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CCS 'Civil Society & Development' course with Sufian Bukurura & Dennis Brutus 4-18 July

Civil Society & Development Module, UKZN School of Development Studies, 4-18 July

Seminars will take place in the Large Seminar Room, School of
Development Studies

Arrangements can be made for a few visitors to join selected sessions:

Seminar Date Time Facilitator

1.Theories & Interpretations of Contemporary Struggles
04 July 10-12:30 Patrick Bond & Sufian Bukurura

2. The Recent Evolution of Civil Society (SA & the World)
04 July 14-16:30 Patrick Bond

3. Social Movements in SA
09July 14-16:30 Richard Ballard

4. Nonviolent Social Change (Thoreau, Gandhi, King & Nyerere)
11July 10-12:30 Dennis Brutus & Sufian Bukurura

5. NGOs - Great Expectations & Philanthropy
11 July 14-16:30 Sufian Bukurura & Annsilla Nyar

6. The Rise of New Social Movements: A Counterbalancing Force
16 July 10-12:30 Richard Ballard

7. New Understandings of the Site & Politics of Struggle Worldwide
16 July 14-16:30 Rob Compton

8. Globalisation & Global Civil Society - WSF
18 July 10-12:30 Horman Chitonge & Dennis Brutus

9. State-Civil Society Relations in Postcolonial Africa (DR Congo,
Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe et al)

18 July 14-16:30 Dennis Brutus; Sufian Bukurura; Ntokozo Mthembu & Baruti


Civil Society & Development 2007

Course Coordinator: Sufian H Bukurura
Centre for Civil Society
Room F197, MTB
Tel: 260 2248

For the last decade and a half, the notion of civil society has been
holding central sway in official, academic and popular discourses about
development, democracy and governance in the world. Although this
notion, in various guises and interpretations, has been part of Western
political and philosophical thought almost since antiquity, it has seen
a spectacular revival since the end of the Cold War and the various
transitions to democracy in countries in Latin-America and Eastern and
Central Europe [and South Africa in the early nineties] that accompanied
that event. In most instances, it was widely recognised that a broad
body of non-state actors/ agencies, subsequently lumped under the term
civil society, played a key role in these transitions to democracy.

Hence, in a world newly shorn of its old theoretical and ideological
certainties, the old theoretical notion of civil society was revived and
imbued with a range of new meanings, interpretations and expectations.
It moved rapidly from academic discourse to widespread popular use,
across a wide ideological spectrum, becoming, for some time, the new
panacea for promoting democracy, ‘good governance’ and development in
the world. In retrospect, there were clearly deeper/ underlying
ideological, political and economic causes that lead to the widespread
promotion of this notion – most of them tied up with a new emerging
world order, based on the notion of liberal democracy and the supremacy
of the market. The course will explore these and other new developments,
both in international and country contexts, and look at the challenges
and the increasingly stark choices facing civil society organisations
(CSOs) worldwide. It will also look the newer/ emerging phenomenon of
global civil society, which is increasingly challenging the underlying
assumptions and practices of the ‘new world order’.

The course starts on the 4th July and ends on 18th July 2007. It
consists of nine seminars of up to 2.5 hours each. It is expected that
all students will read all the prescribed readings for each seminar, so
as to maximize individual and mutual learning, have meaningful
discussions in class and deepen debate. Please note that you will also
be assessed on the basis of your seminar presentation and participation
in class.

You will be assessed on the basis of the following: (a) think pieces for
each seminar and general participation in class (10%), (b) a book
assignment (30%) and (c) a long essay (60%)

a. Think pieces: For each seminar you are required to prepare a 1-2 page
‘think piece’ based on the readings. This has to be submitted to the
seminar organiser via email by 16:00 pm the day before the seminar. This
should be a summary of the main themes emerging from the readings, along
with any questions you have for discussion. Use the introductory
paragraph on the seminar to guide your reading and the focus of your
think piece. Identify the major points of difference and major lines of
debate in relation to the seminar topic. These should not simply be
summaries of the readings but some kind of overview where you reorganize
the information from the readings into a new structure that helps you
understand the topic. Your think pieces should be fully referenced and
written like a mini-essay (rather than just notes). Assessment of these
will focus on your ability to synthesise key themes from across the
readings. Credit will be given for use of reading from the ‘additional
reading’ list. At each of the seminars 2 names will be drawn randomly to
speak to their think pieces out. This, along with other aspects of your
general participation in class, will be assessed out of 10.

