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Publication Details

Reference
Amisi,Baruti & Bond, Patrick & Khumalo, Dudu and Nojiyeza, Simphiwe
Translation Faith ka-Manzi  () Esasithi kubhidlizwe ngubandlululo. Centre for Civil Society : -.

Summary
Izinhlelo zakudala zokuhlanza (indle) ziyaqhubeka nokuphoqelelwa kwabampofu,

Ngabe kufanele yini abantu abampofu banikwe izindlu zangasese zemigodi kanye nezinye izindlela zokuya ngasese eyenza ukuthi bona bawasebenzise kancane amanzi? Uyebo omkhulu uzwakele kwinkomfa yeAfrica Sanitation ebiyenzeka eLuthuli International Conference Centre eThekwini.

Ongoti abambalwa beze eThekwini ukuzokhuluma ngezindlu zangasese kuleliviki. Ngaphandle-nje kwento eyodwa, imizamo yethu ukungena kanye nabanye ozakwethu abaqhamuka ezinhlanganweni zemiphakathi bavimbelekile ukungena ngenxa yenani elinngamarandi ayizinkulungwane ezimbili ebenkungenwa ngawo. Bambalwa abavumelekile ukuthi bangene abaqhamuka emiphakathini.

Ukuba bebevunyelwa ukungena, abasolayo basemphakathi bebezobuza ngenkinga enkulu eyenzeka ezwenikazi lonke laseAfrika, ngisho Iningizumu Afrika imbala: ukuxhaswa ngemali encane.

Izindlu zangasese kanye namapayipi amakhulu ambiwe afihlwa ngaphansi okuyona into laba abatshala izimali kanye nababusi abangafuna ibonwe ngabavoti.

Futhi, engxenyeni yeminyaka angefiki kumashumu ayisihlanu adlule, ngokucindezelwa iBhange Lomhlaba (World Bank) kwenza ukuthi ohulumeni baseAfrika bangangcini izidingo zezakhamuzi zabo, ngisho nezidingo ezibaluleke njengamanzi kanye nokuhlanza(sanitation).

Namhlanje, amazwe amaningi aseAfrika asebuswa ngabantu abathengwa ngemali abangakhathali ukuthi izakhamuzi zabo ezihluphekayo ziyaphi ngasese.

ITheku lanikeza ngezindlu zangasese ezimbalwa ezisetshenziswa izinkulunwane zabantu kwimijondolo eminyene.

Ukuhlakanipha okuyisiko okusha njengamanje ukuthi ukuzisiza “ngakho konke ukuhlanza” (okufaka phakathi mayelana nekufunda ngokuhlanzeka) kufanele kungabi phezu kwamahlombe kahulumeni.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaswa, uma ungakwazi ukukhokha, ngeke ukwazi ukuchama noma ukuya ngaphandle uphephile.

UJon Lane wenhlangano yamanzi kanye nokuhlanza yaseGeneva ukubeka ngokunananzi ukuthi: “Kunesidingo sokuthi ubungoti bokuhlanza kususwe ekuxhasweni ngezimali, okuyeyiko njengamanje, kwenziwe ukudayiswa.”

Eqinisweni, ukuxhasa okuyona inkinga, banikwa imali encane. Zwenikazi lonke laseAfrika, njengokujwayelekile, imali encane kakhulu evumela abampofu ukwakha izindlu zangasese zemigodi, kwesinye isikhathi ezinezimbobo zokuvalela izimpukane.

Zihlale ziphukile
Umxhaso wempahla zokwenza kanye nokugcina lezizindlu zihlanzekile azikhishwa, ngisho nasemgodini esuke isigcwele.

Uma izakhiwo zamanzi ziphuka ngenxa yokungabikhona yamaboreholes kadizili noma amapayipi aphukile, kuyayekelelwa kanjalo.

Kusukela kuqala iminyaka yama1990, iBhange Lentuthuko yaseNingizimu neAfrika (Development Bank of Southern Africa), iMvula Trust kanye noMnyango wezaManzi naMahlathi baqala banxenxa abantu ukuthi bangawasebenzisi amanzi ukuhambisa indle. Uma ukunxenxa kungasebenzi, izikhulu zavele zafaka izindlu zangasese zemigodi ezibizwa ngokuthi amaVIP kubantu abampofu kakhulu, okungabantu abamnyama.

Asikhumbule unya lukahulumeni wobandlululo olungcolile “lohlelo lwamabhakede” ngoba kuthiwa abamnyama “babeyizihambi”: lokhu kwakushiwo kubantu abamnyama abehlala emadolobheni. Amanzi ayeyisikhali sikahulumeni wabamhlophe wokucindezela kanye nokuphatha.

Kodwa okwenzayo ngesikhathi kubuye kuze kuwe. UMike Muller, oweyisikhulu somnyango wamanzi kanye namahlathi, wathi “amabhakede, uma engathathwanga ngesikhathi ngenxa yezisebenzi zikamasipala ezivilaphaya, ayeba izikhali ezazisetshenziswa ngamavukelambuso omphakathi, lokhu sekuke kwenzeka lapho abantu bekhonondela ukuza ngokunensa kwezidingo zomphakathi.

Namhlanje, emva kweshumi nane ubandlulo lwaketulwa, amakhulu ezinkulungwane zabantu zisahlushekiswa yalamabhakede, noma uMongameli wezwe uThabo Mbekli ayethembise ukuthi ngonyaka ka2007 kofanele loluhlelo lasendulo lingabe lisasebenza.

