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Reference
NguPatrick Bond Yahunyushwa NguFaith ka-Manzi
 (2011) Siqeda ukuziqhayisa kwemboni yamalahle ngo2011, kusukela eWest Virginia (ngenyanga efile) kuze kube (uZibandlela) eThekwini
 : -.

Summary
Umhlaba waseNingizimu Afrika ushiywe uyimigodigodi ekhamisile yase ishiywa kanjalo kusika phansi-nje kutholakala amadayimani ngonyaka ka1867 eKimerley kanye negolide eWitswatersrand (lapho osekuyiseGoli manje) ngo1886. Kodwa ukuba nendaba komhlaba ngendlela esiyicekela phansi ngayo imvelo yethu ike yaqhubeka futhi ngesonto elidlule ngenxa yezizathu ezimbili:

• iqiniso elithusayo ukuthi ukuvuza kwezingqumbi zezimayini zesisisi i-acid sekuchithekela endaweni yaseGoli eyaziwa ‘Njengendawo lapho kwadabuka khona uluntu’ (Cradle of humankind), ikhaya lakhokho labantu kusukela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezintathu zeminyaka, lapho amathambo kakhokho uAustralopithecus asengcupheni yokunyamalala ngenxa yokungcoliswa komoya ubukhulu bemboni yokumba phansi; kanye

• nokuphikiswa kakhulu kokutshalwa kwezimali eNingizimu Afrika yizwe laseMelika ukuze kwakhiwe indawo lapho kuzokhiqizwa khona amandla kagesi, okuyoba isakhiwo esikhulu ngekwesithathu emhlabeni wonke samandla kagesi aphehlwe ngamalahle.

Kwenye impi ekubhekwenwe nayo, ukuqedwa kokumbiwa kwamalahle eWest Virginia, okwathi emva kwezinsuku eziyisishagalolunye emva kuka3Januwari kushone iqhawe lesishoshovu samalungelo ezemvelo ebulawa umdlavuza uJudy Bonds, iEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) yachitha isinqumo esasivumela iArmy Corps of Engineers ukuthi imbe futhi kuthuthwe iphezulu lentaba lapho kumbiwa khona amalahle. Izinkampani zamalahle kudala zaqala zicekela phansi izintaba ezinhle zaseAppalachians. Ukuze bambe ithani lamandla okubasa endalo, kufanele balahle amathani ayishumi nesithupha ezibi ezindaweni ezakhelene nabo.

Emva kwengcindezi enkulu yimiphakathi eyakhelene nentaba kanye nezishoshovu zezemvelo, iEPA ithathe isinqumo lapho ichithe khona ukuthi “angeke ikwamukele ukungcoliswa kwamanzi kamasipala okunobungozi, imibhede yofishi izizinda zokudoba (ngisho nalapho ofishi bechamusela khona), izitshalo kanye nezilwane zasendle kanye nezindawo zokungcebeleka.’ Ngokusho kukangoti wesangoma sezulu waseMelika James Hansen, ebhala ngohamba kukaBonds emhlabeni kwiNew York Times kulamasonto edlule wathu, “Kunezinto eziningi ekufanele sibhekane mayelana nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu, kodwa ukumbiwa kokususwa komhlaba wentaba indawo esingaqala kuyona. Amalahle iwona adala isisisi esingcolisa kakhulu umoya lapho kwenziwa khona amandla kagesi.” IEPA yathatha igxathu sekuyophela inyanga kaDisemba nyakenye lapho noma isihanjelwe ukulawula ukukhiqizwa kwezisisiezingcolisa umoya.

Ngokusukumela lesisimo kanye nezindlela zomthetho, imiphakathi yaseMelika kanye neqembu leSierra bavimbele ukwakhiwo kwezindawo eziyikhulu namashumi amahlanu zamandla kagesi enziwa ngokuphehlwa amalahle eminyakeni embalwa edlule, okungukunqoba okumangalisayo (zimbalwa izakhiwo ezagcina zenziwe).

