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Publication Details

Reference
Bond, Patrick Translation ka-Manzi, Faith
 (2008) Ibhabhalazi Langayizolo.  : -.

Summary
Emasontweni amabili edlule, uBarack Oama odle ubhedu okhethweni lokuba umongameli waseMelika wenqaba ukuhlangana neQembu Lamashumi Amabili: abaholi bomhlaba bamazwe aholayo kwezomnotho, okubalwa kuwo neNingizimu Afrika.

Umholi omusha uMongameli Kgalema Motlanthe akazange abeke induku ebandla kwiWashington summit, njengoba nongqongqoshe wezezimali uTrevor Manuel wahluleka ukubonisa leliqembu lezigwili ukushintsha umqondo weWorld
Bank neInternational Monetary Fund ngenkathi yena nowayengumongameli uThabo
Mbeki benezivakashi zokuhlangana ngonyaka seG20 ngaseKapa nyakenye.

Futhi akubonakali sengathi uObama angaxhasa iInhlangano Yezizwe ngezezimali emhlanganweni ongoMgqibelo eDoha, lapho kuzobe kungelona leliqembu lamashumi amabili kodwa lezizwe ezingamashumi ayisishagalolunye nambili azobe ekhona, lapho futhi uManuel azobe eyisimenywa seNhalngano Yezizwe esiqavile, njengoba kwakunjalo ngomhlangano wezezimali yeNhlangano Yezizwe wango2002 eMonterrey.

Ezinyangeni ezimbili ezedlule, kwinkomfa eyayilungiselela lomhlangano, uManuel wathola ukuthi imali yosizo yehle ngalamaphesenti8.4% ( kuya ku$104 billion) lapho ukukhishwa kwezimali zempi zinyuke namaphesenti angu6 (kuya ku$1.3 trillion): 'lamaqiniso akhombisa ukuthi sense okuphambene mayelana nalokhu esathi sizokwenza, okusho ukuthi sikhethe impi kunokuthula. Ukwenyuka kokudla namafutha kanye nezinkinga ezikhungethe umhlaba zomnotho kungumphumela wezethembiso ezaphuliweyo. Kuyinkomba yokwehluleka kwethu.'

Iqiniso elimsulwa. Behola iAfrika kwezomnotho, uMotlanthe noManuel
babonakala bebuthakathaka ngenkathi lenkinga ekhungethe umhlaba iklinya iAfrika, ukuwa kwamanani okuthenga, ukutshalwa kwezimali okubuyiswayo, ukuhamba kancane komnotho emhlabeni wonke kanye nokwehla kokuza kosizo lezimali ezivela eNtshonalanga ziza eNingizimu. Ngenkathi abezinhlangano zabantu, osomabhizinisi kanye nbezombusazwe bejabulela ngokungakholeki ukuphumelela kukaObama ngomhlaka 4 Novemba, akusho mayelana nabaphathi abasha bezomnotho waseMelika ngoMsombuluko kwafana nebhabhalazi elibuhlungu.

Ake ucabangele izishoshovu zezikweleyu zaseAfrika iJubilee Africa, ngokwesibonelo, ezingamthebi kakhulu:

# Lowo okhethwe njengoMgcinimafa kaZwelonke uTim Geithner, ohamba phambili kulenkinga yamanje yezomnotho njengomongameli weNew York Federal Reserve Bank ;

# Ozolawula eZomnotho iZwelonke uLawrence Summers, okunguyena futhi owayehola phambili ezinkingeni zezimali zomhlaba wonke eminyakeni eyishumi edlule, ngenkathi njengomgcinimafa kazwelonke waphoqa ukuthi amazwe ase-Asia akhphe izimali ezinkulu lokho okwenza azwela kakhulu; futhi


# Umeluleki omkhulu kaObama kwezomnotho uPaul Volcker, nguyena kwinkinga yokwehla komnotho waphakathi kuka1980 kuya ku1982, owaphoqa iVolcker Shock eyayingenalo idumela, okwadala izikweletu ezinkulu emazweni asafufusa kwezomnotho.

Uzakwethu eCentre for Civil Society uDennis Brutus ubiza lamadoda njengezigebengu zomnotho, futhi lokho kunezizathu ezibalulekile.

Geithner wayesebenza enkampanini kaHenry Kissinger phakathi kwama1980s, wasesebenza kohulumeni bakaReagan noBush ngo1988, futhi waebenzela uSummers benoRobert Rubin kwezezimali kuhulumeni kaClinton ngama1990.

Njengomongameli weNew York Fed, uGeithner wasolwa ngokuba nomthelela kwinkin ga yezezimali yeWall Street ngo2008, lapho asiza khona uJ P Morgan ngelinye ilanga kodwa wahluleka ukubona umthelela omubi ebhange lokutshala izimali leLehman Brothers okwakhunyabeza umhlaba wonke ngosuku olulandelayo.

Inkulumo eyayikhulunywe nguLeithner ngoMarch odlule ekhombisa indlela iMelika egembula ngayo ngezimali zomhlaba: “imakethe yokubolekisa kufanele isize izimakethe futhi ingehlisa izinga lokukhathazeka.

