Inanda, 15 September 
     Patrick Bond debates the causes and implications of Marikana at the Durban Democracy and Development Programme, 10 September 
     Mnikeni Phakathi & Asha Moodley CCS Seminar (with the Right to Know Campaign): Student Protest at UKZN 2014, 5 September 
     Patrick Bond debates climate and energy at Univ of Leipzig 'Degrowth' conference, Germany, 5 September 
     Gcina Makoba & Patrick Bond Durban water and sanitation policies, projects and politics, 1 September 
     Patrick Bond input on BRICS at Centre for Conflict Resolution seminar, Pretoria, 31 August 
     Patrick Bond on Resource Curses and antidotes, at Institute for Social and Economic Studies, Maputo, 28 August 
     China Ngubane & Sizwe Shiba Southern African people's solidarity dynamics, 28 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on South Durban strategy, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea, 22 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA political economy at Chinese Academy of Marxism, Beijing, 20 August 
     Mithika Mwenda CCS Seminar: Climate change and global policy battles, 15 August 
     Niall Reddy CCS Seminar: BRICS after Fortaleza, 14 August 
     Ilan Pappé Dennis Brutus Memorial Lecture: Israel’s ethnic cleansing of Palestine, 5 August 
     UKZN CCS Masters Student Mithika Mwenda testifies on Climate Justice on Our Common Planet, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA, 4 August 
     Loraine Dongo & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Climate, oil and activism in South Africa, 31 July  
     Patrick Bond debates Intensive Energy User Group's Shaun Nel on energy, SAfm, 23 July 
     Patrick Bond debates SACP's Alex Mashilo on SA politics, SA Democratic Teachers Union KZN Province, Durban, 24 July 
     Susan Spronk Contesting Water Privatisation through an Efficiency Narrative, 23 July 
     Matt Meyer The State of the Art in Non-violent Civil Disobedience, 22 July 
     Patrick Bond discusses infrastructure finance, Fortaleza, 15 July 
     CCS-Brazilian collaboration at the 2014 BRICS Summit, 14-16 July in Fortaleza 
     Patrick Bond debates JP Landman on SA poli econ, Ike's Books, 9 July 
     Bhekinkosi Moyo CCS Seminar: Southern African civil society, 7 July 
     Jack Dyer CCS Seminar: The economic consequences of Durban's port expansion, 25 June 2014 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA macroeconomic conditions, at UKZN SA Research Chair initiative workshop, 20 June 
     Patrick Bond debates SA soccer leader Danny Jordaan on the World Cup's legacy, BBC radio, 18 June 
     John Devenish CCS Seminar: Protests in India, South Africa & Brazil The issues participants & tactics, 17 June 2014 
     Patrick Bond debates the SA economy with MEC Mike Mabuyakhulu, UKZN Business School, 11 June 
     Patrick Bond debates sustainability at Governance Innovation conference, University of Pretoria, 5 June 
     CCS hosts mineworker solidarity event, 31 May 
     Patrick Bond lecture on South African water commodification, University of London, 30 May 
     Patrick Bond debates 'Africa Rising (or Uprising?)' in Maputo at Frelimo Political School, 29 May 2014 
     Patrick Bond speaks on global finance at the World Association for Political Economy, Hanoi, 24 May 
     Shauna Mottiar presents at 'Contentious Politics' seminar, University of Johannesburg, 22 May 
     Patrick Bond & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: BRICS from above, the middle and below: which directions for alliances and conflicts? 16 May 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS civil society, SA Institute of International Affairs, Johannesburg, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond presentation on climate justice governance via skype to Linkoping University, Sweden, 8 May 
     Gcina Makoba and Thuli Hlela host Miners Shot Down in Durban townships, 1 May 
     Admos Chimhowu CCS Seminar: Food Sovereignty Discourses, Land and Labour in Southern Africa, 30 April 
     Patrick Bond presents on BRICS geopolitics and BRICS banking, Rio de Janeiro, 28-29 April 
     Shauna Mottiar delivers paper on popular protest in South Africa, Oxford University, 26 April 
     Floyd Shivambu, Innocent Ndiki, Louise Colvin and Patrick Bond CCS Workshop: Which critiques of post-Apartheid malgovernance - and which counter strategies - come next?, 25 April 
     Bram Buscher CCS Seminar: ‘I Nature’: Web 2.0, Social Media and the Political Economy of Conservation, 25 April 
     Patrick Bond discusses DeSutcliffisation at Durban University of Technology Urban Futures Centre, 24 April 
     Patrick Bond talk on SA@20 in New York, 19 April 
     Patrick Bond keynote lecture on climate, health and risk, University of Washington, Seattle, 17 April 
     Ken Walibora Waliaula CCS Seminar: Remembering and Disremembering Africa, 16 April 
     Ben Turok School of Social Sciences & CCS Seminar: With my head above the parapet: An insider account of the ANC in power, 15 April 
     Thando Manzi CCS Seminar: Brazilian civil society contests the World Cup, economic injustice and BRICS, 10 April 
     Patrick Bond gives three talks at the Association of American Geographers, Tampa, 10 April 
     Patrick Bond on comparative solidarity with Palestine and South Africa, Johns Hopkins University, 7 April 
     Patrick Bond paper on Climate Change, Debt and Justice in Africa at University of North Carolina conference, 5 April 
     Zackie Achmat, Thando Manzi, Paul Routledge Dennis Brutus Memorial Debate: The state of our social movements, from SA to BRICS to the world 31 March  
     Paul Routledge CCS/Development Studies seminar on politics of climate change, 31 March 
     Zackie Achmat and Ndifuma Ukwazi offer activist Autumn School, 31 March - 2 April 
     Prince Mashele CCS Seminar: The fall of the ANC, 28 March 
     Patrick Bond seminar on a Redistributive Eco-Debt Payment system, University of Lund, 28 March 
     Waldemar Diener CCS Seminar: Identity formation amongst immigrant traditional healers, 27 March  
     Charles Mangongera & Toendepi Shonhe CCS Seminar: Who rules Zimbabwe - and what should civil society do now? , 25 March 
     Patrick Bond and Xolani Dube debate 20 years of liberation (plus booklaunch), Time of the Writer festival, 20 March 
     Lukhona Mnguni, Molaudi Sekake & Lesiba Seshoka (invited)CCS Seminar: UKZN student woes and freedom of expression, 20 March  
     Patrick Bond responds to Deputy Foreign Minister Ebrahim Ebrahim foreign policy presentation, 19 March 
     Vanessa Burger and Faith kaManzi support Durban harbour mobilisation, Dalton Hostel, 16 March 
     Israeli Apartheid Week talk by Miko Peled, CCS co-sponsorship with Palestine Solidarity movement, 14 March 
     Peter McKenzie CCS Seminar: Cato Manor Between hope and Possibility, 13 March 
     Patrick Bond testimony on water politics at SA Human Rights Commission, 11 March 
     Patrick Bond lecture at Rosa Luxemburg centenary of Accumulation of Capital, Berlin, 9 March 
     Patrick Bond seminar on SA's Resource Curse, Harare, 28 February 
     Sreeram Chaulia CCS Seminar on Brazil-Russia-India-China-SA, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond seminar on 'tokenistic' social policy at UKZN Development Studies, 19 February 
     Patrick Bond addresses PanAfrican Climate Justice Alliance challenges, Dakar, 10 February 
     China Ngubane addresses conference on Community Serving Humanity, UKZN, 12 February 
     Vishwas Satgar runs workshop on the United Front approach, 30 January 
     Patrick Bond addresses Numsa shopstewards on economic crises, Johannesburg, 25 January 
     Patrick Bond testifies to Parliament against mega-projects, 16 January 
     Shauna Mottiar Protest and participation in Cato Manor, Merebank and Wentworth, 15 January  
     Patrick Bond lecture on development and political economy and method, Birzeit University, Ramallah, Palestine, 6 January 
     Events Index 2013 
     China Ngubane and Patrick Bond speak at the People's Dialogue BRICS strategy session, Johannesburg, 10-12 December 
     Thando Manzi and Patrick Bond discuss Durban slum research at the Institute of International Affairs, Oslo, 10 December 
     Patrick Bond, Farai Maguwu and Khadija Sharife testify to African Union commission against corruption, Arusha, 7 December 