Kodwa eNingizimu Afrika, impi ima isaqala. Uhulumeni kazwelonke wasePitoli kanye neziphathimandla zikamasipala wedolobha elisechwebeni iTheku bayaqhubeka mokukhuluma imbued bevikela amalahle, iKusile kanye ne‘COP17’, ingqingquthela ezokuba kusukela zingu28Novemba kuze kube zingu9Disemba babize lengqungquthela phecelezi ngokuthi i‘Conference of the Parties 17’ okusho ukuthi iNgqungquthela yeziNhlangano ezingu17 (kodwa ekufanele ibizwe phecelezi ngokuthi iConference of Polluters okungukuthi iNgqungquthela Yabangcolisi bakaMoya). Nazi-ke izinye izindlela uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika kanye nongxiwankulu abafuna ukusixhopha ngakho:

• eThekwini, ukukhuluma kakhulu ‘ngokunakekela imvelo’ kuyobe kuzama ukuthi inganakwa indaba yesisisi siphuma kakhulu seCO2 eNingizimu neTheku (SouthDurban) lapho kuhlale kubhamuka obhayela bamafutha esizindeni sawo,lapho kunechweba elikhulukazi eAfrika yonke, kanye nokugqugquzelwa ezokungcebeleka (njengendlela yokuthuthukisa ezomnotho kusukela phansi), ukungapheli kokwakhiwa kwenkundla yezemidlalo kanye nesiphumulo sezindiza esisha esingadingakali iNkosi Shaka, ugesi othekelelwa isincibilikisi esinengozi saseAssmang (okuyiyina mboni edla kakhulu amandla kagesi kulelidolobha ngamamegawatt ayingxenye yesigidi zamahora ngonyaka), ukwakhiwa ngokwenaba izindawo ezintsha zokuhlala abanemali, ukushoda kukagesi okwanele kanye nezokuthutha ngoba uhulumeni uyehluleka ukwenza amandla kagesi enziwa kabusha ngokwanele kanye nezindlela ezintsha zokuthutha abantu;

• ‘ukulutha abantu’ ukuze isibalo esincane sesisisi esingcolisa umoya kube sengathi siyahlanzwa kuzokwenziwa emphakathini ongazelele, njengoba kwenziwa ngeNdebe yoMhlaba ka2010, njengokutshalwa kwezihlahla eziningi (okuthi masezifa ziphinde zikhiqize isisisi) nokuqhubeka kokugcina isisisi semethane emigodini yezibi – noma ngabe lemboni eluthayo kanye nezomboni zezisisi ezingcolisa umoya zasemazweni aseNyakatho ezimaketha ukukhiqizwa kwalesisisi zigxekwa umhlaba wonke, bese kuthi ngolimi lwezomnotho zibonakala zihluleka ukwenza ngisho encane inzuzo le;

• zizoqala-ke izindlela eziningi ezingasebenzi, njengokutshalwa komanyolo ukwenza ukudla okudingekayo kube amandla okubasa, noma ukulahlwa kwezibi zensimbi olwandle ukuze isisisi seCO2 sizike ngobungozi phansi kolwandle kodwa futhi okuvele kuvuze ngokucekela phansi futhi okudinga ingxenye enkulu yamalahle ukuze kwenzeke, noma ukuvuselelwa lwamandla enuclear ngaphandle kokubheka ukuvalwa kwezinye izakhiwo embonini enkulu, iKoeberg (eminyakeni eyisihlanu edlule ungqongqoshe wezezimboni, uAlec Erwin, wachaza ngobudedengu ukuthi ukuhlaselwa ingozi eyenzeka eKoeberg eyaholela ekutheni iqembu elibusayo lilahlekelwe ubuholi bezombusazweni edolobheni laseKapa nangokhetho olwalandela lukamasipala); kanye

• ‘iqembu labaholi bezesimo sezulu bomhlaba’ baseNingizimu Afrika bazoma ukunxenxa bantu, noma izingxoxo zePitoli neNhlangano yeZizwe engenamphumela ehlanganisa nokuxhasa 2009 Copenhagen Accord yaseWashington egxekwe kakhulu, okungathi noma yenziwa ngokuzimisele iyokwenyusa amazinga okushisa eAfrika ngobungozi obukhulu ngo3.5°C.

Njengoba neGreen Paper yeNational Climate Change Response kahulumeni ivuma, “Umangase amazinga okushisa omhlaba ajwayelekile engase enyuke ngaphansana kuka 2°C ngaphezu kwezinga lezimboni, kunokwenzeka ukuthi umphumela ongaba khona eNingizimu Afrika ongadala umonakalo onobungozi obukhulu futhi ongathatha isikhathi eside ukubuye esimweni esijwayelekile.” Leliphepha lixwayisa ngokuqagelela ukulondolozwa kwezemvelo,” emva kuka5050, izinga lokushisa liyobe selifike ku3-4°C ikakhulukazi emadolobheni akhelene nolwandle, bese kuthi maphakathi nezwe kufike ku6-7°C” – akekho futhi ongaphilo kulesosimo.

