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Publication Details

Reference
Bond,Patrick no Desai Ashwin Umhumushi – ka-Manzi, Faith (2012) Isahluko Sokuqala
 : -.

Summary
Okungenzeka ngenxa yokungabikhona kobulungiswa kwezombusazwe ngezemvelo kanye nezenhlalakahle maphakathi nedolobha laseThekwini

Ngimile ngigqozele futhi ngiyezwa –nginokumangala! Ngabe Ilona lelidolobha elikhulu eselitshalile Ngabe ngilahlekelwa ithemba? Ngabe yini okungqubuza lokhu Kunempicabadala: imiphefumulo elungile nelukhuni: Enhle ngokucwebile; Izono eziningi! Lelithemba noma lokukuzenzisa, Nkosi? Noma Injabulo noma Izinhlungu?

Ngoba la ngaphansi kwamehlo ami kulele imiboniso emangalisayo Okufanele inkeneneze injabulo kodwa ingijikijela ngezinhlungu! Herbert Dhlomo, 1940s (eBerea Ridge kudebuduze nephakathi ledolobha)

Amadoda amaNgisi anamandla angabahwebi
enza lelidolobha (kanye namaKula”!)
kuhlotshiswe ngokukhanya olwandle
kuconsa (iNutriment)
opikanini abazisu zimapaklazana indlala;
amadoda anobuqha ebukisa ngobubi ukuzidla kwawo
njengezilwane ezafika nokubusa izwe ekungelona elazo;
izitebhisi zigcwele iphunga lakudala
likakhari, ukwamukela kahle kanye nokungazethembi,
kanye nesithombe sokuhlanya okuvuswe ukuchukuluzwa
okuphathiswa kahle okwezikhali zamaNtungwa njengomese omdala osukhuntile
okuseduze komhobholo,
ngongxiwankulu abanqikanqika kanye nezinyembezi zikaKhwini.
Dennis Brutus, 1960s

Izimbongi ezimbili zedolobha zeminyaka edlule, uHerbert Dlomo noDennis
Brutus, ngokungangabazeki bangalibuka iTheku ezindaweni eziphakemeyo
zasentshonalanga, bese beligxeka ngoguquko kwezombusazwe elisuse
ukwahlukwaniswa ngebala labeka ukwahlukanisa abantu ngezigaba zabo
zomnotho, njengozokungcebeleka zemidlalo uma kuqhathaniswa nokwahlukana
kakhulu ngezimo zezemvelo kanye nezenhlalakahle, kanye nezinhlelo
zokwenza kabusha intuthuko okuqeda amandla futhi kungcolise umoya
kwizakhamizi ezihlupheka kakhulu.Futhi akekho ongeke aphike ukuthi
idolobha laseThekwini lilungise ngendlela emangalisayo ukwamukela
Ingqungquthela Yamaqembu – 17th Conference of the Parties (COP 17) kuze
kube iKyoto Protocol kusukela zingu28Novemba kuya kuDisemba 9 ngo2011.
I-International Convention Centre yaseThekwini kanye neDurban Exhibition
Centre eseduzane-nje zombili lezizindawo zingezokuhlanganyela
kwizingqungquthela ezinkulukazi eAfrika. Bude buduze, amahotela
asetshenziswa ngomacaphuna kusale nezicebi ancike nendawo esetshenziswa
umphakathi ngentando yeningi eNingizimu Afrika – indawo yasolwandle
yokungcebeleka – eyalungiswa ngaphambi kweNdebe Yomhlaba yebhola ngo2010.

Maphakathi NeTheku
Ukwandiswa kothelawayeka womgwaqo oza edolobheni, kanye nesikhumulo
sezindiza esisha kanye nendawo yokuhambela olwandle, kunika izivakashi
isithombe ngendawo ephambili uma ungena edolobheni laseNingizimu Afrika.
Usabuka-nje uma ungena indawo yezemidlalo uma uqhamuka kwizindawo
ezihlala izicebi zeNyakatho neTheku inhle kakhulu, indawo yokudlala
igalofu kanye nezinkundla ezimbili eziphambili ngakwesokudla kanye
nezasolwandle eziyingqayizivele ngakwesokunxele. Izinhlelo zezikhulu
ngeTheku ukwamukela iCOP 17 kwenza izihambeli zikwazi ukubhalisa eduze
kwaseNkundleni iMoses Mabhida, kulandelwa ukuseshwa eduze kwecasino,
kanye nomcimbi wasolwandle lapho kwakubungazwa khona Umcimbi Wabalandeli
ngeNdebe Yomhlaba ka2010. Eningizimu inxanxathela yezitolo iWorkshop
kanye nesingqazu seHolo seDolobha laseThekwini, elizungezwe izihlahla
kodwa okuxakayo ukuthi lakhiwa ngo1910 kusetshenziswa umdwebo okwakhiwa
ngawo iHolo leDolobha laseBelfast.