b. Book review: The deadline for this is 13 July 2007. A number of the
pieces you have been prescribed come from classic books (e.g. Ferguson,
Mamdani, Fanon, Gramsci, Gill Hart, Hart & Negri, Harvey, etc). Choose
one of these books and run your choice past me before you start (please
don’t choose an edited collection). Then read the book cover to cover.
Write a 2000 word review in which you identify the thesis (argument) of
the book, summarise the supporting claims the author uses to make the
thesis and engage critically with this argument citing other authors if
necessary. If possible engage with the way in which this book has
impacted on intellectual thought. For examples of book reviews have a
look at the back portion of any journal in the SDS library. Try to
follow this standard approach.

c. Long essay: This is the major assignment of the module. The deadline
is 23 July 2007 and marks will be returned by 3 August 2007. Although
this can be as long as 7000 words you probably do best to aim for a more
focused 5000 words. You will develop the topic in consultation with me
in relation to any of the seminar topics that you feel you would like to
develop your knowledge on. Note that unless I have agreed to a topic you
cannot presume that it is OK to go ahead. The deadline for finalising
the topic is 13 July 2007. Please note that the main component of the
assessment (the long essay) must be passed in order to pass the module.
Also, that the School of Development Studies has a policy for late
submissions of assignments: a 5% deduction for the first day after the
due date and 3% deduction for each day thereafter.

Possible essay topics

1. Critically assess the legacy of Gramsci’s writings on the field of
civil society research.

2. Although civil society is a much celebrated idea, there is little
consensus over what it is and why it is a good thing. Compare and
contrast the major ideological positions on civil society.

3. Civil Society has been is seen as ‘a Eurocentric concept, … not
easily transposable to other contexts’ (Kaldor 38). Discuss.

4. Critically discuss the following: ‘There is no ‘correct’ view of
civil society, but there is an essential point to make about the way the
concept is used. The use of the term as a normative concept (i.e. what
we would like civil society to be, or what we think it ought to be) is
often confused with an empirical description (i.e. what it is).’ (Pearce

5. ‘In reality NGOs are not “non-governmental” organizations’ (Petras &
Veltmeyer 2001: 132). What do the authors mean by this and what are the

6. Discuss the following in relation to changing civil society in SA:
‘NGOs' recent relations with government call work to strain their
commitment and lines of accountability to the poor. NGOs' dependence on
state funding and their newly formed 'client' relationships with
government must lead one to question their autonomy and whether they can
avoid being mere appendages of state institutions.’ (Habib & Taylor 2001)

7. Critically discuss the following: ‘Whereas alienated and degraded
labour may excite a limited alternative, it does not have the
universalism of the market that touches everyone in multiple ways. It is
the market, therefore, that offers possible grounds for counterhegemony.
We see this everywhere but especially in the amalgam of movements
against the many guises of globalization.’ (Buroway 2003: 231)

8. Discuss whether Harvey is right to be skeptical of a general
celebration of social movements in the following: “The danger … is of
seeing all such struggles against dispossession as by definition
‘progressive’ or, even worse, of placing them under some homogenizing
banner like that of Hardt and Negri’s ‘multitude’ that will magically
rise up to inherit the earth. This, I think, is where the real political
difficulty lies.’” (Harvey 2003a: 168-9)

Seminar 1: Introducing Contemporary Struggles in South Africa (Lecture
2). Wednesday 4 July 10:00-12:30

Required reading:
Desai, A., (2002) We are the Poors – Community Struggles in
Post-Apartheid South Africa. Monthly Review Press pp7-14; pp116-139

Additional reading:
Glasius, Marlies (2001) “Civil Society: A very brief history”, Briefing
1, Centre for Civil Society LSE,

Kaldor, M, (2003) Global Civil Society – An Answer to War. Polity Press,
Cambridge. Chapter 1: Five Meanings of Global Civil Society, pp.1-14.