     Mithika Mwenda CCS Seminar: Report-back from Warsaw climate summit, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond debates natural capital and GDP at Wits University, Johannesburg, 5 December 
     CCS hosts Democracy from Below citizenship movement 30 November - 1 December 
     Giuliano Martinello CCS Seminar: Dispossession and resistance to SA agribusiness in the new scramble for Southern and Eastern African land, 28 November  
     Patrick Bond at South Durban BRICS-from-below campaign against port-petrochemical expansion, Wentworth, 27 November 
     Film Screenings: Non-Violence as a Strategy for Social Change: CCS Seminar room, 19 September, 17 October, 21 November 
     Patrick Bond debates climate and capitalism at COP19 in Warsaw, 17 November 
     CCS participates in South Durban People's Climate Camp, 14-17 November 
     Patrick Bond lectures on global finance in Brussels, 13-15 November 
     Patrick Bond presents on Commoning, Rights and Praxis at Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Berlin, 8 November 
     Patrick Bond public lecture on the New Africa Scramble in Berlin, 7 November 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Financial crises and social resistance, from household to global scales, 6 November 
     Gcina Makoba & Muna Lakhani CCS Seminar: Mapping Waste From Cradle to Grave: the Inkanyezi Community Recyclers and Global Zero-Waste Movement, 31 October 
     CCS founder Adam Habib launches South Africa's Suspended Revolution, Ike's Books, 29 October 
     Brutus Memorial Debate: "From democracy to kleptocracy", 26 October 
     Faith Manzi CCS Seminar: The Anatomy of a Cato Manor 'Popcorn Protest', 24 October 
     Patrick Bond critiques financial markets at Unemployment Insurance Fund board meeting, 15 October 
     Waldemar Diener CCS Seminar: Cartooning race and class after Marikana, 10 October 
     Molaudi Sekake, Christelle Terreblanche & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Commoning as an antidote to uneven development in Southern Africa, 9 October 
     CCS PhD student Vuyiseka Dubula leads AIDS research workshop, Johannesburg, 4 October 
     CCS co-organises workshop on 'Beyond Uneven Development' in Maputo, 1-3 October 
     Patrick Bond on Durban's urban neoliberalism, Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, NYC, 29 September 
     Margherita di Paola Film Screening - On the Art of War, 20 September 
     Patrick Bond speaks on the World Economic Crisis and BRICS, at the Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, 13 September 
     Patrick Bond speaks at 'Rising Powers' workshop, Fudan University, Shanghai, 12 September 
     Patrick Bond at Shanghai Academy of Social Science, 11 September  
     Patrick Bond lecture on geopolitics at Institute for International Relations, Prague, 9 September 
     Patrick Bond at G20 Post-Globalisation Initiative G20 counter-summit, St Petersburg/Moscow, 2-6 September 
     Geoff Harris & Sylvia Kaye CCS Seminar: Nonviolence in social-change strategy and tactics, 30 August 
     Patrick Bond on BRICS and 'natural capital' at Centre for Natural Resource Governance, Harare, 29 August 
     Khadija Sharife at 'No REDD in Africa Network,' Maputo, 27-29 August 
     China Ngubane helps launch Diakonia's KZN School of Activism, Albert Falls, 27 August 
     Patrick Bond at Durban Flatdwellers conference, 24 August 
     China Ngubane, Joy Mabenge & Tafadzwa Maguchu Regional and Zimbabwean civil society challenged, 22 August 
     Ed Harriman, Khadija Sharife & Sarah Bracking CCS Workshop: Corruption, corporate bribery, arms deals and social critique, 21 August 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza & Richard Kamidza CCS Seminar: Neoliberal water, neoliberal trade, 19 August 
     Simphiwe Magwaza, Simangele Manzi, Thando Manzi, Niki Moore, Knut Nustad, Jabulile Wanda & Philani Zulu CCS seminar on Cato Manor politics, Thursday, 15 August 
     Patrick Bond debates BRICS, UKZN Student Union, 14 August 
     Patrick Bond discusses SA's economic crisis at National Union of Metalworkers, Johannesburg, 8 August 
     Christine Jeske CCS Seminar: Social conceptualizations of work, unemployment, and blame in KwaZulu-Natal, 6 August 
     Larry Swatuk CCS Seminar on water resource conflicts, 1 August 
     Lorenzo Fioramonti Centre for Civil Society Seminar: Gross Domestic Problem, 18 July 2013 
     CCS hosts Open Society's Sustainable Development course for Southern Africa, 15-27 July 
     Faith ka-Manzi, Anne-Marie Debbané & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar on Durban hotspots (Cato Manor service delivery and South Durban privatised wastewater and port/petrochem expansion), 10 July 
     Thamsanqa Mthembu & Hylton Alcock Video Screening: Participatory video as a tool for social transformation, 4 July 
     Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja CCS Seminar: Southern Africa and the Challenge of the Congo, 27 June 
     Patrick Bond debates Blade Nzimande on 21st Century Socialism, Chris Hani Institute, Johannesburg, 25 June 
     Khadija Sharife and Shauna Mottiar Analysis of illicit flight presented at the UN Economic Commission on Africa conference on illicit capital flight, Lusaka, 18 June  
     China Ngubane & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The state of eco-social justice campaigning in East Asia and the Americas, 18 June 
     Patrick Bond at Ecuador conference on eco/economic crises, Quito, 12 June 
     Patrick Bond at Left Forum,New York City, 7-9 June 
     Patrick Bond lecture on Enviro Impact Assessments at Savannah School of Law in Georgia, 6 June 
     Amanda Huron, Amanda Thomas & Victoria Habermehl CCS Seminar: Geographies of Justice: experiences from three continents, 3 June 
     China Ngubane speaks at the Tokyo International Conference on African Development counter-summit, 1 June 
     Nik Theodore & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Migration and the Struggle for Urban Space, from Chicago to Durban, 28 May 
     CCS hosts Antipode Institute for the Geographies of Justice, 27 May to 1 June 
     Abby Neely CCS Seminar: Local Biologies, and ART Protocols: A Political Ecology of Tuberculosis and the Body, 24 May 
     Silke Trommer CCS Seminar: Transformations in Trade Politics - Participatory Trade Politics in West Africa, 23 May 
     Patrick Bond at AIDC National Development Plan seminar, Cape Town 22 May 
     Thuli Hlela CCS Seminar: Mapping Water/Sanitation Services in KwaNyuswa, Valley of 1000 Hills, 21 May 
     China Ngubane participates in the Gumede Lecture Series 17 May 
     Maia Green CCS Seminar: Youth empowerment on South Africa's Wild Coast, 14 May 
     Patrick Bond talk on African poli-econ at OilWatch-Africa conference, Johannesburg, 13 May 
     China Ngubane, Joy Mabenge & Tafadzwa Maguchu CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe's Election Preparations and Civil Society Politics, 10 May 
     Blessing Karumbidza CCS Seminar: Government Clumsiness in Rural Entrepreneurial and Coop Support, 30 April 
     Khadija Sharife and Patrick Bond presentation on climate finance at SADC Basic Income Group strategic workshop, 25 April, Johannesburg 
     Sarah Bracking & Patrick Bond at SDCEA workshop, Clairwood, 20 April 
     Patrick Bond, Des D'Sa, Megan Lewis, China Ngubane and Bobby Peek CCS Seminar: Assessing BRICS, Friday 19 April  
     Patrick Bond paper on geopolitics at Univ of California-Riverside, 13 April 
     Patrick Bond presents on South Durban to Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, 10 April 
     Patrick Bond on territorial alliances at International Studies Association, 6 April 
     Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: UMkhumbane (Cato Manor) ilokishi elithuthuka ngamandla kodwa elibhekene nezingqinamba ezahlukahlukene, 5 April 
     Patrick Bond on 'Making of Global Capitalism', International Studies Association, 4 April 
     Patrick Bond presentation on BRICS at International Studies Association, San Francisco, 3 April 
     Patrick Bond lectures on BRICS and the Dennis Brutus legacy, University of Pittsburgh, 2 April 
     Patrick Bond on skype to World Social Forum, 28 March 
     Ondøej Horký-Hlucháò CCS Seminar: The depoliticisation of civil society in post-communism, 28 March 
     Ashwin Desai & Kagiso Molope seminar on SA oppressions, 22 March 
     BRICS EVENTS 22 -27 MARCH 
