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Reference
Swilling, Mark & van Breda, Johann & van Zyl, Albert & Khan, Firoz  (2004) Economic Policy Making in a Developmental State: Review of the South African Government's Poverty & Developement Approaches 1994-2004. Economic Policy & Poverty Alleviation Report Series Research Reports 4 & 5: 1-157.

Summary
1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. CLARIFYING THE TERRAIN OF ANALYSIS 6
Figure 1: Proportion of people living in poverty by province, 1996 19
Box 1: Selected socio-economic indicators 20
Figure 2: Growth of household income by race (1991-1996) 22
Box 2: International development targets 23
Box 3: Survival strategies deployed by poor households 25
Table 1: Typology of poverty reduction domains 27

3. UNDERSTANDING THE MACRO-ECONOMIC CHOICES 31
Figure 3: SA government’s anti-poverty policies and programmes 34
Table 2: Investment as GDP 1982-2003 41

4. FISCAL POLICY AND SOCIAL SPENDING: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS 48
Table 3: National fiscal framework 1994/05 – 2004/05 50
Table 4: Consolidated national and provincial expenditure 51
Table 5: Consolidated national and provincial expenditure as % shares of total 53
Table 6: Expenditure trends in national government 55
Table 7: Expenditure trends in national government as % shares 56
Table 8: Actual capital expenditure in national departments 57
Table 9: Actual capital expenditure in national departments as % share 58
Table 10: National divergence between budgeted and actual expenditure 59
Table 11: Extra governmental transfers from national departments by destination 64
Table 12: Extra governmental transfers from national departments by source 65
Table 13: Poverty alleviation and job-creation fund transfers 67
Table 14: Provincial expenditure by department 68
Table 15: Provincial expenditure by department (% share) 68
Table 16: Provincial capital expenditure by department 69
Table 17: Provincial capital expenditure (% of total expenditure) 69
Table 18: Provincial divergence between budgeted and actual expenditure 70
Table 19: Transfers to provincial public entities 70
Table 20: Local government 2002/03 capital expenditure by main function 72
Table 21: Local government 2002/03 operational expenditure by main function 72
Table 22: Transfers to local government from national and provincial government 73

5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 73
THE STATE OF SOCIAL GIVING IN SOUTH AFRICA iv
RESEARCH REPORT NO. 4

1. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 77
Table 1: Categories used to define Overview of ‘special funds’ expenditures
specials funds’ expenditure targets 79

2. OVERVIEW OF ‘SPECIAL FUNDS’ 80

3. MOTHER OF THE ‘SPECIAL FUNDS’: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE RDP FUND 82

4. STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ‘SPECIAL FUNDS’ 86
Table 2: Summary profile of the ‘special funds’ 86
Table 3: Sectoral breakdown 1994-2003 87

5. CASE STUDIES 91
Table 4: Amounts allocated and number of beneficiaries 96
Table 5: Non-financial support services offered by Ntsika 103
Table 6: Criteria used by Ntsika for non-financial support services 104
Table 7: Summary of Umsobomvu structure and activities 114
Table 8: Umsobomvu’s ‘flagship’ projects 115
Table 9: Summary of LED Fund investments (1999-2000) 120
Table 10: Summary of grants received by UTshani Fund up to 2003 124
Table 11: Housing subsidies administered and disbursed by uTshani Fund on
behalf of government 125

6. MIG: THE NEW ‘MEGA-FUND’? 129

7. CONCLUSIONS AND REFLECTIONS 131
APPENDIX A 133

Overview of ‘special funds’ expenditures

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