Seminar 2: The recent Evolution of Civil Society in South Africa. Wednesday
4 July 14:00-16:30

The political transition in South Africa fundamentally changed the
relationship between civil society and the state. Until the transition
there was a well developed oppositional civil society which opposed the
apartheid government. From 1994, most of these organisations
restructured themselves to have a collaborative relationship with the
new legitimate government. The purpose of this session is to evaluate
this shift and to consider the role of civil society in post-apartheid
South Africa.

Required reading:
Habib, A. & Taylor, R., (2001) South Africa: Anti-Apartheid NGOs in
Transition, in Anheier, H.K. & Kendall, J., Third Sector Policy at the
Crossroads – An International Non-Profit Analysis. Routledge, London &
New York. Pp 218-227

Heller, Patrick (2001) ‘Moving the State: The Politics of Democratic
Decentralization in Kerala, South Africa, and Porto Alegre’ Politics and
Society. 29(1) 131-163

Zuern, Elke (2006) ‘Elusive Boundaries: SANCO, the ANC and the
Post-Apartheid South African State’ in Ballard, Richard; Adam Habib &
Imraan Valodia (eds) Voices of Protest: Social Movements in
Post-Apartheid South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: University of
KwaZulu-Natal Press. pp179-201

Additional reading
Kotze, H., (2003) Responding to the Growing Socio-Economic Crisis? A
Review of Civil Society in South Africa during 2001 and 2002, in
Development Update, Annual Review, Vol. 4, no. 4. Also published in the
CCS Research Report Series, Report No. 19, 2004.

Habib, A. & Kotze, H., (2003) Civil Society, Governance and Development
in an Era of Globalisation: the South African Case, in Mhone, G. &
Edigheji, O., Governance in the New South Africa. University of Cape
Town Press. Pp.246 – 270.

Friedman, S., & Reitzes, M. (1996) Democratisation or
Bureaucratisation?: Civil Society, The Public Sphere and the State in
Post-Apartheid South Africa, Transformation, Vol. 29.
Habib, A., (2003) State-Civil Society Relations in Post-Apartheid South
Africa, in Daniels, J., Habib, A., & Southall, R. (eds.), State of the
Nation, 2002-2003. HSRC Press.

Habib, Adam (2005). “State-Civil Society Relations in Post-Apartheid
South Africa”, in Social Research, 2005, vol. 72, no. 3.
Saul, John (2001) ‘“For Fear of Being Condemned as Old Fashioned”:
Liberal Democracy vs Popular Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa’, Ch 3 in
Saul’s Millennial Africa: Capitalism, Socialism, Democracy Trenton:
Africa World Press

Smith, Brian (1996) ‘The Idea of a “Third World”’, in his Understanding
Third World Politics: Theories of Political Change. Indiana University Press
Swilling, M. & Russell, B., (2002) The Size and Scope of the Non-Profit
Sector in South Africa, pp. 15 – 40, Principle Findings. Co-published by
the Graduate School of Public & Development Management (P&DM), Wits, &
the Centre for Civil Society, UKZN.

Seminar 3: Social movements in South Africa. Monday 9 July 14:00-16:30

Although much of the oppositional force of civil society of the 1980s
was demobilised in the 1990s, there have been growing grassroots
expressions of frustration at continued levels of poverty, the slow
progress on land reform, lack of access to HIV/Aids treatment, poor
service and housing provision. These have been described by some as a
possible counterweight to ANC dominance, but is it right to say that
they form a kind of substitute opposition party? After all, many members
of social movements are ANC members. The purpose of this session is to
understand the politics of social movements in post apartheid South Africa.