Kodwa, kwenzeka okuphambene. Kodwa uGeithner wayengaboni: Ngeke sitshintshe isikhathi ngalokhu esekwenzekile.

Ngakho-ke yini uBush noObama amnike imisebenzi ebaluleke kangaka?

NoSummers, futhi , ukhombisile ukuthi akakwazi ukubhekela ikusasa ngenxa yokunxenxela imithetho yezezimali engaphumeleli, noma-ke aziwa kakhulu kwezombusazwe zaseMelika ngokubandlulula ngezobulili okwamenza walahlekelwa ukuba ngumongameli waseHarvadr ngo2006 (wabhala ukuthi abesifazane abakwazi ukwenza izibalo kanye nezobuchwepheshe), emva kokuxabana kakhulu nezifundiswa eziholayo zamaMelikana aseAfrika kulesisikhungo.

Eminyakeni eyishumi nanhlanu edlule, uSummers waduma kabi njengomuntu owayenxenxa ukubulawa kwabantu baseAfrika kanye nokubandlulula ngezemvelo, lokho sikwazi ngakubhala ngasese ngenkathi eseNgumhlaziyi Omkhulu wezomnotho lapho ethi : “ Ngicabanga ukuthi kunomqondo wezomnotho ngemuva kokutshinga ukungcola emazweni anamaholo aphansi futhi lokho kumele sibhekane nacho. Ngihlale ngicabanga ukuthi amazwe angenabo abantu abaningi aseAfrika izinga lomoya womkhathi liphansi kakhulu.”



Futhi umeluleki obaluleke kakhulu kuObama, uVolker oneminyaka engamashumi ayisishagalombili nambili, wenze umonakalo omkhulu eAfrika, emnothweni yakhona nakubantu bakhona ukudlula wonke umuntu emlandweni wamanje. Njengoba echazwe kwiWall Street Journal: Lelixhwele elalisebenza ecentral bank kusukela ngonyaka ka1979 kuya ku 1987, uyena owasolwa ngokwenyusa ama-interest rates futhi ngokufaka iMelika kulenkinga yezezimali engakazwe ibonwe kusukela ngeGreat Depression.

Ngisho nomlando weInternational Monetary Fund awukwazi ungalisebenzisi igama lakhe: “ Umsuka wenkinga yezikweletu yangama1980 isukela kwiVolker Shock.”



Izikweletu

Ngenxa yeVolcker Shock, ngokusho kwentatheli uNaomi Klein encwadini yakhe iShock Doctrine, iAfrica iklinywe yacishe yafa: “Ngokwabo-nje, izikweletu ngabe zibe umthwalo onzima kakhulu kohulumeni abazimele abasha, kodwa lomthwalo ubusazoqala ukubanzima. Isikweletu saseNigeria ngenkathi (kuphethe uVolker) sanyuka kusukela ku $9 billion safika ku$29 billion.

Waphendula kanjani uVolcker? Njengoba ayetshela izintatheli: “Nganingenandaba neAfrika.

Yingani-ke owayengumongameli ngaleyonkathi uJimmy Carter akhetha lendoda ngo1979 ukuba ibe ngusihlalo weFederal Bank?

Umeluleki wasekhaya kaCarter uStuart Eizenstat wachaza wathi: “UVolcker
wakhethwa ngoba wayezimbandakanye neWall Street. Lokhu kwakuyinani labo, empeleni.”

Noma-ke athatha umhlalaphansi ngo1987, uVolcker ubuyile manje useduze kukaObama, futhi ngokusho kweWall Street Journal, izingcingo zemihlangano kanye neqembu lezomnotho likaObama bahlale behlelwa kabusha ukuhambisana nokuba khona kwakhe. Uma lelithimba likhuluma nenginka ekhungethe ezezimali, umbuzo obalulekile obuzwa nguObama ukuthi: “ngabe uPaul Volcker ucabangani?”

UGeithner, Summers, Volcker kanye nabanye abahlaziyi bezomnotho bayahleba bekhuluma ngendlela entsha yokubhekana nomnotho yokuzibhekela, kanye nendlela yokuzuza umhlaba wonke. (Futhi ukuze lokho kwenzeke, umeluleki oqavile kaObama ngeAfrika, uWitney Schneidman, uqoshwe ekhuluma ngogqugquzela ukukhulisa ezempi zaseMelika eAfrika ayibiza ngokuthi iAfrica Command.)

Esikhundleni salelithimba, kunabahlaziyi bezomnotho abaphambili abazwelana neAfrika abakhona, njengowaphumelela kwiNobel Prize uJoseph Stiglitz noPaul Krugman, noma uJeffrey Sachs (okhulumela ukucishwa kwesikweletu saseAfrika ), noma, uJames Galbreath, UMark Weisbrot kanye noDean
Baker, kodwa bazange bacatshangwe nhlobo.

UObama qobo uthe “injongo yakhe enkulu” ngabantu bakaBaba wakhe “ukusheshisa ukufakwa kweAfrika kumnotho womhlaba” – noma ngabe mukhulu kangakanani umonakalo owenzekile nosenzeka. Ibaphi abantu baseAfrika abangamyekisa uObama ukuxebula izimpande zakhe?

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