     Patrick Bond at Ejolt workshop in Abuja, Nigeria, 20-21 March 
     Susan Abul Hawa workshop on Palestine liberation today, 20 March 
     Patrick Bond lectures on climate justice, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 15 March 
     Candido Grzybowski BRICS seen from Rio, 13 March 2013 
     Patrick Bond at community BRICS briefing, Wentworth, 11 March 
     Choice Mahridzo, China Ngubane & Toendepi Shone CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe's future, from inside and out, Thursday 7 March 
     Patrick Bond gives UKZN Development Studies seminar on BRICS, 6 March 
     Patrick Bond debates Ebrahim Ebrahim on BRICS, ActionAid in Joburg, 28 February 
     Patrick Bond panel sessions on climate and BRICS at the Global Studies Conference, Univ of California-Santa Barbara, 23 February 
     Gcina Makoba & Thuli Hlela CCS Seminar: Mapping Inanda rubbish and Valley of 1000 Hills sanitation, 21 February 
     Patrick Bond talks about climate justice at Institute for Policy Studies in Washington on 19 February 
     Thandokuhle Manzi & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Mapping Cato Manor sewage, animals and protest; and an Umlazi update, 13 February 
     Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: Mapping AIDS, from body to city, 11 February 
     Delwyn Pillay CCS Seminar: A recent spatial history of Durban student unrest, 7 February 
     Patrick Bond briefing on BRICS at AIDC, Cape Town, 1 February 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: BRICS as Pretoria's next site to 'talk left, walk right' 31 January 
     Patrick Bond at crisis & inequality seminar at Focus on the Global South, Bangkok, 28-29 January 
     China Ngubane, Patrick Bond & the Brutus Community Scholars CCS Seminar on social conflict mapping in Durban, 22 January 
     Bill Carroll CCS Seminar: Global corporate power and a new transnational capitalist class? 17 January 
     Patrick Bond testimony to NERSA against Eskom price hikes, Durban, 17 January 
     Don Chen CCS Seminar: Smart growth, urban equality and environmental justice, 16 January 
     Bill Carroll CCS Seminar: Research institutes dedicated to social justice - a global survey, 15 January 
     Mfundo Mtshwelo CCS Seminar: New critiques of South Africa's ruling party post-Mangaung, 11 January (Cancelled) 
     Events Index 2012 
     Phillip Lühl & Guillermo Delgado CCS Seminar: Unitary urbanism, towards maximal difference, 8 January  
     Khadija Sharife, Min-Jung Kim, Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Doha's COP18 crash and climate justice (skypecast), 20 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on BRICS in Moscow, 15 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on Marikana and SA Resource Curse, Institute for African Studies, Moscow, 13 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on environmental commodification, Manchester, 11 December 
     Khadija Sharife presentation on land-grabbed Africa at South South Forum 2, Chongqing China, 8 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture to African economic journalists on global economic governance, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond at IG Metall conference on inequality, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond on debt at Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Berlin, 30 November 
     Faith ka-Manzi delivers UKZN World AIDS Day Lecture, 29 November 
     Khadija Sharife Illicit flight and mining presentation at Economic Justice Network regional tax conference 27-29 November  
     Patrick Bond keynote address on Climate Justice to Norwegian Development Association, Oslo, 27 November 
     Pamela Ngwenya CCS Course: An introduction to video production 26-30 November 
     Patrick Bond on water rights and climate at Norwegian Development Studies panel, Oslo, 26 November 
     Primrose Sonti, Mbuso Ngubane, Mametlwe Sebei and Rudolph Dubula at Brutus Memorial Debate on Marikana, 22 November 
     Patrick Bond on SA's Resource Course at Amandla! colloquium, Gauteng. 16 November 
     Pamela Ngwenya & Ben Richardson CCS Seminar - Aid for trade and Southern African agriculture: the bittersweet case of Swazi sugar, 15 November 
     Ruth Castel-Branco CCS Seminar - Why unions still matter: the case of domestic worker organizing in Maputo, 8 November 
     Patrick Bond on BRICS/G20 at SA Forum for International Solidarity, Johannesburg, 14 November 
     CCS cohosts State of Zimbabwe Transition, Diakonia, 2 November 
     Liane Greeff CCS Seminar: ‘You can’t have your gas and drink your water!’ - the incompatibility of fracking to water rights, 29 October 
     Patrick Bond with Helmi Shawary at the Jozi Book Fair on Fanon in contemporary Africa, 28 October 
     Patrick Bond on Marikana narratives, at Leeds University School of Politics and African Studies, 26 October 
     Thami Mbatha, Faith ka-Manzi, China Ngubane & Percy Ngonyama Ukucwaswa kwabokufika (CCS seminar on xenophobia, in isiZulu) 26 October 
     Patrick Bond on South Africa resource cursed, at Manchester University Development Studies, 26 October 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture to ClimateMediaFactory, Berlin, 25 October 
     Patrick Bond on the Politics of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, at Limerick University, 24 October 
     Ewok's 'Letters to Dennis' at Poetry Africa, 19 October 
     Allan Kolski Horwitz Kebbleism, politics and art, 19 October 
     Philo Ikonya Centre for Civil Society and Centre for Creative Arts Seminar: Are there limits to the freedom of expression? 16 October 
     Patrick Bond debates Brazilians on the World Cup and human rights, Sao Paolo, 15 October 
     Maia Green CCS Seminar: Love and Power on the Wild Coast, 15 October 
     David van Wyk & Chris Molebatsi CCS Seminar: Marikana: Why? What next? 9 October 
     Peace Workshop, 4 October  
     Muhammed Desai seminar on Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions against Israel, 2 October 
     Patrick Bond plenary address to Muslim Youth Movement 40th conference, 30 September 
     Patrick Bond on MDGs, Redi Tlabi Radio 702 show, 25 September 
     Patrick Bond debates KZN provincial planner, 25 September 
     GreenSquad Alliance sponsors Nonviolence training, 21 September 
      Patrick Bond speaks on Resource-Cursed Southern Africa in Harare, 18 September 
     CCS film screening about 'post'-shopping, 18 September 
     Milford Bateman CCS Seminar: Civil society's microfinance mistakes, 13 September 
     Patrick Bond on detoxing South Durban at Umbilo community meeting, 12 September 
     Patrick Bond briefs OECD-Watch on Marikana and the SA Resource Curse, 11 September, Johannesburg 
     Melanie Müller CCS Seminar: What did COP17 do to SA environmentalism? 7 September 
     Patrick Bond at the Lost in Transformation book launch seminar, 6 September 
     Muhammed Shabat & Asad Asad CCS Seminar: Israeli apartheid's challenge for academics in Gaza, 6 September 
     Patrick Bond at Cosatu/AIDC seminar on employment, Port Elizabeth, 6 September 
     Adrian Nel CCS Seminar: Ugandan carbon forestry, community resistance and environmental management, 4 September 
     Patrick Bond debates Pravin Gordhan on South Durban's port expansion, Clairwood, 1 September 
     Jonathan Nkala CCS anti-xenophobia drama: The Crossing, 1 September 
     Youngsu Kim Trade union politics in South Africa and South Korea, 31 August 
     Patrick Bond on SA transition at Arab Spring conference, Pretoria, 30 August 
     Patrick Bond paper on environmental and social rights at Christian Michelsen Institute workshop, Norway, 27 August 
     Molefi Ndlovu on Qwasha! Durban street narratives about COP17, Christian Michelsen Institute, Norway, 26 August  
     Environmental Teach-In, 25 August  
     Delwyn Pillay, Dimple Deonath & Vanessa Black South Durban civil society confronts Back of Port planning, 23 August 
     Sarah Bracking CCS Seminar: Contesting the frontiers of value in society, nature and capitalism, RESCHEDULED FOR EARLY SEPTEMBER FROM 22 August 
     CCS brainstorm on Marikana Massacre, 21 August 
     Patrick Bond lecture on White Elephants to S.Durban Community Environmental Alliance at Austerville Community Centre, 21 August 