Required reading:
Barchiesi, Franco (2004) Classes, Multitudes and the Politics of
Community Movements in Post-apartheid South Africa. CCS Research report
No. 20 Greenstein, Ran (2003) ‘Civil Society, Social Movements and Power in
South Africa’ unpublished RAU Sociology seminar paper
Friedman, Steven & Mottair, Shauna (2006) ‘Seeking the High Ground: The
Treatment Action Campaign and the Politics of Morality’ in Ballard,
Richard; Adam Habib & Imraan Valodia (eds) Voices of Protest: Social
Movements in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: University
of KwaZulu-Natal Press. pp23-43

Additional reading:
Alexander, Peter (2003) ‘Anti-globalisation movements, identity and
leadership: Trevor Ngwane and the Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee’
Paper for South African Sociological Association, Durban, 27 June to 1
July 2003

Everatt, D., (2003) The Politics of Poverty, in Everatt, D. & Maphai,
The [Real] State of the Nation – South Africa after 1990. INTERFUND,
Development Update, Special Edition. November 2003. pp.75 – 99.

Greenberg, S. (2004) The Landless People’s Movement and the Failure of
Post-Apartheid Land Reform. Forthcoming research report, Social
Movements Project, Centre for Civil Society and School of Development
Studies, University of KwaZulu- Natal.

Greenberg, Stephen and Ndlovu, Nhlanhla (2004) ‘Civil Society
Relationships’ Development Update Vol 5 no 2, pp. 23-28

MacDonald, D.A. & Pape, J., (2002) Cost Recovery and the Crisis of
Service Delivery in South Africa. HSRC/ Zed Books. Pp. 1-13

McKinley, Dale & Veriava, Ahmed Arresting Dissent Centre for the Study
of Violence and Reconciliation

Miraftab, Faranak (2004) ‘Invited and Invented Spaces of Participation:
Neoliberal Citizenship and Feminists’ Expanded Notion of Politics’
Wagadu Vol 1 (1),

Pithouse, Richard (2004) Solidarity, Co-option and Assimilation: The
necessity, promises and pitfalls of global linkages for South African
movements Draft paper

Pithouse, Richard (2005) ‘The Left in the Slum: the rise of a shack
dwellers’ movement in Durban, South Africa’

Ruiters, Greg (2004) ‘Depoliticization and de-activation in the new
South Africa: local services and political identity’ Presented at Africa
- The Next Liberation Struggle: Socialism, Democracy, Activism.
Conference held at York - October 15 & 16 2004

Also go to,56 for social
movements research reports

Seminar 4: Theories and Interpretations: from societas civilis to global
civil society. Wednesday 11 July 10:00-12:30

The first purpose of session two is to map out the evolution of the idea
of civil society. When you are reading, note the different positions of
key thinkers in different periods. In the Classical period look out for
the ideas of Aristotle and Plato. In the early modern period note the
works of Hobbes, Locke, Ferguson, Kant, Hegel, De Tocqueville. Then make
note of Marxist responses to the idea such as Marx himself and Gramsci.
Finally, look at some of the key recent thinkers such as Habermas and
Putnam. If you can write a sentence or two on each of their core ideas
you will be going some way to orientating yourself in this field. The
second purpose of this session is to work out why different groups have
become excited about civil society. Conservative neo-liberal groups,
welfarists, post-marxists, and Marxists all like civil society but they
do so for different reasons. As you read, try separate out why different
political positions like civil society and try to identify what kinds of
civil society they like (and conversely what kinds they don’t like).

Required reading:
Cohen, J.L., & Arato, A., (2003) ‘Civil Society and Political Theory’,
in Foley, M. W., & Hodgkinson, V.A, (eds.), The Civil Society Reader.
University Press of New England. Tufts/UPNE. pp. 270-291. (chapter
originally published 1992)

Kaldor, M, (2003) Global Civil Society – An Answer to War. Polity Press,
Cambridge. Chapter 1: Five Meanings of Global Civil Society, pp.1-14.
Chapter 3, The Ideas of 1989: The Origins of the Concept of Global Civil
Society, pp. 50-77

Meiksins Wood, E., (1990) The Uses and Abuses of ‘Civil Society’, in
Socialist Register 1990. Merlin Press, London.