Okwethusayo, ukuthi kunezindlu zangasese zamahbakede ezingu9 270 bucket latrines eThekwini idolobha eliyigwilikile kanye nemigodi engenazimbobo zomoya ezingu148 688 kanye nezindlu zangasese ezifakwa amakhemikhali ezingu41 880.

Ukungabikhona kwendawo yokuchitha indle, ihlangene nezimvula ezinkulu, namazinga aphezulu okushisa kanye nezingozi zokuchitheka kwendle esemabhakedeni, kudala isivunguvungu sesifo sohudo, kanye nezinye izifo ezihambisana nokusabalala kwendle, kanye nokugcwala kwezimpethu – okwengeza ukufa kubantu abaningi abaphila negciwane lengculazi.

Okubi kakhulu, ukulokhu kukhulunywa “ngokuthuthukisa” ukuhlanza kusukela ngo1994 kusho ukuxhuma amaVIPs amaningi.

Okungalele
Ngokusho kukaKathy Eales owayengusomgomo wamanzi eGoli: “Iningi lamaVIPs asegcwele futhi awasasebenzi.”

"Ezindaweni eziningi, amaVIPs ‘agcwele kakhulu'. Eminye imigodi yayimincane kakhulu, noma ivaleke kakhulu”

Ngokusho kukaEales, "Imigomo yokuhlanzayaseNingizimu Afrika ayanele kakhulu. Ikhuluma kakhulu ngohlelo lokomisa indle, futhi ayicacisi ngendima kanye nokuthi kwenziweni uma imigodi isigcwele.”

Mibili imikhuba engenza isimo sibe sibi kakhulu.

Abahlala eSoweto bakhononda ngohlelo “olungashonile phansi lwezindlu zangasese” olufike nenkampani ezimele yamanzi yamaFulentshi iSuez, eyayiphethe iJohannesburg Water kusukela ngo2001 yaze yaxoshwa ngemuva kweminyaka emihlanu.

Abantu abakhohliswa ngaloluhlelo babengenawo amathangi amanzi ngaphezu kwesihlalo sendlu yangasese, amapiyipi ezacile, futhi kungadephanga kakhulu phansi ukuze indle iphumele ngaphandle.

Lokukugcwala kwakudalwa ngamasibomu, kungelona iphutha. Kwathi ngencazelo yabo ngokutshelwa iSuez kwakufanele abesimame bafake izandla (bafake okuvikela izandla) emapayipini ukuze basuse indle ngezandla.

Ethekwini, akhona amabhakede afana nawobandlululo – amaurinary diversion (UD) – afunzwa emizini engu60 000. (amaUD achaza ukuthi umuntu akachami lapho eya khona ngaphandle).

Kulemigodi emibili, ehlukanisa umchamo nendle ukuze kushesha ukubhucuka, amaUD bathi ayasiza emiphakathini ehlala emaphandleni ehlala ngokuswela amanzi. Kodwa eThekwini, kunomswakama ngakho-ke ngabe indle iyephuza ukoma?

Ekuqaleni kwalenyanga, iphephabhuku iScience yayincoma imizamo yomphathi wamanzi eThekwini uNeil Macleod.

Kodwa abantu abahlala kulemiphakathi enalezindlu zangasese eyazi kangcono – eMnzinyathi kanye nakwaKwaNgcolosi eNanda ebudebuduze nedolobha -abanelisekile.

AmaUD anamabhakede angaphakathi ahlale efuna ukuthululwa. Abantu abazange baqeqeshwe ukuthi bayenzenjani indle, ngaphandle kokuthi bayilahlele ezivandeni “ukuze bavundise imifino yabo”.

Abaningi abantu bayenyanya ukusebenzisa indle yabantu njengesivundisi sezivande zabo ngenxa yezifo eziningi ezihambisana nayo ( uma kuqhathanisw nobulongwe bezinkomo).

Umthwalo wokuhlanza ubekwa emahlombe abesifazane.

AmaUD amaningi manje esesetshenziswa njengezindlu zokugcina izimpahla noma asevalwe unomphela ngenxa yephunga.

Amakhansela awanamsebenzi walutho uma sekufanele asho ukuthi kwenziwenjani uma amUD esegcwele.

Ezweni lonke, izindlu zethu zanagsese ziyihlazo, njengokusho kukaMuller nyakenye: “Liyehla izinga lokwenyusa uhlelo lokuhlanza kwabampofu.” Wathinta kakhulu umgomo kaNgqngqoshe wezeZimali uTrevor Manuel wango 2006 iDivision of Revenue Act “wokukhombisa ngokusobala ungaqhubekeli phambili ukuqutshwa kwezidingo zabampofu ngomasipala”.

Ukuze sikuguqule lokhu sidinga kakhulu imigomo exhasa kakhulu bampofu kanye nezimali ezivela kuhulmeni knye nemithetho ezolethela bantu abampofu izakhiwo zangasese ezibalungele futhi kanye namathangi azoguqula indle ibe igesi ezosiza imiphakathi yasemaphandleni.

Futhi, sidinga kakhulu ukucindezela abezombusazwe. Uma singazitholi lezizidingo kusho ukuthi ukuthatha izinqumo nguhulmeni ukunika abampofu lezizindlu zangasese ezibehlisa isithunzi kuchaza ukuthi ukungahlonishwa kwalabantu okwakwenzeka ngesikhathi sobandlululo sekuqale phansi.

The authors are researchers at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Centre
for Civil Society.

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