     Nonhle Mbuthuma, John Clarke & Luc Hoebeke CCS Seminar: Avatar on the Wild Coast - lessons from Xolobeni against national and global commodification, 21 August 
     Michael Dorsey CCS Seminar: Can the Green Climate Fund provide appropriate finance to Africa? 20 August 
     Percy Nhau CCS Seminar: Implications of the Secrecy Bill for Academic Research, 16 August 2012 
     Farai Maguwu & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Democratic Transitions from Top Down and Bottom Up: Prospects in Zimbabwe, 15 August 
     Faith ka-Manzi CCS Seminar: Izingqinamba ngezemvelo zaseThekwini, 8 August 
     Neima Adamo, Sergio Brito, Ester Uamba, Patrick Bond & Dimple Deonath CCS Seminar: Climate, water and destructive development from Maputo to South Durban, 3 August 
     CCS celebrates Brutus legacy at From Roots to Fruits non-violence conference, Durban Univ of Technology, 1 August 
     Matt Meyer & Elavie Ndura CCS Seminar: Nonviolent pedagogies of Africa's oppressed, from South Africa to the Great Lakes, 31 July 2012  
     Ravindra Kumar CCS Seminar: Gandhi, Democracy and Fundamental Rights, 30 July  
     Patrick Bond lecture on African political economy to Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Johannesburg, 26 July 
     Ewok does Durban (with a French connection) UKZN Jazz Centre, 6pm, 25 July 
     Peter Muzambwe & Dean Chahim CCS Seminar: Solidarities of international urban residents and 'development' students, 25 July 2012 
     Terri Barnes CCS Seminar: Gender, autobiography and social justice, 24 July 
     Jim Kilgore CCS Seminar: Freedom never rests, when it comes to water commodification and service delivery protests, 23 July 
     Jim Kilgore meets Zimbabweans in central Durban, 23 July 
     Shalini Sharma CCS Seminar: Bhopal's catastrophe and representations of social mobilisation, 20 July 
     Jane Duncan CCS Seminar: Voice, political mobilisation and repression under Jacob Zuma, 19 July 
     Patrick Bond at Rio+20 reportback, 17 July, Diakonia Centre 
     Khadija Sharife & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The Decommissioning of Durban's Emissions Trade Pilot, 11 July 
     Bheki Buthelezi & China Ngubane CCS Seminar: Interpreting Umlazi's Unrest, Repression and Occupy Resistance, 9 July 
     Farai Maguwu CCS Seminar - Resource-cursed Zimbabwe's Marange blood diamonds, 6 July 
     Eric Baldwin CCS Seminar: Housing Policy and Liberal Philosophy in Post-Apartheid South Africa, 5 July 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice at Johannesburg Workshop in Theory and Criticism, Goethe Institute, Johannesburg, 5 July 
     Patrick Bond course lectures on political economy, ecology and social policy, 2-13 July 
     Khadija Sharife & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar - Rio+20 report-back, 2 July  
     Monica Fagioli CCS Seminar - State-building in practice: the Somali diaspora and processes of reconstruction in Somaliland, 28 June  
     Fidelis Allen at African politics conference, Dakar, 26 - 28 June 
     Patrick Bond on SA subimperialism and resistance, Rio+20 Intercoll.net seminar, 21 June 
     Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu, Niall McNulty & Lwazi Gwijane CCS Seminar: QWASHA! An online archive of community digital content, 21 June 2012 
     Patrick Bond on social and environmental justice strategies, Rio+20 Cupula dos Povos plenary, 18 June 
     Patrick Bond, Khadija Sharife & Baruti Amisi on African CDMs at the International Society for Ecological Economics, Rio de Janeiro, 17 June 
     Patrick Bond and Eddie Cottle discuss SA World Cup lessons for Brazil, 13 June, Rio 
     Kim Min-Jung speaks on climate activism and the COP17 at Gyeongsang Univ Institute of Social Studies, Korea, 15 June 
     Patrick Bond at the Building and Wood Workers International debate on Green Economy and Sustainable Development, 11 June, Rio de Janeiro 
     Fidelis Allen & Khadija Sharife CCS Seminar: CDM cannot deliver: Lessons from Nigeria, 11 June 
     Michela Gallo CCS Seminar: Zimbabwean civil society in South Africa, 7 June  
     Patrick Bond speaks at faculty strike support committee, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 6 June 
     Patrick Bond lecture on carbon trading at the Brazilian Society of Political Economy, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, 5 June 
     Patrick Bond on debt crises at Queens University, Canada, 30 May 
     Dennis Brutus Memorial Debate: Durban's Corruptions & Disruptions, 24 May 
     Maria Schuld CCS Seminar: Small wars ‑ A micro‑level analysis of violence in KwaZulu‑Natal, 17 May 
     Patrick Bond on 'Imperial and subimperial interests in neoliberalised nature', keynote address at Sussex Univ SouthGovNet conference, Brighton, 16-17 May 
     Iain Ewok Robinson MCs the Brutus Sessions, 16 May 
     Patrick Bond booklaunch on climate justice at Bookmarks, London, 14 May 
     Film & discussion on Genetic Engineering hosted by Green Squad Alliance, 11 May  
     Sasha Kramer & Anthony Kilbride CCS Seminar: Improving access to sanitation on a global scale, 10 May 
     Khadija Sharife talks on Tax Justice to the Economic Justice Network, Cape Town, 9 May 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture on media and climate policy, Bergen, Norway, 7 May 
     China Ngubane & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The Africa People's Charter, Zimbabwe People's Convention Charter and South African Reconstruction and Development Programme, 7 May  
     Durban can 'connect‑the‑dots' to climate change with 350.org, 5 May 
     Patrick Bond at Comrade Babble play on Kebbleism, Johannesburg, 5 May 
     Patrick Bond unpacks eco-imperialism at People's Dialogue 'Green Economy' seminar, Johannesburg, 5 May 
     Nosipho Mngoma, Percy Nhau and Murray Hunter CCS seminar on Right2Know for researchers and journalists, 4 May 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture on Green Capitalism to Rhodes Univ, 3 May 
     Ransom Lekunze CCS Seminar: Implications of global economic crisis for Africa, 25 April 
     Patrick Bond talks to Hospice AGM on 'From Caring about Stuff to Caring about Caring' , 25 April  
     CCS participates in the Global Teach - In 25 April 
     Michele Maynard CCS Seminar: African climate change and carbon trading politics, 23 April  
     Fidelis Allen at the Social Theory Forum at Univ.Massachusetts/Boston, 19 April 
     Baruti Amisi CCS Seminar: Will the Inga Hydropower Project meet Africa’s electricity needs?, 20 April  
     Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar: Ideology, agency and protest politics, 18 April 
     Fidelis Allen & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The World Bank presidential race - African interests and personality profiles, 11 April 
     CCS Seminar: Dennis Brutus' life and times - film documentaries and discussion, 10 April 
     Molefi Ndlovu at Young Adult Review workshop of COP 17, South Durban Community and Environmental Alliance, 4 April 
     CCS Seminar: 'Occupy': what kind of social movement is it?, 3 April 
     Jens Andvig, Tiberius Barasa, Stein Sundstøl Eriksen, Sanjay Kumar, Faith Manzi & Knut Nustad CCS Seminar: Slums, states and citizens in Durban, Nairobi Delhi, 29 March 
     Henrik Ernstson CCS/DevStudies seminar on urban ecology, 28 March 
     Ronnie Kasrils CCS Seminar: Corruption, authoritarianism and the challenge for civil society, 23 March 
     Bahaa Taher CCS Seminar: Post-Arab Spring: Literary freedom of expression in Egypt, 22 March  
     Felix Platz CCS Seminar: Climate Change narratives – experiences from the COP 17, 20 March 
     Zero Fossil Fuels meeting, 20 March 
     Molefi Ndlovu presents at the Foundation for Human Rights event on 19 March 
     Patrick Bond reviews RDP for Zim opposition leaders, Nyanga, 16 March 2012 
     Trevor Ngwane at Rosa Luxemburg anti-xenophobia panel, Johannesburg, 16 March 
     David Hallowes and Tristen Taylor CCS Seminar: A hostile climate - civil society impact on the COP17, 15 March 
     Leigh Collingwood CCS Seminar: Presentation of book: “Deforestation: Why YOU need to stop it NOW”, 13 March  
     Lubna Nadvi & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Why boycotting Israeli apartheid follows South Africa’s liberation strategy, 6 March  
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza CCS Seminar: Durban’s state-sponsored climate change chaos, 1 March 
