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Millar, Kathleen  (2007) The Informal Economy: Condition and Critique of Advanced Capitalism. CCS Seminar Series : 1-23.

Since Keith Hart first proposed in 1973 the term “informal economy” to account for the income-generating activities of urban unemployed and underemployed in Ghana, non-waged urban labor has only been on the rise. The informal sector now constitutes 78% of all nonagricultural labor in Africa, 58% in Latin America, and 45-85% in Asia (Gallin 2001:533). This expansion of the informal economy does not appear to be a temporary measure through which millions of workers will eventually find a place in the world of formal employment, as many early studies of the informal economy suggested (Sethuraman 1981; PREALC 1978). A UN report on the scale of urban slums worldwide recently estimated that the informal economy will provide 90% of new jobs in urban areas within the next ten years (UN-Habitat 2003:103). For better or worse, the informal economy is not disappearing any time soon.

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