Additional reading:
Allen, Chris (1997) ‘Who Needs Civil Society?’ Review of African
Political Economy No 73, pp 329-37

Beckman, Bjorn (1993) ‘The Liberation of Civil Society: Neo-Liberal
Ideology and Political Theory’, Review of African Political Economy 58.
Foley, M. W., & Hodgkinson, V.A, (eds.), (2003) The Civil Society
Reader. University Press of New England. Tufts/UPNE. Introduction,
pp.vii – xxiv

Glasius, Marlies (2001) “Civil Society: A very brief history”, Briefing
1, Centre for Civil Society LSE,

Gramsci, Antonio (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Edited and
translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith. London: Lawrence
and Wishart. (Part 3)

Howell, Jude & Jenny Pearce (2001) Civil Society and Development: A
Critical Exploration. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (Ch 1&2)
Keane, John (1998) Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions Stanford:
Stanford U Press esp. Ch 3 and 4 (pp12-64)

Friedman, S., (2003) The State, Civil Society and Social Policy: Setting
a Research Agenda. Politikon, Vol.30, No.1, pp. 3-25

Lewis, David ‘Civil Society in Non-western contexts: Reflections on the
Usefulness of a Concept’, Civil Society Working Paper 13. LSE

Seckinelgin, Hakan (2002) ‘Civil society as a metaphor for western
liberalism’ Civil Society Working Paper 21. LSE

Seminar 5: NGOs – great expectations? Wednesday11 July 14:00-16:30

Part of the reason that idea of civil society was so enthusiastically
embraced recently was a hope that civil society could rescue the
development project which promised so much as countries decolonized but
has singularly failed to live up to that promise. Financial aid from the
first world would no longer have to be transferred to what they saw as
corrupt and incompetent governments but could now go to development
professionals in NGO who would get the job done. NGO optimisits have,
however, been widely criticized for various reasons. NGOs are said to
depoliticize development, to allow foreign control/represent foreign
interests, and for being essentially unable to do the development job
that states should be doing. The primary purpose of this session is to
look at the key reasons why some people support NGOs and others
criticize them. The secondary purpose is to look at how actors in NGOs
understand their role in development and how they operate on a day to
day basis.

Required reading:
Commins, Stephen (2000) NGOs: Ladles in the Global Soup Kitchen?, in
Eade, D. (Series Editor), Development, NGOs, and Civil Society. Oxfam
GM. pp. 70 – 74.

Hilhorst, Dorothea (2003) The Real World of NGOs – Discourses, Diversity
and Development. Zed Books, London, New York. Chapter 10, Conclusion:
NGO Everyday Politics. pp 213 – 226.

Pearce, J., (2000) Development, NGOs, and Civil Society: The Debate and
its Future, in Eade, D. (Series Editor), Development, NGOs, and Civil
Society. Oxfam GM. Pp. 15 – 43.

Petras, J. & Veltmeyer, H., 2001, Globalisation Unmasked – Imperialism
in the 21st Century. Fernwood Publishing/ Zed Books. Chapter 8, NGOs in
the Service of Imperialism. pp. 128 – 138.

Additional readings
Howell, Jude and Jenny Pearce (2001) ‘Manufacturing Civil Society from
the Outside: Donor Interventions’, Ch 5 in Civil Society and Development
Boulder Colorado: Rienner

Ferguson, James (1994) The anti-politics machine: development,
depoliticization and bureaucratic power in Lesotho.

Tvedt, Terje (1998) Angels of Mercy or Development Diplomats – NGOs and
Foreign Aid. James Curry/ Africa World Press. Chapter 1, In Search of
the Development NGOs, pp. 11 – 40

Seminar 6: The Rise of New Social Movements – A Counterbalancing Force?
Monday 16 Jul 10:00-12:30

Whereas more mainstream civil society enthusiasts pinned their hopes for
development on NGOs, left leaning supporters of civil society valorise
social movements. Yet it is not clear that blind romanticism of social
movements takes us much further. Social movements are an extremely
heterogeneous set of political expressions which are often quite
immediate in terms of their focus. There is a mismatch between the grand
plans of leftist ideologues and the modest demands of grassroots
uprisings or issue based campaigns. The purpose of this session is to
map out some of the political projects of social movements, their role
in social change, their methods and tactics, and the responses of
authorities to social movements.