     Comrade Fatso CCS Seminar: Zim spoken-word liberation struggles, 29 February  
     Patrick Bond on service delivery protests, Nadel AGM, Mthatha, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice at Santa Barbara Global Studies Conference, 25 February 
     Lushendrie Naidu CCS Seminar: The state of South Durban's industrial basin, 23 February  
     Alex Comninos CCS Seminar: Twitter revolutions and cyber-crackdowns, 22 February 
     Patrick Bond debates WWF's Saliem Fakier at AIDC, Cape Town, 17 February 
     Fumhiko Saito CCS Seminar: Shifting to local governance?, 16 February 
     Patrick Bond delivers New Zimbabwe Lecture, Harare, 15 February 
     Patrick Bond banned from delivering New Zimbabwe Lecture, Harare, 8 February 
     Said Ferjani CCS Seminar: The Tunisian democratic revolution, Islam and the left, 1 February 
     Tom Heinemann, Patrick Bond & Khadija Sharife CCS Seminar/film: Politics of microfinance, 25 January  
     Patrick Bond booksigning climate justice titles at Sandton Square Exclusives Books, Johannesburg, 24 January  
     Bobby Peek CCS Seminar: What went right and what went wrong at the COP17?, 19 January 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: What’s going on in China? Boom, bust and battles from below, 10 January  
     Keyvan Kashkooli CCS Seminar: Governing markets from below? From e-commerce to emissions trading, 6 January 
     Events Index 2011 
     Faith Manzi & Oliver Meth CCS Seminar: AIDS, rape and climate, 13 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on world financial crisis at Lingnan Univ, Hong Kong, 12 December 
     Patrick Bond on CJ at TransNational Institute meeting, 10 December 
     Patrick Bond & Baruti Amisi on climate induced migration at People's Assembly, 7 December  
     Patrick Bond & Nnimmo Bassey Book Launch, Ike's Books, Durban: 6 December 
     Patrick Bond on ecological debt, World Council of Churches, 6 December 
     Patrick Bond on culture and climate at Durban City Hall, 5 December 
     Pablo Solón Wolpe lecture: “Rights of Nature and Climate Politics”, 2 December 
     Patrick Bond on puppet statehood and climate, Unctad conference (via video), Geneva, 1 December 
     Patrick Bond presentation on labour-community-eco solidarity at International Transport Federation, People's Space, 1 December* 
     CCS Teach‑In on Climate Justice, evenings from 29 Nov‑8 Dec 
     Patrick Bond, Lars Gausdal, Molefi Ndlovu & Khadija Sharife on climate politics and narratives, South Durban, November 25-26 
     Everyone's Downstream 25-26 November 
     Patrick Bond at Rosa Luxemburg Political Cafe on climate/energy, Johannesburg, 21 November 
     Molefi Ndlovu & Michael Dorsey lead youth/climate workshop, 21 November  
     Janis Rosheuvel CCS Seminar: U.S. 'Migrant Management' & Grassroots Resistance to Criminalization of Immigrant Life, 18 November 
     Patrick Bond skype lecture on climate politics to Lahore Cafe Bol series, Pakistan, 16 November 
     Patrick Bond keynote speech to Cornell Univ development conference, 12 November 
     Michele Maynard CCS Seminar: The African Peoples Petition: What Durban COP17 must deliver!, 11 November 
     Emanuele Leonardi CCS seminar: The Environmental Side of the Current Economic Crisis: Toward an Ecological Critique of Neoliberalism, 10 November 2011 
     Patrick Bond at City Univ of NY on climate justice strategy, 9 November 
     Patrick Bond on COP17 politics at Institute for Policy Studies, Washington, 8 November 
     Rehana Dada CCS Seminar: The One Million Climate Jobs Campaign, 4 November 
     Lars Gausdal CCS Seminar: Bolivia at the Crossroads, 3 November 2011  
     Patrick Bond talk on population and climate, Pretoria, 1 November 
     Patrick Bond, Dudu Khumalo, Orlean Naidoo, Thando Manzi, Molefi Ndlovu & Noah Zimba Wolpe Lecture: Community Climate Summit, 28 October  
     Patrick Bond on water politics, the IMF and climate in Dublin, 25‑26 October 
     Patrick Bond on energy as a public good in Rome, 24 October 
     Patrick Bond talks on climate justice in Stockholm, 22 October 
     Patrick Bond on climate, land and Africa's exploitation, at Uppsala University, Sweden, 20-21 October 
     Shailja Patel CCS Seminar: Seen And Unseen: Windows On The ICC-Kenya Trials, 18 October 
     Patrick Bond on COP17 mobilisations at PanAfrican Climate Justice conference in Addis Ababa, 15‑16 October 
     Fidelis Allen CCS Seminar: Climate Change, Poverty and Public Policy in Nigeria's Niger Delta, 11 October 2011  
     Patrick Bond on electricity and climate crises, Newlands and Meerbank, 10-11 October 
     Marie Kennedy & Chris TillyCCS Seminar: Latin America’s third left: Autonomy and participation in the new political landscape, 6 October  
     Peter Waterman Emancipatory Global Labour Studies and Social Movements, 5 October  
     Patrick Bond on climate and capitalism at the International Labour Rights Information Group Globalization School, Cape Town, 3 October 
     Trevor Ngwane CCS seminar on protest ideology, 30 September 
     John Saul & Trevor Ngwane Wolpe lecture on South Africa's transition, 29 September 
     CCS hosts Democratic Left Front climate conference, 23-25 September 
     Climate Justice Now! South Africa meets at CCS, 22-23 September 
     Patrick Bond at People's Dialogue on climate politics, 21 September 
     Patrick Bond on Electricity Prices and Climate Crisis at SDCEA, 21 September 
     Solani Ngobeni CCS Seminar: Challenges facing scholarly publishers in South Africa: Towards a turnaround strategy or tilting at windmills, cancelled 
     Anton Harber & Ruth Teer-Tomaselli Amnesty International seminar on the Secrecy Bill, 15 September 
     Sarah Bracking CCS Seminar: How do investors value the environment? Why a pile of stones is not a house, 13 September 
     Climate Justice Protest US, Consulate, 9 September 
     Ashwin Desai & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: The World Conference Against Racism and 9/11 ten years after, 8 September 
     Patrick Bond on climate injustice and the World Bank, London, 5 September 
     Tehmina Brohi CCS Seminar: Contention in response to neoliberal policies in post-apartheid South Africa: The case of basic services delivery in Durban, 1 September 
     Climate Justice Protest at the US Consulate, 31 August 
     Otieno, Wamuchiru, Todd, Lorimer CCS Seminar: In Hot Water ‑ Climate change and water adaptation in Nairobi and Durban, 26 August 
     Patrick Bond on climate finance to SADC parliamentarians, Johannesburg, 25 August 
     Wolpe lecture by Mustafa Barghouti on how to free Palestine, 25 August 
     Shauna Mottiar at the ISTR African Civil Society Research Network conference, 24 August  
     Kate Skinner seminar on media democracy, 22 August 
     Patrick Bond addresses metalworker shopstewards, Durban, 22 August 
     Patrick Bond on climate at the Johannesburg Book Fair, 8 August 
     Paul Routledge CCS Seminar: Translocal Climate Justice Solidarities, 5 August  
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: Lessons for Durban from Ecuador's 'leave the oil in the soil' eco/indigenous movement, 2 August  
     Patrick Bond on the 'green economy' at New Global Hegemonies conference, Quito, 21‑22 July 
     Franco Barchiesi CCS Seminar: Labour and Precarious Liberation, 20 July 
     Sarah Ives CCS Seminar: “Rooibos land is high sentiment, low potential: Preliminary Reflections on a Year in Rooibos Country, 18 July 
     Patrick Bond on climate and Just Transition at National Union of Metalworkers of SA in Johannesburg, 18 July 
     Danny Schechter CCS Seminar: Citizen Media Advocacy, 15 July  
     Chene Redwood CCS Seminar: Voices of the Subaltern: Music within community struggles against environmental degradation in South Durban, 14 July 2011 
     Patrick Bond on SA political economy at Renmin Univ (China) conference via skype, 11 July 
     Patrick Bond on climate and justice at UKZN Peace Studies conference, 9 July 
     Philip Rizk CCS Seminar: Critiquing the Nation State: The Gaza Strip, 8 July  
     Philip Rizk CCS Seminar: Multi-media presentation: “The hard hit is still to come”- An Intifada Imaginary, 7 July 2011  
     Ida Susser CCS Seminar: Organic intellectuals and AIDS social movements: jumping scales, postponed 
     Patrick Bond on neoliberal climate policy at Nature, Inc conference (via skype), The Hague, 30 June 