Ukulungiselela ukwamukelela ngokusemthethweni iUNFCCC COP 17
Lendawo iveza lukhulu ngezombusazwe waseThekwini kanye nokuphazamiseka
okungase kwenzeke uma kungenzeki okulindeleke kube imiphumela yeCOP17.
Njengoba imelwe iUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC), leyomiphumela iqhamuka kongxiwankulu beCopenhagen COP 15,
lapho iSivumelwano (Accord) sango 2009 phakathi kweMelika, neBrazil,
neChina kanye neNingizimu Afrika ‘sahlakaza iNhlangano Yezizwe,’
njengoba kwasho uMcKibbon (Bond 2010), kuze kube seCOP16 eyayiseCancun
kuvuselelwa ukuphupha nemakethe yensizi (Bond 2011), kuze eThekwini
lapho ezezimali zesimo sezulu kubonakala sengathi ilapho kukhona
umnyombo wokuphikisana ekubusweni kwesimo sezulu emhlabeni wonke.
Kuyabonakala futhi, ukuthi eThekwini kuzophela konke ukuzibophezela
nezinqumo zeKyoto Protocol kanye nezibophezelo ezahlukahlukene, igama
lalelidolobha, liyofaniswa, mayelana nobushoshovu besimo sezulu kanye
nezobuchwepheshe, njengedumela elibi laseOslo eMiddle East: lokuyengela
ophathe, kanye nokuhlulekwa kwababusi.
Ukuphikisa ngezombusazwe zezenhlalakahle khona? Noma-ngabe akukho
ukuvimba okuphazamisayo, lesisikhathi isona esihle impela ukuqhathanisa
ngokuhlanganyela nezishoshovu ezinamandla, ezabasebenzi, izinhlangano
zezinhlalakahle, kanye nezishoshovu zemvelo, abakhombisa ukuthi
izingxoxo ezingacacile zeWorld Trade Organization’s Millenium Round
eSeattle ngo1999 kungabanika amandla, hayi-nje ngokuqhakambisa izindaba
ezizodwa, kodwa ngokuzihlanganisa ndawonye behlanganyele nabafana nabo
ekugxekeni ekumelaneni nesitha esisodwa. Ngabe ukushintsha kwezulu –
kanye nokugxekwa okukhulayo ‘kweNgqungquthela Yabangcolisi’ (Conference
of Polluters) – kwenzeke kufike nethuba lokuhlanganisa izikhala,
kutholakale ukuhlangana, kube khona ubumbano? Kungenzeka indawo
yabagxoxayo idale inkundla lapho abanovalo ngezombusazwe zezemvelo
ngokukhishelwa ngaphandle kanye nokucekelwa phansi kwezemvelo? Kanti
ngabe ukuhlanganyela kwabakhonondayo endaweni kungabasiza abangamashumi
bezinkulungwane abezayo bezobhikisha ukuthola ubumbano, kube kuhlangane
abantu bamasiko ahlukahlukene emphakathini, emsebenzini, kanye nezemvelo?
Ukuthola ngokungase kwenzeke eduzane naseICC, siqala ngokubona
ukwahlukana kwabezemidlalo, ongathi bazimisele ngokuqophisana
ikakhulukazi uma sibuka umlando wokwamukelwa kweNdebe Yomhlaba kanye
nokuthi sikhankasela ukwamukela amaOlympics (ngo2024). Sasesiqhubekela
eningizimu mpumalanga, sihlonza iAlbert Park ngamehlo kwabokufika
abacindezelwe, ngaphambi kokuba sibheke lapho kuyisizinda samaNdiya,
okuhlanganisa nemakethe ebalulekile iWarwick Junction, lapho ngo2009
abadayisi basemgaqweni badudulwa babuyisela emuva impi eyayiqhamuka
edolobheni. Masisuka lapho, sibheke empumalanga ngasolwandle, lapho
kuvela khona ukudonsisana phakathi kwabadobi kanye nezikhulu zedolobha.
Uba sesiyimbandakanya lemizabalazo icacisa ikusasa loluhlangana njengoba
inkinga yesimo sezulu iqhubezela phambili ukuphambana kwezenhlalakahle
kanye nezemvelo zaseThekwini.

Ezomdlalo Zokungcebeleka Ezingenabo Ubulungiswa Ngesimo Sezulu
Enyakatho-nje neICC, ephambili umhlaba wonke iNkundla-le iMoses Mabhida
– eqanjwe ngegama lowayengumdidiyeli weQembu lamaKhomanisi emelene
nobandlululo futhi owayenguthisha kuMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika
uJacob Zuma – yabiza uR1.3 wezigidigidi, kwedlulwa kwimali eyayihleliwe
kaR1.8 wezigidigidi. Lenkundla ehlala abangu -70 000 iMoses Mabhida
inhle kakhulu uma uyibuka, kuphela-nje uma kungaveli emehlweni kanye
nasemqondweni ukusalela emuva kwezidingo zedolobha ezingakahlangatshezwa
ezezindlu, amanzi kanye nezokuhlanza, ugesi, imitholampilo, izikole,
kanye nemigwaqo – konke okuphazanyiswe ilezizindleko ezikhulayo
ezixakile ezingqondweni.

