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Bond, Patrick (2007) The Struggle for Democracy in Zimbabwe: Confronting the Long Economic Crisis. University of California-Berkeley Center for African Studies  : 1-15.

When did Zimbabwe’s apparently endless economic downturn actually begin?

• February 2000 when Robert Mugabe began authorising land invasions?
• November 1997 when ‘Black Friday’ decimated the currency’s value (by 74% in four hours)?
• The prior months when war vets were given pensions and Zimbabwe put troops into the Democratic Republic of the Congo to back the Kabila regime and secure investment sites?
• September 1991 when the stock market crashed once interest rates were raised to high real levels at the outset of the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (Esap)?
• The early 1980s, not long after Mugabe took power?
• Or around 1974, when per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) began a fall which has not yet reversed itself?

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