     Patrick Bond input on African economies to International Labour Organisation industrial relations conference at UCT Business School (via skype), 28 June 
     Peter McKenzie & Doung Jahangeer CCS Seminar: People in Spaces Make Places, 28 June 2011 
     Immanuel Wallerstein Wolpe Lecture on the Arab revolt, the US and Africa, 23 June 
     Patrick Bond on SA climate policy at UKZN Business School, 23 June 
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar on the global climate justice movement, 21 June 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza & Mary Galvin on sanitation politics, 20 June 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza and Geasphere debate water and climate at Alliance Francaise, 9 June 
     Mvuselelo Ngcoya & Shauna Mottiar Seminar: Understanding horizontal philanthropy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2 June 
     Patrick Bond at Univ of Georgia Antipode Institute for Geographies of Justice, Athens, 30‑31 May 
     Orlean Naidoo, Ma Dudu Khumalo, Thandiwe Zondi, Sam Moodley, Mrs Perumal, Lubna Nadvi, Shauna Mottiar Discussion: Women in Social Movements and Community Organizing 30 May  
     Patrick Bond on climate politics at Korean conference, Jinju, 27 May 
     Florian Kunert, Phillip Hol & Justin Davy Wolpe Lecture: Shack Theatre, 26 May  
     CCS and Zimbabweans celebrate Africa Day, 25 May 
     Patrick Bond on dangers of a neoliberal Palestine, at TIDA-Gaza, Gaza City, 19 May 
     Chris Morris CCS Seminar: Notes on Pharmaceutical Patent Lawfare: The Umckaloabo Case, 19 May 2011  
     Durban Community Video Collective workshop, 14 May 
     Patrick Bond at City Univ of NY conference on precarious labour and socialism, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond on environmental justice at Autonomous University of Barcelona, 28 April 
     Mazibuko Jara, Alan Murphy & Orlean Naidoo Wolpe Lecture Panel on the Local Government Elections, 21 April 2011 
     Patrick Bond at Univ of San Francisco sustainability symposium, 19 April 
     Patrick Bond in Montreal for Cochabamba+1 climate justice conference, 15‑17 April 
     Ron Carver Reflections on organising US labour and community campaigns, 13 April 
     Patrick Bond on Palestine & Durban at American Association of Geographers conference, Seattle, 12‑14 April 
     Shauna Mottiar at the International Research Society for Public Management Conference, Dublin, 11- 13 April 
     Wiebe Nauta CCS Seminar: Civic Engagement and Democratic Consolidation in South Korea ‑ Lessons for South Africa, 5 April 
     Patrick Bond on climate politics with Polaris Institute/Ontario Public Interest Research Group at Univ of Toronto, 31 March 
     Patrick Bond climate lecture at Carleton Univ, Ottawa, 29 March 
     Adekeye Adebajo CCS/SDS Seminar: The Curse of Berlin: Africa after the Cold War, 23 March 
     Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu at Keleketla Library Johannesburg, 21-31 March 2011  
     John Devenish Seminar CCS research on protests in South Africa 2009 - 2011, 17 March 
     Nancy Lindisfarne & Jonathan Neale Seminar: Climate Justice, Global Alliance-Building and Climate Jobs, 22 March 
     Patrick Bond seminar on Palestine, water and the University of Johannesburg, 16 March 
     Seminar: Documentary Screening of 'Zimbabwe's Blood Diamonds, 10 March 
     Patrick Bond gives lectures in Michigan and California, 8-14 March 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice, Northern overconsumption & African resistance at '6 Billion Ways' conference in London, 5 March 
     Wolpe Lecture by Hein Marais: Song & Dance: Power, Consent and the ANC, 3 March  
     China Ngubane hosts Zimbabwe monitoring discussion, 1 March 
     Patrick Bond, Rehana Dada, Blessing Karumbidza & Molefi Ndlovu Seminar on the 2011 World Social Forum, 25 February 
     Patrick Bond delivers Brutus Memorial Lecture, Nelson Mandela Metro Univ, 23 February 
     Danielle Carter CCS Seminar on Sources of State Legitimacy in Contemporary SA, 22 February 
     Blessing Karumbidza, Siziwe Khanyile, Bongani Mthembu, Bobby Peek in Wolpe Lecture 'Climate Teach-In', 19 February 
     Niall Bond Seminar: The history of 'civil society', 14 February 
     Molefi Ndlovu, Rehana Dada & Patrick Bond CCS seminars at the WSF, Dakar, 6-11 February 
     Teppo Eskelinen Seminar: Global justice - some emerging topics and responses 25 January 2011 
     Patrick Bond at Zuma's Own Goal booklaunch, Bluestockings, NYC, 24 January 
     Patrick Bond on climate justice in Sacramento, CA, 20 January 
     Patrick Bond at Resource Rights conference and Eskom protest, Washington, 13-14 January 
     Events Index 2010 
     Patrick Bond radio debate on climate justice politics, 22 December 
     Film screening: The Uprising of Hangberg, 14 December  
     Patrick Bond at global climate summit, 6‑11 December, Cancun 
     Pumla Gqola, Andile Mngxitama, Baruti Amisi & others Seminar on Xenophobia and Racism in SA, 10 December 
     Patrick Bond lecture on uneven development, migration and xenophobia to Univ.Delhi conference, 25 November 
     Patrick Bond, Horace Campbell, Patricia Daley and Eunice Sahle panel at African Studies Association, SF, 21 November 
     CCS Wolpe film screenings with Pamela Ngwenya and community videomakers 20 November 
     Cesia Kearns Seminar: Sierra Club's Beyond Coal Campaign: Transforming the US Electric Sector, 19 November 2010 
     Patrick Bond on oil and financial crises with Attac-Norway in Oslo, 18-19 November 
     Baruti Amisi skype seminar on xenophobia to Roskilde University, 17 November 
     Patrick Bond at Race, Class & Developmental State conference in PE, via Skype, 16 November 
     Ashwin Desai and Goolam Vahed Wolpe Lecture in Honour of Fatima Meer, 16  
     Patrick Bond seminar on ecosocialism at Inst of Social Studies, The Hague, 16 November 
      Patrick Bond at Historical Materialism conference, London, 12-14 November 
     John Harvey Seminar: US Philanthropy and the Global South: Trends, Opportunities and Challenges, 8 November 
     Patrick Bond at The ‘Progress’ in Zimbabwe Conference, 4-6 November 
     Nicholas Smith Seminar: Lynch Violence and the Governance of Evil, 26 October 
     Ela Gandhi & Dilip Menon Wolpe Lecture: Indians in South Africa: 150 Years, 21 October 2010 
     Patrick Bond seminar on climate justice at Univ of California-Davis, 18 October 
     Mariem el Bourhimi and Peter McKenzie Seminar: Saharawi liberation struggle status, 15 October 
     Rolf Schwermer CCS Seminar: pro-poor technology, 14 October 
     Patrick Bond seminar on climate politics at Trinity College Dublin, 1 October 
     Baruti Amisi lecture on xenophobia for National Association of Democratic Lawyers, KwaZulu‑Natal Law Society, Pietermaritzburg, 30 September 
      Patrick Bond on transition-neoliberalism at Birzeit Univ conference, Palestine, 28 September 
     Patrick Bond in Ramallah on Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions, 26 September 
     Patrick Bond and Lungisile Ntsebeza launch Zuma's Own Goal at African Studies Association-UK conference, Oxford University, 19 September 
      Hayley Leck Seminar: Rising to the Adaptation Challenge? Responding to Global Environmental Change in the Durban metropolitan and Ugu district regions, South Africa, 17 September 
      Dudu Khumalo, Baruti Amisi, Molefi Ndlovu, Daniel Ribeiro, Terri Hathaway, Lori Pottinger Seminar: Civil society v Southern African dams, 10 September 
     Patrick Bond and Rick Rowden on the IMF and public health, San Francicso, 7 & 14 September 
     Brij Maharaj, Ashwin Desai, Patrick Bond launch new book Zuma's Own Goal, Elangeni Hotel, Durban, 5pm on 3 September 
     Patrick Bond speaks on rights/commons debate at the International Commission of Jurists Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Camp, 31 August, Johannesburg 
     Margaret Gärding Donor power in the international aid industry, 27 August  
     Makhosi Khoza, Fikile Moya, Patrick Mkhize, Tony Carnie, Pritz Dullay and Brij Maharaj on the Wolpe Lecture Panel: Media Information & Freedom, 26 August 2010 
     Ralph Borland Seminar: Radical Plumbers and PlayPumps - Objects in development, 25 August  
     Patrick Bond speaks at Jubilee South Africa conference on ecological debt, 21 August, Johannesburg 