Izinkundla ezimbili zaseThekwini: iKings Park ngaphambili kanye neMoses
Mabhida

Ngo2009, ngenkathi izimali zikamasipala seziyiswa ekwakhiweni kweNkundla
iMoses Mabhida, izikhulu eziphezulu zaseThekwini zanquma ukwehlisa
okwakuhleliwe ukwakhiwa kwezindlu zamanani aphansi ezingu 16 000
kwakhiwa ezingu9 000, bebe bazi ukuthi basalele emuva (cishe-nje)
ngokwakha izindlu ezingu-234 000 (Academy of Science of South Africa
2011:41)

Okunye okungafihlakali emehlweni okubonakala kamakhelwane, iNkundla
iKings Park (eyayaziwa njengeNkundla yaseABSA futhi okuyikhaya
lamaSharks iqembu lebhola lombhoxo. Lenkundla ihlala abangu-52 000 futhi
kwakulula ukuba inetshwe kwenzelwa iNdebe Yomhlaba, njengoba kunyaka
ongaphambili kwakudlalelwe khona umqhudelwano weNdebe yeConfederations.

Isithombe esithathwe phezulu sesizinda sezemidlalo kanye nezinye
izindawo eduze kolwandle.

Njengoba kujwayelekile emadolobheni asuke emukela imidlalo emikhulu
yomhlaba, iTheku labhekana nenkinga usuphelile lomcimbi weNdebe
Yomhlaba, ngenxa yokungenzeki kwenzuzo ngeNkundla iMoses Mabhida. Umholi
weKomidi Eyayihlelela Indebe Yomhlaba baseKhaya (World Cup Local
Organising Committee) LOC, uDanny Jordaan waxolisa ezweni maphakathi
no2011 ngoba, njengoba asho, ‘akuzange kuhlelwe ngokwanele kahle
ngezinkundla ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ziyoletha inzuzo.’ Umphathi weDolobha
laseThekwini, uMike Sutcliffe wakuphikisa lokhu: ‘Ngiyajabula. Senze
izinqumo ezifanele.’ Kodwa uma sekubhekwene nenkundla eyenzayi inzuzo
iKings Park, iNkundla iMoses Mabhida ebiza uR80 wezigidi ngonyaka yenza
uR56 wezigidi onyakeni lapho esetshenziswe khona kakhulu ngo2010 kuya
ku2011 (Dardagan 2011). Imizamo kaSutcliffe ukususa iSharks ngaphesheya
komgwaqo yahluleka ngokuphinda phindeka, ngakho-ke ukuxhaswa isikhathi
eside ngumasipala ikhona okudingakalayo eNkundleni iMoses Mabhida,
njengoba kwenzeka ngeICC kanye nePoint UShaka Marine Park, ezinye
izindawo ezidla kakhulu izimali zedolobha.
Ukubhikisha okukhulu okwakumelene nokwakhiwa kwenkundla kwakungamakhulu
ambalwa abasebenzi abaqaphayo ngoJuni 13, 2010. Kungakapholi maseko emva
komdlalo phakathi kweJalimani neAustralia, abasebenzi bafuna
ukukhokhelwa umhlomuo ababethenjiswe wona, njengoba babethola uR200
ngokusebenza amahora ayishumi nambili. Lemali encane kangaka ikhombisa
ukuthi kubanjani uma sekuqedwa ukuqashwa kwabantu ngokuphelele kanye
nokubasebenzisa kakhulu ngamaholo aphansi kakhulu osekujwayelekile
kakhulu emkhakheni wezokuqapha onobungozi kakhulu. Amaphoyisa asebenzisa
izisisi ezikhalisa izinyembezi kanye nezinjoloba ukulawula abasebenzi
ababebhikisha, amakhulu amathathu abo ahlanganyela kanye
nababengaphezulu kwenkulungwane bemiphakathi - kanye nezinye
izinhlangano zezishoshovu zezinhlalakahle ngombhikisho kaJuni 16
kuhanjelwa eHolo LaseDolobheni kufunwa ‘Indebe Yomhlaba kaWonkewonke.’
Ngezi-3 kuJulayi, amakhulu ambalwa abantu ahlanganyela (futhi eHolo
leDolobha bemelene nokwahluleka okukhulu kwalaba okufanele ngabe
bavikela abantu : imikhuba yokucwaswa kwabokufika. Maphakathi –nedolobha
kunesibalo esikhulu sabokufika futhi maphakathi nonyaka u2008,
nangesikhathi emva kweNdebe Yomhlaba kwakwandile ukuhlaselwa kwabokufika
kwabasebenzi basemazweni aseNingizimu neAfrika. Lokukuhlaselwa
kwakuncike ekutheni abokufika bathatha imisebenzi, behlise amanani
amaholo, bagcwalise vele izimakethe zezindawo zokuhlala eziyivela
kancane maphakathi nedolobha ezibizayo, futhi beze nokuncintisana
okukhulu ekudayiselweni kwabantu basemalokishini. Noma-ke lokhu
kungephikiswe, lamaqiniso adinga ubushoshovu obunesipiliyoni ukubhekana
nezizinda eziwumsuka wokucwaswa kwabokufika esikhundleni sokubhekana