Umangabe uhulumeni kaMongameli Gedleyihlekisa Zuma enendaba ngesimo sezulu kanye nezihlobo zakhe ezihlala emaphandleni aKwaZulu-Natal okuyibona abahlaselwa kakhulu ukwanda kwesomiso kanye nozamcolo ngeke agcine-nje emisile uhlelo lokusetshenziswa kuka$21 billion wezibasi zamandla kagesi ezakhiwa imboni yezamandla kagesi kahuluumeni uEskom: njengeMedupi okumanje iyakhiwa kanye neKusile nayo elungiselelwa ukwakhiwa khona maduzane. IPitoli futhi liyonqaba futhi ukuvuma ukuthi ilona elivumlelile ukuthi kwenziwe izimayini ezingamashumi amane okuthiwa zidingakala ukuthi zikhiqizele lezizimboni ezakhiwayo zamnadla kagesi ngemalahle, njengoba kwenzeka Lapho Kwadabuka khona uluntu (Cradle of Humankind) kanye naseWest Virginia, lezizimayini zidala umonakalo ongapheli wokungcolisa imifula kanye nokushisa kakhulu kwezulu emhlabeni wonke.

Ubufakazi obuningi bokucekelwa phansi kwendawo yaseWitwatersrand kuvela ocwaningweni olwenziwe isishoshovu samanzi uMariette Liefferink, kunensalela eningi yamachibi angu270 asale ngenkathi kumbiwa amadayimane negolide. Njengoba igolide seliphela ngaphansi komhlaba, njengoba noLiefferink ayetshela iphephandaba laseGoli emasontweni adlule, ukulwa nokumbiwa kweuranium ikhona-ke izishoshovi esezibhekena nakho: “Akukho ndawo emhlabeni ezintabeni lapho kumbiwa khona iuranium izakhamuzi zakhona zihlala eduze nayo. Uthola abantu behlezi ezibini ezinobungozi obukhulu ezidala izifo ezifana nomdlavuza.”

Lamachibi angalawuleki, amanzi awo angeke akwazi uchela izitshalo ziphile futhi awakwazi ukusekela impilo yomoya, amanzi kanye nonhlabathi ecekelwe phansi ukungcoliswa izibi zesisisi. Ezinye izindlela zezishoshovu ezimelene nokumbiwa nezimboni zokumbiwa phansi imiphakathi yaseNingizimu Afrika: ukumbiwa kweplatinami eLimpopo kanye naseNorthWest, kanye nokumbiwa kwetitanium eMpumalanga Kapa eWild Coast, kanye nokumbiwa kwamalahle nasendaweni esemingceleni waseZimbabwe eyaziwa ngeMapungubwe lapho kunezinsalela zomlando bokhokho bakudala futhi ezingase zicekeleke phansi uma ukumbiwa kungamiswa (njengoba nohulumeni ekuvuma lokhu).

Kukhona futhi idlanzana leqembu elibizwa ngokuthi iMinerals-Energy Complex eqhubeka ngaphandle kokuqashwa, njengoba indawo efana nokudabuka koluntu – kanye namanzi aseKruger Park kanye nezimpilo zezigidigidi zabantu – zisebungozini: ukusekelana nezombusazwe okunenkuhlakalo. Ngaphandle-ne kokuthekeleka amandla akagesi ngamanzi aphansi kakhulu emhlabeni wonke kwizincibilikisi zemboni yaseBHP Billiton kanye neAnglo American Corporation kuhlonishwa izinqumo ezinobungebengu ezenziwa ngesikhathi sobandlululo, izimayini zamalahle azophehlwa ngamalahle ezakhiwa nguEskom ziyofaka izigidigidi zamadola kwiqembu elibusayo lezombusazo uKhongolose (African National Congress ngenxa yobungani benkohlakalo nongxiwankulu benkampani yaseJapani iHitachi.

Ngonyaka odlule, ababeqokwe iPitoli ukubhekelela umphakathi uma sekwenziwa izinqumo ezinobungozi bathi igalelo likasihlalo weEskom kanye nelunga leKomidi leZimali likaKhongolose uValli Moosa ‘alinabulungiswa’ ngokuhlela ukuhwebelana neHitachi Umphumela walokhu futhi kwenza iphephandaba elihlala liseka ongxiwankulu iBusiness Day ihlanganyele namaqembu emiphakathi angamashumi ayisithupha kanye nangamashumi ayisishagalombili omhlaba begxeka ukubolekwa kweEskom u$3.75 billion iWorld Bank eyagunyazwa ongxiwankulu abangontamolukhuni abaholwa ngomongameli weBhange uRobert Zoellick ngoApril wonyaka odlule.