     Dudu Khumalo and Simphiwe Nojiyeza presentation on sanitation at Umphilo waManzi seminar, 13 August, Durban 
     Patrick Bond at South Africa‑Norway climate research seminar, Christian Michelsen Institute, Bergen, 12 August 2010 
     Patrick Bond at Southeast Asia climate justice seminar, Focus on the Global South, Chulalungkorn University, Bangkok, 10 August 
     Trevor Ngwane at Solidarity Peace Trust report on Zimbabwe, 30 July, Johannesburg 
     Wolpe Lecture: Social justice ideas in Civil society politics, global & local: A Colloquium of scholar activists, 29 July 
     Press Conference on Xenophobia, 28 July  
     Padraig Carmody Seminar: Chinese Geogovernance in Africa: Evidence from Zambia, 20 July  
     CCS and Gyeongsang University Institute for Social Science (Korea) joint seminar on political economy of social movements, 14 July 
     Giuliano MartinielloCCS Seminar on Inanda's socio-spatial change, 9 July 
     Pamela Ngwenya Seminar on Video as a tool for outreach, communication, advocacy and community expression, 8 July 
     Anti Xenophobia Rally City Hall 3 July 
     Renee Horne CCS Seminar on Black Economic Empowerment, 2 July 
     Roithmayr, Adonis, Galvin, Bond, Khumalo CCS Colloquium on Water, Rights, Prices, 28 June (skypecast)  
     Blessing Karumbidza CCS Seminar on climate change and carbon trading controversies in Tanzania, 24 June 
     Trevor Ngwane and Rehana Dada at workshop on climate advocacy at the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance, 22 June 
     Wolpe Lecture: Durban Social Forum members, 'World Cup for All!', Durban City Hall, 16 June 
     David J. RobertsCCS Seminar: Re-branding Durban through the 2010 World Cup, 14 June 
     Patrick Bond (with Briggs Bomba and Dave Zirin) on the World Cup, Washington, 9 June 
     Patrick Bond on global justice movements, at Grantmakers without Borders conference, SF, 8 June 
     Patrick Bond presents on climate justice at conference, Alter-globalization movements and the alternative ideas of Korea, Seoul, 28 May 
     Patrick Bond on 'Poli Econ of the World Cup' in Seoul, 27 May 
     Patrick Bond lecture on National Health Insurance with Oxfam, 26 May 
     Jessie Lazar KnottCCS Seminar: Identity/Spatial Relations: scholar‑activism in the greater Kei region of the Eastern Cape, 25 May 
     Patrick Bond at Osisa conference on climate and development in Africa, Pretoria, 21 May 
     Patrick Bond on energy policy and the World Bank, at Democracy and Development Programme, Durban, 20 May 
     Eunice N. Sahle Wolpe Lecture: World orders, Ike's Books, 5pm, 20 May 
      Barak Hoffman & Orlean Naidoo Seminar: Chatsworth politics and municipal advocacy, 17 May 
     Patrick Bond on SA climate policy on TEDxUKZN, 14 May 
     Khadija Sharife & Eunice SahleCCS Seminar: Oil, minerals and maldevelopment in Africa, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond speaks on climate debt to the Economic Justice Network, Johannesburg, 5 May 
     Erin McCandless & Shepherd Zvavanhu CCS Seminar on Zimbabwe Civil Society, 3 May  
     Nathan Geffen (with Faith ka Manzi) CCS Seminar: Debunking Delusions: The inside Story of The Treatment Action Campaign, 29 April  
      Patrick Bond and Khadija Sharife address African tax authorities, 29 April 2010 
     Memorial Tribute to Professor Fatima Meer, 23 April 
     Alan Freeman & Radhika Desai CCS Seminar on The world capitalist crisis, 23 April  
     Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu facilitates Krogerup College and Durban Sings, 18‑20 April 
     Patrick Bond on carbon trading at Manchester conference on environment and finance, 15‑16 April 
     Patrick Bond in Boston v WB-Eskom loan, 9 April 
     Patrick Bond at Clark University, 8 April 
     World Bank protest, 7 April, Washington 
     Patrick Bond seminar on climate politics, City Univ of NY, 6 April 
     Patrick Bond at NYU on South African political economy, 5 April 
     Trevor Ngwane at Marxism 2010 conference, Melbourne, 1-4 April 
     Patrick Bond in SF Bay Area on World Bank loan to Eskom, 4 April 
     Patrick Bond on water commons, Syracuse University, 29-30 March 
     Trevor Ngwane seminar on activism and global campaigns, Univ of Helsinki, 26 March 
     CCS/VANSA KZN Panel discussion: 'What is Art and what is not?', March 25 
     Patrick Bond on 'Organising for Climate Justice', Left Forum, NYC, 21 March  
     Workers, Zama Hlatshwayo, Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar on UKZN labour outsourcing crisis 19 March 
     Carol ThompsonCCS Seminar on resisting agro‑industry, 18 March 
     David Zirin Seminar on Fifa's Looting of SA, 13 March  
     Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar on SA's social protest wave, 9 March 
     Dennis Brutus memorial, 11 March 
     Patrick Bond testifies to parliament on economic policy, 2 March 
     Molefi Ndlovu and Claudia Wegener seminar at the Centre for Critical Research on Race and Identity, 2 March 
     CCS anti‑xenophobia research workshop, 27 February 
     Patrick Bond speaks on The ebb and flow of water rights, Univ of Cape Town Department of Public Law, 25 February 
     Press Conference: Keep our South African Coal in the Hole! 22 February 2010 
      Patrick Bond at Power Indaba privatisation conference, 22 February 
     CCS Economic Justice course, with Trevor Ngwane, Samson Zondi and Patrick Bond, from 20 Feb‑29 May 
     Climate Justice Now! SA‑KZN chapter hosted at CCS, 13 February 
     Hallowes, D'Sa, Ngwane, Bond , Dada: Seminar on proposed World Bank coal loan to Eskom, Friday, 12 February* 
     Durban renewable energy site visits by Minnesh Bipath, SA National Energy Research Institute with Muna Lakhani and Patrick Bond 10 February 2010 
     Patrick Bond paper for Socialist Register workshop, 6 February 
     Susan Galleymore CCS Seminar: A Dearth of Imagination Leads to Wasting Perfectly Good Waste, 5 February 
     Durban Sings Follow-up and planning session with 8 Editorial Collectives, 4 February  
     Patrick Bond on climate change & Dennis Brutus Memorial at World Social Forum, Porto Alegre, 28 January 
     Rehana Dada & Patrick Bond Seminar: Copenhagen Climate and Eskom Energy Conflicts, 26 January 
     Dennis Brutus tribute, with Social Movements Indaba and Durban community groups, 23 January 
      Peter McKenzie & Doung Jahangeer Seminar: The Saharawi,Warwick Junction and Footsak Politics, 20 January 
     Patrick Bond debates NHI at Idasa, CT, 19 January 
     CCS cohosts Climate Justice Now! on electricity hearings strategy, 15 January 
     Events Index 2009 
     Patrick Bond at SF protest against Danish repression of civil society and Copenhagen climate 'deal', and radio interview, 18 December 
     Patrick Bond addresses climate seminar at Univ of Lund Business School, 15 December 
     Kristine Wasrud Participation and Influence in Water Policy in Durban, South Africa, 11 December  
     Climate Justice Film Festival, 10 December  
     Umesh de Silva Seminar: Traditional farming in Umzinyathi, 9 December 
     Oliver Meth at the CCS Workshop on women & child abuse Cato Crest Library, 8 December  
     Patrick Bond at Roskilde Univ Civil Society Centre, 7 December 
     Patrick Bond keynotes Leeds 'Democratisation in Africa' conference, 4 December 
     Sinegugu Zukulu & John Clarke CCS Seminar: Resilience, Resolarisation and Relocalisation, 30 November  
     Nick Smith CCS Seminar Politics of protection/crime/policing, 26 November 
     Patrick Bond speaks at Mandela Foundation about SA economic disasters, 26 November 
     Seminar on outsourced and contract workers at UKZN, 24 November 
     3rd Climate Justice Now! KZN meeting, 20 November 
     CCS and Durban Sings! at the Global Crisis and Africa: Struggles for Alternatives hosted by the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation; Randburg, Johannesburg 19-21 November 
     MAKE SOME NOISE! Concert 6 November  
     Immanuel Wallerstein Wolpe Lecture: Crisis of the Capitalist System Where to from Here?, 5 November 
     The Crises and the Commons: Durban debates on politics, economics and environment 4-7 November  
     Solidarity with Durban's oppressed: Bottom-up resistance strategies of shackdwellers, pollution victims and labour-brokered workers, 4 November 
     Seminar on Problems faced by UKZN workers, Westville campus, 28 October 