nokupholisa izilonda njengemihuzuko-nje. (Amisi et all 2011)
Ngenkathi leminyakazo ibonakala ingenalusizo mase kuqhathaniswa,
umbhikisho okuwuwona owaphumelela ngempela umelene neNdebe yoMhlaba
–wenzeka maphakathi no2009 amakhulu abadayisi basemgaqweni abazimele
baseThekwini ababebhekene nokususwa kwiMakethe Yasekuseni (Early Morning
Market), lapho abahleli bedolobha babefuna ukuqala phansi ukuze eduzane
bakhe inxanxathela yezitolo ingakafiki iNdebe Yomhlaba. Kodwa-ke,
lokukuphikisana okwakuqinile emva okwathatha unyaka wonke, kuhlanganisa
nokulwa namaphoyisa ngoJulayi 2009, kwayisindisa imakethe. Ngakolunye
uhlangothi lokuphikisa, kwezobuciko, omunye umculi oyimbongi oculayo
ovuth’ uphondo, uIain ‘Ewok’ Robinson (2010) wathekelela imicabango
yakhe kwiNdebe Yomhlaba ngomucu othi “Ihlazo kuMdlalo Omuhle.”
Abahlomula kakhulu kulenkilayitheka kwakuyizimboni ezinkulu kanye
nabahwebi bamathenda abamnyama abangobhululu nabezombusazwe – abathola
amathenda ezwe ngenxa yokubhekelelwa ngoba bemnyama, umangabe bexhumene
kanye nezimboni ezinamagama zabamhlophe – ikakhulukazi kwimboni
yezokwakha. Intatheli yaseThekwini uSam Sole (2010) waqhamuka nalombuzo
ukuthi ngabe iMabhida ‘ingumgwaqo wethemba’ noma ‘ijoka lesikweletu’
ngenkathi enza uphenyo olunzulu ngobungxiwankulu obuhambisana
nobubhululu mayelana neNdebe Yomhlaba ka2010. NgokukaSole, abazuza
kakhulu kwakuyiBhola Lethu, imboni eyinhlanganisela enkundleni ehamba
phambili, eyayihlanganisa uCraig Simmer; imboni endala yontamolukhuni
(Broederbonder) yonjiniyela, iBKS; iGroup 5/WBHO, (eyingxenye
yeMvelaphanda Group yalowo owayengumshusisi wezwe uBulelani Ngcuka,
usihlalo wayo ngalesosikhathi kungulowo njengamanje onguNgqongqoshe
weZokuhlaliswa Kwabantu, uTokyo Sexwale). Isicebi saseThekwini uVivian
Reddy umnikazi weEdison Power naye wathola inkontileka enkulukazi kagesi.
Enye iprojekti eyashiya imibuzo Isikhumulo Sezindiza iKing Shaka entsha
edle uR8.2 wezigidigidi, ikakhulukazi njengoba Isikhumulo Sezindiza
saseThekwini eNingizimu neTheku sasisenayo indawo yokumumatha kuze kube
ngu2017, njengoba futhi zingekho ezokuthutha umphakathi ezihambela eKing
Shaka, okuyibanga eliphindaphindiwe uma usuka maphakathi neTheku.
Ukushesha kuvalwe kweSikhmulo Sezindiza saseThekwini kungakabi isikhathi
kwaba nokuphoxa okukhulu kubaholi beLOC kanye neneNkampani yeZikhumulo
zaseNingizimu Afrika (Airports Company of South Africa) ngenkathi iKing
Shaka ihluleka ukubhekana nezindiza zeziCwicwicwi ezazivimbanisile
esikhumulweni ngoJulayi7, ilanga elandulela elomlamlajuqu phakathi
kweSpain neJalimane. Bangaphezulu kwenkulunkwane abathandi bebhola
ababedinwe begane unwabu ezindizeni eziyisishagalombili okwafanele
ziphindiselwe emuva eGoli kanye naseKapa ngoba iziCwicwicwi
zazivimbanise amasango ekungenwa kuwo, zenqaba ukupaka izindiza zazo
kude nomgwaqo wezindiza noma zindizele – kwezinye izikhumulo – ezincane
eziseduze.

Lokungahambelani phakathi kokumoshwa kwezimali zokungcebeleka mayelana
nezemidlalo eThekwini kanye nokuqhubekela phambili kwamazinga abucayi
okuphila kwezimpilo zabantu abaningi abayizakhamizi kunzima kakhulu.
Kuze kufike iNdebe Yomhlaba kanye nangesikhathi sayo, abantulayo
baseThekwini babenza iminyakazo ngobuchule kanye nokudumala
ukuqhakambisa obala izimo ezinzima abaphila ngaphansi kwazo. Okunye
kwaleyominyakazo kwakungu ‘ukudla ngaphakathi’ ngo2008 ngabantu
abangasebenzi abalambile, okwathi iziqumbi ezimbili bavele bahlala badla
ukudla ngaphakathi kwesitolo ngaphandle kokukhokha, okwenza ukuthi
abantu abangu200 baboshwe. Imizamo eqhubekayo yizingane ezihlala
emgaqweni ukugwema ukuboshwa nakho futhi kwabeka obala lokukungqubuzana.