Required reading:
Cohen, R., & Rai, S.M, (2002) Global Social Movements – Towards a
Cosmopolitan Politics, in Cohen, R., & Rai, S.M, (eds) Global Social
Movements. Transaction Publishers, New Jersey. Pp 1-17

Della Porta, D. & Diani, M., (1999) Social Movements: An Introduction.
Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp 1-57

Kaldor, M, (2003) Global Civil Society – An Answer to War. Polity Press,
Cambridge. (CH4 pp 78-108)

Additional/ Extra Reading:
Cheru, Fantu (2000) ‘The Local Dimensions of Global Reform’, in
Pieterse, Jan N (ed.) Global Futures: Shaping Globalization. London: Zed
(Ch 8) Desai, M. & Said, Y., The New Anti-Capitalist Movement: Money and Global Civil Society, in Anheier, H., Glasius, M., & Kaldor, M. (eds), 2001, ibid, pp.51 –78.

Escobar, Arturo and Sonia Alvarez (1992) (eds) The Making of Social
Movements in Latin America Boulder: Westview

Goodwin, Jeff & Jasper, James (eds) (2003) The Social Movements Reader:
Cases and Concepts. Blackwell

Halcli, Abigail (2000) ‘Social Movements’ in Browning, Gary; Halcli,
Abigail & Webster, Frank (eds) Understanding Contemporary Society:
Theories of the Present. London: Sage, pp 463-475

McMichael, P (2000) ‘The Globalization Project and its
Counter-movements’, in Development and Social Change: A Global
Perspective Pine Forge Press Ch 7

Saul, John (2003) ‘Identifying Class, Classifying Difference’, Socialist

Said, Y. & Desai, M., Trade and Global Civil Society: The
Anti-Capitalist Movement Revisited, in Kaldor, M., Anheier, H. &
Glasius, M. (eds), Global Civil Society 2003. Oxford University Press.
Pp.59 – 85

Wignaraja, Ponna (ed.) (1993) New Social Movements in the South:
Empowering the People. London: Zed

Smith, J., (2002) Globalizing Resistance: The Battle of Seatle and the
Future of Social Movements, in Smith, J. & Johnston, H. (eds.),

Globalization and Resistance – Transnational Dimensions of Social
Movements. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Seminar 7: New Understandings of the Site and Politics of Struggle. Monday
16 Jul 14:00-16:30

There are some important interesting conceptual debates on social
movements at the moment and the purpose of this session is to understand
two of these debates. One key debate is about the site of struggle and
we should be positive about the new forms of struggle. Classical
understandings were that capitalism would be challenged from the
workplace. However, Buroway draws on Polanyi to suggest that we have
moved away from a time where struggles at the workplace would be the
vanguard of social progress and that now struggles in the community
related to the market are the key to progress. Harvey is less optimistic
about this but also offers an analysis about why union struggles have
become less significant, explaining this as an increasing tendency in
capitalism to accumulate through dispossession.

Required reading:
Burawoy, Michael (2003) ‘For a Sociological Marxism: The Complementary
Convergence of Antonio Gransci and Karl Polanyi’ in Politics and
Society. Vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 193-261

Harvey, David (2003) The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University
Press pp 137-212

Additional reading:
Bauman, Zygmunt (2004) Community: Seeking Safety in an Insecure World.
Cambridge: Polity Press. Ch 6 ‘Right to Recognition, Right to
Redistribution. pp. 74-88

Ernesto Laclau & Chantal Mouffe (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy:
towards a radical democratic politics Verso, London and New York

Fraser, Nancy (1997) Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the
“postsocialist” Condition. New York & London: Routledge ch 1 & ch 8

Hardt, Michael & Antonio Negri (2000) Empire. Harvard University Press
Smith, Sharon (1994) ‘Mistaken Identity – or can identity politics

liberate the oppressed’ International Socialism Journal. Issue 62

Young, Iris (2000) Inclusion and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. Introduction and chapter 3 & chapter 5

Seminar 8: The World Social Forum and Global Civil Society. Wednesday 18
Jul 10:00-12:30