Abanye abazohlomula kulezimali zokuhweba eziqhamuka eWashington ezitshalwa kwaEskom zimbandakanya okopoletsheni ababili abadinga kakhulu imali: iBlack & Veatch yaseKansas kanye neBucyrus yaseWisconsin. IBucyrus yakhombisa amandla ayo ngonuaka odlule ngenyanga kaOktoba ukuze kuxhaswe imboni enkulu yomba amalahle iSasan yaseIndia ngezimali zamabhange aseMelika, lemboni yayalela amalunga asephalamende laseMelika ukuba angalinge amelane nabo okwenza ukuthi kuhlehliswe isinqumo esaseshayiwe sokuthi iBhange lingaxhasi iSasan ngesizathu sesimo sezulu.

Kodwa manje emva kokugxekwa yiEPA, iBucyrus isinokutatazela. Eminyakeni engamashumi amane adlule, uJohn Prine wabhala iculo elinomunyu ‘iParadise’ ngokucekelwa phansi kokumbiwa lapho azalelwa khona eKentucky, ngalesisahlukwana esingenzansi uchaza ngesilwane asibiza ‘ngeNgulube eNkulu’:

Yafika-ke imboni enkulu yamalahle nofosholo elikhulukazi emhlabeni
Bahlukumeza imithi bashiya izwe linqunu
Baqhubeka, nokumba amalahle izwe lagcina lomile
Base bekuqopha phansi njengokuthuthuka komuntu.

INgulube eNkulu kwakuyifosholo lempoqo iBucyrus-Erie 3850-B. Njengoba izimboni zamalahle zaseWest Virginia zingasawathengi lamafosholo, iBucyrus ifudulela lomkhiqizo ukuthi udayiselwe amazwe angaphandle. Ngenxa yalokho emasontweni ambalwa adlule, idlanzana lethu elalihlanganyelene neFriends of the Earth kanye neSierra sazithola simemeza iziqubulo ezimelene noEskom neBucyrus ngaphandle kwesakhiwo esiyikomkhulu leEx-Im Bank eWashington.

Lemboni yaseMilwaukee yathi kungamanga ukuthi ukuxhaswa ngezimali iEx-Im kunesidingo ngoba nozakwabo walemboni oyiBlack Economic Empowerment (BEE) eGoli nemisebenzi eminingi yensimbi yaseWisconsin, lokhu kwakusho ozakwabo eNingizimu Afrika – ikakhulukazi inkampani yaseGoli, iRham, ezoxosha iningi labasebenzi – nayo ayihlomulanga. Izindaba zokuthi inkontileka yeBucyrus yango2010 iyona eyayizosabalalisa izinsimbi zokumbiwa kwamalahle kuEskom yavela njengehlazo okwenza ukuthi iphalamende yenzee uphenyo ngonyaka odlule ngoSeptemba. Njengoba phela kunengqophamlando ekubeni kwezimboni zokwakha izinsimbi zokumba ezimayini khona lapho eWiwatersrand, abahwebi bathi asikho esidingo esisobala esasingenza ukuthi izimboni zakuleli zingakwazi ukuthengisela uEskom lezizinsimbi (ngamanani aphansi kakhulu kunalawa afunwa yiBucyrus).

Okubalulekile kakhulu, ukuthi abahlwempu ibona abayokhokhela lesisikweletu ngesikhathi lapho iNingizimu Afrika iba isizwe esinegebe elikhulu lokungalingani kanti futhi kubhoke indlala yemisebenzi. Ukuze uEskom ukwazi ukukhokhela inzalo edalwe izikweletu zokwakha iMedupi neKusile kudinga ukwenyuswa kwenani likagesi ngamaphesenti angu127 kwizakhamizi iminyaka emine. Lokhu vele sekunyuse ukuvalelwa ugesi ezindlini zabahlwempu, futhi kulezizinsuku ezidlule, amaphoyisa aseThekwini abopha abahlali basemjondolo abangu25 ngokuntshontsha ugesi.