Ukususwa Ngenkani Kwezizukulwane
Njengoba ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu kuyoba nomphumela omubi kakhulu
ezizukulwaneni, kunokukhathazeka ukuthi abanye abantu abakhishwa kakhulu
inyumbazana maphakathi neTheku okuyizingane – ikakhulukazi imindeni yazo
iphazanyiswe iNgculaza (kanye ngokuqala ngokuphika kukahulumeni wombuso
kaMbeki ukunika abantu imishanguzo, okwaholela ukuthi kufe abantu
ababalelwa ku330 000 ngokungafanele, njengoba kwasho ithimba eliqhamuka
eHarvard School of Public Health). Umangabe imikhuba edlule iqhubeka,
izingane zasemgaqweni ziyosuswa kulendawo eduze kwaseICC ngeCOP17.
Noma-ke umasipala wawungaphansi kwengcindezi ukuthi uthathe indlela
enobuntu kulungiselelwa iNdebe Yomhlaba ngo2010, izinjongo zawo
zazisobala eminyakeni embalwa edlule. Ngo2005, ngokwesiboniso-nje,
uMphathi weDolobha waveza obala lenkulumo ngokusemthethweni:

Imibiko enomsindo ethi iTheku (uhulumeni kamasipala weTheku) uqoqa
izingane ezihlala emgaqweni bese uzisusa emehlweni omphakathi ukuze
zingabonwa izivakashi, kungubufakazi kwabanye bezindaba ababhala
ngobudedengu kanye nokungabi noshintsho. . .Singaluzwa ulaka uma sisusa
izingane futhi sizilahla emajele noma ngaphandle kwedolobha (Sutcliffe
2005).

Zonke izinkomba eminyakeni eyalandela zaqinisekisa ukuthi ukulahlwa
kwezingane ngaphandle kweTheku kwakujwayelekile, kanti nango 2009,
uSutcliffe, ecashunwa ephephandabeni lansuku zonke iMercury, wavuma wathi:

Umangane abaholi bamazwe bezohlangana ezingqungqutheleni, into yokuqala
abaqaphi abayenzayo ukususa izingane zasemgaqweni ukuze zingabonwa.
Eminyakeni emine edlule sasijwayele ukwenza ngaleyondlela , kodwa manje
ngeke sisenza ngaleyondlela (Comins 2009a).

Kodwa sekusondela iNdebe Yomhlaba, isimo sahlehlela emuva, njengoba
kwabika iphephandaba iSunday Times eqala u2010:

Izingane zasemgaqweni zimangalele amaphoyisa kamasipala weTheku
ngokuwasusa edolobheni. Kulelisonto izingane ezisencane ezineminyaka
esuka kweyisishagalombili kuya kweyishumi nesishagalolunye zatshela
iSunday Times ukuthi amaphoyisa kamasipala aziqoqa zonke izinsuku
azilahle ngaphandle kwedolobha, ikakhulukazi kothelawayeka bemigwaqo
abamatasatasa noma ezindaweni zokugoba amakhanda ezingabhalisiwe . . .
iNhlangano ezimele yasendaweni Umthombo wathi izindlela zamaphoyisa
azinabo ubuntu. Lenhlangano yathi inhlalakahle yezingane yayibalulekile
kakhulu kunokuthi iTheku lalibonwa kanjani. Umqondisi walenhlangano uTom
Hewitt wathi: “Izingane zasemgaqweni azilona udaba lezokuvikela kanye
nokuqashwa, kodwa ziwudaba lokuthuthukiswa ngenhlalakahle. Amaphoyisa
afaka izingane ngemuva kwamtrucki kanye nabadala nezigelekeqe. Lokhu
kuqhubeka nokuvezela izingane ukuhlukumezeka.” Wathi ukususa izingane
ngenxa yeNdebe Yomhlaba kwakungekona ukuvikela ingane kodwa
kungukuhlanza imigwaqo (Laganparsad 2010).

UHewitt (2010) wachaza kabanzi ngalenkinga kwiwebsite yoMthombo:

Ukususwa bekuhlale kwenzeka eThekwini ngaphambi kwezingqungquthela
zomhlaba noma ngemicimbi yezemidlalo. Manje, njengoba sekuzoba iNdebe
Yomhlaba, kubonakala sengathi amaphoyisa kamasipala aseyinyusile imizamo
yawo. Izingane zibika ukuthi amaphoyisa kwenye inkathi azama ukubayisa
emuva emakhaya azo, kodwa agcine ebalahle emgaqweni. UWendy Ndlovu
oneminyaka eyishumi nesikhombisa wathi yena kanye nabangane bakhe
ababili basanda kulahlwa eManzimtoti, okuyindawo engamakhilomitha
angamashumi amathathu le kude. “[Amaphoyisa] asehlisa eduze negalaji.
Ngabuza kubantu ukuthi kukephi edolobheni sasesiqala sihamba. Sahamba
ubusuku bonke futhi salala esikhotheni,” kusho uNdlovu. “[Amaphoyisa]
athi asikwazi ukuba lapha [edolobheni] njengoba kuzoba khona iNdebe
Yomhlaba nokuthi azosiyisa endaweni enhle. Kodwa bagcina besishiye noma
ikuphi noma kulezizindlu ezisabisayo.”