Required reading:
Allahwala, Ahmed and Roger Keil (2005) ‘Introduction to a Debate on the
World Social Forum’ International Journal of Urban and Regional
Research. Volume 29.2 pp 409–16

Marcuse, Peter (2005) ‘Are Social Forums the Future of Social
Movements?’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume
29.2 pp. 417–24

Conway, Janet (2005) ‘Social Forums, Social Movements and Social Change:
A Response to Peter Marcuse on the Subject of the World Social Forum’

International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume 29.2 pp. 425–8
Köhler, Bettina (2005) ‘Social Forums as Space: A Response to Peter
Marcuse’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume
29.2 429–32

Bond, Patrick (2005) ‘Gramsci, Polanyi and Impressions from Africa on
the Social Forum Phenomenon’ International Journal of Urban and Regional
Research. Volume 29.2 pp. 433–40

Ponniah, Thomas (2005) ‘Autonomy and Political Strategy: Building the
Other Superpower’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research.
Volume 29.2 pp 441–3

Marcuse, Peter (2005) ‘Rejoinder’ International Journal of Urban and
Regional Research. Volume 29.2 pp. 444–6

Additional Reading
Anheier, H., Glasius, M., & Kaldor, M. (2001) Introducing Global Civil
Society, in Anheier, H., Glasius, M., & Kaldor, M. (eds), Global Civil
Society 2001. Oxford University Press. pp. 3-22

Edwards, M. & Gaventa, J. (eds), (2001) Global Citizen Action. Earthscan
Publications Ltd., London

Glasius, M. & Kaldor, M., The State of Global Civil Society: Before and
After September 11, in Glasius, M., Kaldor, M. & Anheier, H. (eds),
Global Civil Society 2002. Oxford University Press

Keane, J. (2001) Global Civil Society, in Anheier, H., Glasius, M., &
Kaldor, M. (eds), Global Civil Society 2001. Oxford University Press.
Pp.23 - 47

Hart, Gillian (2002) Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in
Post-Apartheid South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press

Kaldor, M., (2003) Global Civil Society – An Answer to War. Polity
Press. Chapter 6: September 11: The Return of the ‘Outside’? pp.142 – 160

Stiglitz, J. (2002) Globalization and Its Discontents. Allen Lane,
Penguin Press. Chapter 1, The Promise of Global Institutions, pp.3 – 22

Taylor, Rupert (2004) ‘Interpreting Global Civil Society’ in Taylor,
Rupert (ed) Creating A Better World: Interpreting Global Civil Society.
Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press

Seminar 9: State-Civil Society Relations in Postcolonial Africa. Wednesday
18 July 14:00-16:30

Under colonialism, colonial subjects were not granted full citizenship
and were not seen to be legitimate participants of ‘civil society’ in
the western sense. Nevertheless, in the decades following WW2, powerful
liberation movements eventually forced colonial powers to grant
independence. Many of these liberation movements took power of newly
independent states and struggled to transcend a history where
citizenship had been denied. A common pattern was for these new states
to demobilise the grassroots and to discourage an independent civil
society. The purpose of this seminar is to examine the dynamics around
the establishment of a civil society through and after independence.

Required reading:
Gibson, Nigel (2003) Fanon: the Postcolonial Imagination. Cambridge, UK:
Polity 126-175

Fanon, Frantz (1967) The Wretched of the Earth. Harmondsworth, UK:
Penguin Books 119-164

Neocosmos, Michael (no date) ‘The Contradictory Position of ‘Tradition’
In African Nationalist Discourse: Some analytical and political
reflections’ Draft paper.

Additional reading:
Abdul-Raheem, Tajudeen (1996) Pan Africanism: Politics, Economy and
Social Change in the Twenty-First Century. Pluto Press Bayart,

Jean-François (1993) The State in Africa: the Politics of the Belly/
Translated by Mary Harper, Christopher Harrison and Elizabeth Harrison.
London: Longman.

Comaroff, John L and Comaroff, Jean (1999) Civil Society and the
Political Imagination in Africa: Critical Perspectives. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press

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