     Faith Manzi & Oliver Meth at the Gender Based Violence Workshop, Durban 27 & 28 October 
     Bengt Brülde & Stellan Vinthagenand Seminar: Ethics, Resistance and Global Justice, 26 October  
     Baruti Amisi, Trevor Ngwane & Patrick Bond Anti-Xenophobia research project with Strategy&Tactics 19- 20 October 
     Durban Sings (Molefi Ndlovu & Claudia Wegener) at National Oral History Conference, 13-16 October 
     Tri-Continental Film Festival Durban community screenings – (hosted by Oliver Meth) at Inanda, Chatsworth, Wentworth, CBD, & Folweni, 1-12 October 
     Patrick Bond lectures at Suffolk Univ, Boston, 29 Sept-2 Oct 
     Patrick Bond Booklaunch: Climate Change, Carbon Trading & Civil Society, 18 September 
     Helen McCueCCS Seminar: Grassroots Mobilising within Refugee Communities: Perspectives on Palestine and Australia, 18 September 
     Dennis Brutus honored by War Resisters League, 18 September 
     Patrick Bond skypecast on climate and ecological debt to Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke, Copenhagen, 16 September 
     Oliver Meth People to People International Documentary Conference, 10-12 September  
     Dick Forslund & Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: South Africa's capitalist crisis and civil society, 7 September 
     Dudu Khumalo on the Durban public transport crisis, 1 September  
     Patrick Bond CCS Seminar: National Health Insurance: Can SA afford it?, 24 August  
     John Berg CCS Seminar: Barack Obama's presidency and civil society reactions, 24 August  
     Norman Finkelstein Wolpe Lecture: Resolving the Israel-Palestine Conflict: What we can learn from Gandhi, 20 August  
     CCS Seminar with outsourced workers at UKZN, 12 August  
     Patrick Bond debates Sampie Terreblanche (Stellenbosch), 6 August, UCT 
     Patrick Bond addresses Ecuador eco-finance conference (videolink), 4 August 
     Dr Essop Pahad CCS Seminar: Thinking about the Legacy of Mbeki's Politics, 4 August 
     Patrick Bond at the South African Civil Society Energy Caucus Meeting, 29-30 July  
     Barak Hoffman CCS Seminar: Democracy and Civil Society Research in Ghana and SA, 27 July 
     CCS hosts free screenings of Durban International Film Festival, 25 July - 1 August  
     Sean Flynn & Maj Fiil CCS Seminar on water rights, ( SKYPECAST ) 24 July 
     Patrick Bond lecture at carbon trading conference, Johannesburg, 22 July 
     Sein Win Seminar by Burmese prime minister (exiled) on solidarity (SKYPECAST), 21 July 
     Tunde Adegbola A Pan-African Harold Wolpe Lecture & cultural events, 16 July 
     Patrick Bond lecture on SA Political Economy, San Francisco socialist conference, 4 July  
     Orlean Naidoo on participation at DDP seminar, 30 June 
     Patrick Bond speaks on 'World Slump: Financial Crisis and Emerging Class Struggles in the Global South', 28 June, Toronto 
     Patrick Bond on African social resistance to economic crisis, 26 June, Moscow 
     Oliver Meth and Orlean Naidoo facilitate Diakonia Council of Churches Democracy Course, 24 -26 June 
     Alex Callinicos Wolpe Lecture: Economic crisis and prospects for social revolution, 18 June*  
     Blair Rutherford CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe farm labour, social justice and citizenship, 17 June 
     Trevor Ngwane CCS Seminar: Community resistance to energy privatisation and ecological degradation, 11 June 
     DURBAN SINGS central editorial workshops, 8 & 22 June 
     Gaby Bikombo, Judy Mulqueeny, Harry Ramlal, Caroline Skinner CCS Seminar: War of Warwick Junction, 9 June 
     Patrick Bond, Abedian, Dumisa, Maharaj et al on 'Zumanomics', UKZN Biz School, 3 June 
     Rehana Dada keynote address to Southern African Faith Communities' Environment Institute AGM, 2 June 
     Patrick Bond on African underdevelopment at Sussex IDS conference (via skypecast), 1 June 
     Trevor Ngwane presents at the International Conference on Ideas and Strategies in the Alterglobalisation Movement, Seoul, 29 May 
     Peter McKenzie cultural seminar on 'Footsak: On the Ball for 2010', 28 May 
     Björn SurborgCCS Seminar: Contesting Johannesburg's extractive industries, 25 May  
     Paul Verryn, Methodist Bishop of Johannesburg: Wolpe Lecture: Poverty and xenophobia, 21 May 
     Robert Jensen, Univ of Texas: CCS Seminar: Whiteness and social change in the US, 21 May 
     Tony Clarke, Polaris Institute: CCS Seminar: The state of the world water wars, 15 May 
     Molefi Ndlovu CCS Seminar: Azania Rising: The demise of the 1652 class project, 13 May 
     Patrick Bond debates 'The G20 Global Deal' at Wits/Osisa, Johannesburg, 12 May 
     Rehana Dada,CCS Seminar: Climate mitigation case studies, 11 May 
     CCS/DYFS - Anti-xenophobia film screening facilitators workshop, 9 May 
     Orlean Naidoo CCS Seminar: Chatsworth upgrading struggles and victories, 8 May 
     Patrick Bond, Joburg Wolpe Lecture at Wits Univ, 7 May 
     Patrick Bond at Cosatu electricity workshop, Joburg, 6 May 
     Joan Canela and Helena OlcinaCCS Seminar: Social movements in Bolivia and Catalan, 5 May 
     William Gumede Wolpe Lecture: SA’s “Democracy Gap”, 30 April  
     Three representatives of the Tamil liberation movement youthCCS Seminar: The Tamil people under seige, 21 April  
     Leading eco-social spokespersons from political parties and civil society Seminar: Environmental confrontations - Political parties meet civil society, POSTPONED 
     Rehana Dada at York Univ climate ecojustice conference, Toronto, 16-17 April 
     Dennis Brutus celebrations, honorary doctorates conferred at both Rhodes Univ and Mandela Univ, 16-17 April 
     John Minto CCS Seminar: The Legacy of Anti-apartheid Sports Boycotts, 16 April 
     Nelson Muhirwa & Jean Chrisostome Kanamugire CCS Seminar: The Rwandan Genocide 15 Years On, 8 April 
     Oliver Meth Seminar: Wentworth Crime, Gangs and Civil Society, 7 April  
     Dennis Brutus on Reconciliation and Memory in Post-Apartheid SA, Nelson Mandela Foundation, Johannesburg, 2-3 April 
     Ida Susser booklaunch, 'AIDS, Sex and Culture', with Quarraisha Abdool Karim, at Ike's Books, 2 April 
     Sofie Hellberg CCS Seminar: Governing lives through hydropolitics in eThekwini , 1 April 2009 
     Claudia Wegener & Molefi Mafereka Ndlovu Digital Soiree Durban Sings Internet Radio project, 24 March  
     Simone Claar Seminar: Post-Apartheid Political Economy and State Policy, 19 March 
     Oliver Meth presents at the HSRC Violent Crime and Democratization in the Global South Conference, 18-20 March 
     Simphiwe Nojiyeza CCS Seminar: African Development Bank water projects, 12 March 
     Deniz Kellecioglu CCS Seminar: Zimbabwe Civil Society confronts Mugabe's Economy, 11 March 
      Patrick Bond debates ANC economic policy, 9 March, Durban 
     Kalinca Copello Seminar: ICTs and social movements: From Chiapas to Brazil to South Africa, 6 March 
     Lisa Ramsay & Schwarzanne Leafe Seminar & Film: Climate Change and Eco-Social Resistance in South Durban, 27 February 
     Patrick Bond presents to ActionAid/Nepad conference on global financial crisis, 24 February, Midrand 
     Molefi Ndlovu Johannesburg: Market Photo Workshop, 22-28 February  
     Orlean Naidoo & Patrick Bond seminar on Free Basic Water, and screening of Flow, 18 February 
     Ida Susser Seminar: AIDS, Sex, Culture and Civil Society, 11 February 
     Dennis Brutus and Moya Atkinson film/seminar on US anti-war movement, 9 February 
     Patrick Bond seminar on the ongoing global financial crisis, University of Johannesburg, 6 February 
     Durban Sings internet audio and community radio with Molefi Ndlovu and Claudia Wegener, 2-6 February 
     Patrick Bond in dialogue with Jeremy Cronin on financial crisis, Johannesburg, 28 January 
     Dennis Brutus, Lubna Nadvi, Monica Rorvik and Salim Vally Seminar: Should Israel be boycotted? If so, how?, 27 January 
     Giyani Dube, Lubna Nadvi, Kate Griffiths and Timothy Rukombo Wolpe Lecture: Civil Society Internationalism - from Lindela to Gaza to Washington, 22 January 
     Pamela Ngwenya, Molefi Ndlovu, Claudia Wegener Seminar: Participatory community audio/video as a tool for social research, 21 January  
     Dale McKinley, Orlean Naidoo, Dudu Khumalo, Bryan Ashe Seminar on the World Water Forum, 19 January 
     Mavuso Dingani film/seminar on the Zimbabwean exile in Durban, 6 January 



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