Siyabona-ke ukuthi izibophezelo zezikhulu eziphezulu zedolobha ukuphatha
izingane zasemgaqweni ngesizotha into engekho. Noma-ke sihlonipha
ubulungiswa obuhambisana nazo zonke izizukulwane, izingane zasemgaqweni
izona zisulu ezinkulu zokungabikhona kobulungiswa kwezomnotho, inkinga
kwezokunakekelwa ngezempilo, kanti ngesikhathi esizayo, ukushintsha
kwesimo sezulu.

Ukucwaswa kwabokufika eThekwini: kwafa ababili eAlbert Park
Abanye abahlala maphakathi neTheku lomasipala obhekena nabo – futhi
abanganakiwe – ngokwezenhlalakahle, abokufika abaqhamuka ezindaweni
zaseNingizimu Matabeleland eZimbabwe, (okuthi ngenxa yokufana kwezilimi
nolimi lwesiZulu lasendaweni) bangabaningi njengeqembu labokufika
edolobheni. Ngokuzayo, bayobe bengabanye kulelizwekazi abayobe
bechaphaleke kakhulu njengezisulu zesimo sezulu, njengoba bejwayele
behlala lapho kunesomiso khona. Kulendawo eyiningizimumpumalanga neICC,
ehlanganisa indawo ebolayo maphakathi nedolobha, izakhiwo ezinyuke
kancane ezizungeze iAlbert Park, amadoda endawo angabasebenzi
sekukaningi ekhombisa ukungabi naluzwelo kulaba kanye nabanye bokufika.
NgoJanuwari ngo2009, lokungabi nazwelo kwaholela ekufeni kwabantu.
Ukusuka kokuhlaselwa kwababokufika kwenzeka kwabokufika baseAfrika,
futhi ukuhlasela okukhulu kuthiwa kwakuholwa ikhansela ledolobha
likaKhongolose (ANC) eAlbert Park, uVusi Khoza. Kwaholela ekufeni
kwabantu ababili, abatshingwa esakhiweni esenyuke ngezitezi
eziyisithupha iVenture Africa betshingwa kusuka esitezi sesithupha.
Abasemthethweni basedolobheni baphendula ngokuthi – bavumele uKhoza
aqhubeke nokuba ikhansela – kwathi icala elisaqhubeka laveza obala
ukuthi kunzima kangakanani kwabokufika ukuthi bathole indawo evikelekile
maphakathi neTheku. Abokufika baseAfrika abaqhamuka eNingizimu neAfrika
– ikakhulukazi abaqhamuka eZimbabwe, eMozambique, eDemocratic Republic
of the Congo (DRC), eTanzania kanye naseMalawi – kanye nakwezinye
izingxenye noPhondo (eEthopia naseSomalia) kanye neMpumalanga Afrika
(Nigeria) asebengofakazi bebona ukunyuka okumangalisayo kokungabinazwelo
okuqhamuka kwabaseNingizimu Afrika eminyakeni eyishumi edlule.
Leliqiniso elimbi kangaka liqeda iphupho eliheha abokufika baseAfrika
ukuthi beze eNingizimu Afrika – iphupho – ngeshwa, elihlala
ligqugquzelwa ngokuchazwa njengephupho elihle elilindele labo abezayo.
Ngenzansi-nje ngenkathi emaketha ezokuvakasha, uZweli Mkhize, (emva
kwalokho owaba nguNdunankulu wesifundazwe) wayencoma ethi

Ukwahlukahlukana kobuzwe okugqamile kubantu, inhlanganyela yamasiko
(kanye) nokubekezelelana ngokwahlukana ngamasiko . . .ukuba khona
kwezinhlobonhlobo zezimpahla, ikakhulukazi uma sikhula ngezobuciko
namagugu, ezigqamile ezikhombisa umsuka wobuzwe – ikhona lokho
oyokuthola kulendawo yaseAfrika. Futhi kuyaqhubeka ukwahlukahlukana
kobuzwe ngezizwe zaseAfrika, kangangokuthi uvele ubonele ukuhlala kwabo
kulendawo. Ngakho-ke kukwenza . . . ukuthi uma usufike la, usendaweni
enobungane (kucashunwe kuBass 2009:253-254).