Lamahlazo amaningi kangaka ambandakanya nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu angalungiswa ngubushoshovu babasebenzi kanye nezinhlaka zezinhlangano ezizinze emiphakathini. Kwi COP 17 eThekwini, akungalindelwa uhlelo lomhlaba olungawuhlenga, ngenxa yobungani obunenkohlakalo kulabo abasemandleni. Esikhundleni sokuthembela kwabezombusazwe abakhubazekile kanye neziphathimandla ezingamavila, amazwi ezinhlaka zemiphakathi ezishoshovu zemvelo, zabesifazane, abasha kanye nabasebenzi afune ngodli dlakalasi icebo lokubhekana nalesisimo esiphuthumayo kakhulu esibhekene nesizukulwane sethu:

• Ukutshalwa kakhulu kwezimali emisebenzini evikela imvelo (Green Jobs) ingenza abasebenzi bensimbi bakhe izigidigidi zezimbawula zamandla kagesi aqhamuka elangeni (solar-powered geysers),ngokwesiboneli-nje, ngabe benzela ukuthi uEskom avale amandla kagesi kwizincibilikisi zealuminiyami zaseBHP Billiton futhi bese kumiswa ukwakhiwa kwezizinda zamandla kagesi ngaphandle kokuba abantu balahlekelwe imisebenzi;

Izindlela ezintsha zokuthutha ezixhaswe ngezimali zingaphindisela emuva indlela embi ekwakwakhiwe ngayo izindlela zokuthutha ngesikhathi sobandlululo futhi lokho kusenze sonke sikujabulele ukuthuthwa izinqola zompahakathi;

• Ukuqashwa kwabantu lapho izibi zingasetshenziswa kabusha bese kuthi izinto ezibolayo zenziwe umannyolo ukuze kuqedwe ukukhiqizwa kwesisisi semethane emigodini esasele yezibi;

• Kufanele imibhikilisho ebhekene ngqo nezizinda lapho kukhiqizwa khona izisisi ezingcolisa umoya – njengeEskom, iSasol (imboni yangesikhathi sobandlululo eyashintsha ekukhiqizeni amalahle yakhiqiza amafutha), izincebilikisi zezimbawula zakwaEngen eNingizimu neTheku kanye nepayipi elikhulu lwamafutha elisuka eThekwini liya eGoli, kufanele kuhlanganyele izinhlaka zemiphakathi ezilwela ezemvelo njengamanzi, umoya kanye nezwe elisesimweni esihle ukuze kubhekwane nesimo solushintsha kwezulu;

• Imigomo enentuthuko yokulawula umoya ohlanzekile (Air Quality Act) ingashikashikeka ilwa nokuqeda izisisi ezingcolise umoya iCO2, imethane kanye nezinye ‘njengezingcolis umoya’, njengomgomo olawula eMelika iUS Clean Air Act;

• Imizimba kahulumeni ethatha izinqumo bayovimba ukwakhiwa kwezindawo zokuhlala kanye nezinye izizinda ezaziwa ‘njengezentuthuko’ kodwa zibe zingcolisa ezemvelo; futhi

• Esikhundleni sokuthi amazwe aseNyakatho naseNingizimu axhase ngezimali ngezindlela ezicekele phansi zezimakethe zezisisi, ukufunwa ‘kwesikeletu sokushintsha kwesimo sezulu’ avumele ukuxhasa ngezimali ezingenamibandela, ezingenankohlakalo futhi ezingesetshenziselwa noma yini eyenza umehluko.

Uma ngase kuthathwe izinyathelo ezinjalo ezidingeka ngokushesha, kungathi kufika isikhathi seCOP17, umhlaba ubone iTheku njengohulumeni kanye nomphakathi ozinikele ukulwa nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu.

Kodwa-ke siyalazi iqiniso. Njengoba lezizinyathelo zingeke zicatshangwe ngaphandle-nje ukuthi zingenziwa yizikhulu eziphethe njengamanje, esikhundleni salokho sizobona izinhlaka zonke zemiphakathi zomzabalazo zivuka umbhejazane, zizimisele ukwenza lokho kulaba abafuna ukusicekela phansi ngokwenza umonakalo wokushintsha kwesimo sezulu njengoba senza kontamolukhuni bobandlululo kanye nababengafuni ukusinika imisganguzo yengculazi: ukubaguqisa phansi lapho emsukeni wodaba, lapho abezombusazwe izaguga ezimhlophe kanye nabangani babo bamazwe aphesheya, noThabo Mbeki nezimboni ezinkulu zemishanguzo, kofanele bame babukele, bahloniphe isikhathi lapho sekufika isizukulwane esisha esinonembeza esikhathelele uwonkewonke.

(uPatrick Bond uSolwazi waseThekwini obhale incwadi iThe Politics of Climate Justice ezoqala ukutholakala ngokuphela kwalonyaka ungavakashela kulewebsite ukufunda eminye imisebenzi yakhe

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