Izikhulu ezimbili eziphezulu zedolobha, noSutcliffe (onguMphathi
weDolobha kusukela ngo2002; noma-ke ayesebekisile futhi sekuphela u2011)
kanye nomsizi wakhe owayebhekene nokuphathwa kweICC, uJulie-May
Ellingson, bagqugquzela ukuzimisela kweTheku ngokusemthethweni ukuthi
liyiDolobha laseAfrika ngokuthi ‘Inkundla yethu iAfrika, iSouth Afrika
isigcawu sethu, bese kuthi thina (eThekwini) singabadlali abahamba
phambili’ (kucashunwe kuBass 2009:250). UBass (2009:250) ucaphuna
uSutcliffe ethi ‘sidala idolobha elinakekelayo, elihlanganisa
uwonkewonke, eliphethwe kahle, futhi nelibuswa ngentando yeningi.’ Kodwa
okuziwa ngabokufika baseAfrika emigaqweni yedelobha laseThekwini –
okuhambisana nokungazwelwa okukhulu njengabanye – kubeka obala
ukuzenzisa kwalemizwa.
Ezweni lonke, ukuhlasela kwangoMeyi 2008 kwabokufika kwaholela ekufeni
kwabantu abangaphezulu kuka60. Njengokusho kwemibiko esemthethweni,
zingu 342 izitolo okwatshontshwa izimpahla kuzo, ezingu213 zasha
zangqongqa kwaboshwa abantu abangu1384 (ngokucashunwa okwashiwo
ngowayenguNgqongqoshe Wezokuvikela nokuQapha uCharles Nqakula eCrush et.
at. 2008:11) Ukuhlaselwa kwahlangatshezwa ngukwethuka kanye nokwesaba
eNingizimu Afrika kanye nasemazweni akude. Lokhu kwakungenzeka kanjani
ezweni elalinedumela emhlabeni wonke ngokubuyisana, futhi abantu balo
babaziwa ‘njengesizwe sothingo lwenkosazane kaNkulunkulu’ ngenxa
yokwenza umthethosisekelo kanye nokugcizelela ngamalungelo esintu
okuxhaswe khona lapha ekhaya ngezimali iKhomishani Yamalungelo Esintu.
Ekhulumela uhulumeni, uNgqongqoshe Wezomoya uRonnie Kasrils wathi
kungenxa ye’Third Force’ yalabo abacekela phansi ezombusazwe, kanye
nabanye ontamolokhuni nezigebengu. Kwabhekwa kancane ukuthi udlame
lokucwaswa kwabokufika kwakunomlando omujana eNingizimu Afrika
eyayisibuswa ngentando yeningi. Ngenkathi bexwayiswa ithimba leAfrican
Peer Review Mechanism ngoDisemba ka2007 ukuthi ‘ukucwaswa kwabokufika
kwabanye baseAfrika kubonakala kunyuka futhi kufanele kuqedwe kusaqala.’
uThabo Mbeki, ngalesosikhathi esanguMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika,
waphendula wathi ‘lokhu akusilo iqiniso’ (Johwa 2008). Kodwa ngokuzalwa
ngentando yeningi entsha, izimpawu zobungozi zazikhona. Kusukela
ngoDisemba 1994, abokufika baseAfrika babehlaselwa yizakhamizi
zaseAlexandra elokishini eliseduze kwesizinda sezimali saseGoli, lapho
abaningi babuka imijondolo nemizi yabo icekelwa phansi, ngenkathi abanye
bephoqwa ukuba baye esiteshini samaphoyisa. Lokukuhlangana komphakathi
kwakubuzwa nge’Operation Buyelekhaya’. Ngokusho kuka Jonathan Crush
nabanye (2008:21).

Ukuhlaselwa kwabezizwe bokufika kwanyuka ngesibindi kanye nangonya.
Kokunye ukuhlasela kwango2007, angaphezulu kwekhulu amaSomalis abulawa
nezitolo zawo zashiswa kwantshontshwa nezimpahla. Empeleni zaziningi
izimpawu zobungozi. Ongqongqoshe bakahulumeni kwakungafanele bathuke
ngoMeyi ka2008.

Ucwaningo olunzulu lukhomba imizwa ejulile ngokucwaswa kwabokufika
(Mattes nabanye 1999). Ngenkathi imizwa ngokucwaswa kwabokufika
isabalele yonke indawo futhi sekudlulele emagatsheni kahulumeni kwaze
kwaba udlame, ukuhlasela kwangoMeyi 2008 kwakuhlukile.Udlame
lwangaphambilini lwalugxila esikhathini futhi endaweni eyodwa ngenkathi
ukuhlasela kwango2008 kwakusabalele izwe lonke, kwenza amashumi
ezinkulungwane zabantu zihambe, cishe u15 000 wabantu baseMozambique
abahamba bashiya lelizwe ngenqwaba yamabhasi, ngenkathi abanye
baseAfrika bokufika befuna izindawo zokukhosela emakhempini kanye
nesezindaweni zesikhashana.
Ngisho nalabo ababebalekela unya olukhulu emazweni akubo – okwakwenza
kube nzima ukubuyela emakhaya abo babechapheleka. Empumalanga
neDemocratic Republic of Congo(DRC), cishe u5.4 wezigidi zabantu
ababulawa phakathi no1998 no2008 (Reuters 2008), engxenye ngenxa
yokufunwa kwecoltan yizimboni ezisabalele umhlaba, lomkhiqizo
osetshenziswa kumakhalekhukhwini kanye nezinye izimpahla
zama-electronics, futhi embiwa ngosizo lwezidlamlilo. Umkhiqizi wegolide
lonke emhlabeni oqhamuka eNingizimu Afrika, iAngloGoldAshanti,
bebenezindawo ezingamakhilomitha angu2000 wamasquare omhlaba
ngaseMongbwali emva kokuthola ngobuqili amalungelo okubheka lomkhiqizo
ngo1996 ngenkathi kusabusa ngendlovuyangena uMobutu Sese Seko (Deibert
2008).

Ngo 2005, Ababhekeleli Bamalungelo Esintu (Human Rights Watch) baveza
ukuthi uAngloGold Ashanti ngo2005 wakhokhela izidlamlilo zeFront for
National Intergration (FIN0 umholi wazo owashushiswa eHague eNkantolo
Enkulu Yomhlaba Yezigelekeqe (International Criminal Court) ngamacala
obugebengu bezimpi. ‘Injongo yethu enkulu siphokophele ukuthola simbe
igolide ngokunenzuzo,’ kuchaza owengusihlalo omkhulu, uBobby Godsell
(ngo2005), eqhubeka ethi ‘(ama)phutha ayokwenzeka’(Godsell 2005).
Uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika waxhasa osozimali baseGoli ukuthi
bangenelele ngenkathi kuqala iminyaka ka2000 (Bond 2002). Umthelela
walokhu kulombuso obusa amazwe kulesisigceme saseAfrika (sub-imperial
power) kahulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika nosozimali, kwaba inqwaba
yobokufika bethutheleka kulelizwe ngenxa yemigomo yezangaphandle
yasePitoli ibhekelela izimboni zokumbiwa phansi zaseGoli ezilambele
imikhiqizo embiwayo.
ITheku laba ufakazi walokhu ngenkathi iqembu labokufika abangu-47
abaqhamuka empumalanga neDRC ababedinga ukukhoseliswa emva kwesidumo
sokuhlaselwa kwabokufika kukaMeyi 2008 sekuphelela eAlbert Park,
inkundla esiphuphile eningizimu netshonalanga yengxenye yezokuhweba
maphakathi nedolobha, ezungezwe amaflethi asegugile. Kulenkundla
babehlale behlushwa ngamaphoyisa. Abokufika bancenga idolobha
ukushintsha indawo ibe inkambo esemthethweni. Izinhlangano ezizimele
zasendaweni ezinye zazo ezikhokhelwa iUnited Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees(UNHCR) – zazama ukubonisa leliqembu ukuthi lihlukane.
Abaphathi bedolobha basebenzisa ulwimi olunonya futhi olunobungozi
ekuxoxeni ngaloludaba. Kuloludaba uSutcliffe wakhuluma ngokusobala:

Imindeni iyakwazi ukuzikhethela ukuphindela emazweni akubo noma
ezindaweni emphakathini eyayihlala kuyo ngaphambilini ngaphambi
kwezinkinga zikaJulayi. Umasipala awukwazi ukuvele usuwenza
ngokubaluleka izidingo zabo zezindlu sibe sinabantu [bendawo]abangu200
000 abadinga izindlu edolobheni uqobo (Mdletshe 2008).

Empeleni, abokufika, abakaze bafune ngesankahlu izindawo zokuhlala;
konke ababekufuna kwakungukuba nendawo ekhuselekile eAlbert Park.
Lokukhulumna okungaphumeli obala okungenza abokufika bazibone
kungasondelwene nabo futhi kube ukuzivikela kokwehluleka kwedolobha
ukuthi lifeze izethembiso zokwakhela bahluphekayo. Umqondo kaSutcliffe
ukususa abantu epaki ngenxa yokuthi yomphakathi wendawo uyakhononda
ngobugebengu.’ (Magwaza 2008) Empeleni ukuthi akekho noyedwa wabokufika
owayesoleka ngobugebengu abazange bakushaye indiva lokho. Kodwa
kwakunomunye umthelela: Indebe Yomhlaba ka2010, okwase kungaphansana
kweminyaka emibili ukuthi ifike.
Isaqala phansi inyanga kaNovemba ngo2008. idolobha lafika neDurban Solid
Waste kanye nenqwaba yamaphoyisa kamasipala. Ngalesosikhathi umqondo
kwakungukuthi ipaki kufanekle lihlanzwe. Omunye wabangu-47, uAziza
Wilondja, umama wabantwana abayisithupha owayesehlale epaki izinyanga
ezine, wathi izingubo zabo kanye nomazisi babo baphucwa khona:

Amaphoyisa athatha izinto zethu azifaka emotweni yomgqomo. Baqaqa
amatende ethu futhi basisabisa ngokusishaya.

Ngenkathi bezama ngokubambelela ezintweni zabo eziyingcosana, abokufika
basebephoqelekile ukuhamba eAlbert Park futhi bangena indlela umuntu
nomuntu esezibonela ukuthi uyaphi. KuMphathi weDolobha, babeyinkinga
okwakufanele ukuthi inyamalale, ngokuxwayiswa ngenkathi ukuxhasa
kwezinhlangano ezizimele kanye nomphakathi kwakuncomeka:

Kufanele siqaphele ukuthi asiqhubezeli pambili isimo ngokungenasidingo.
Inkinga ekhulayo yabokufika iyinto ekufanele sizame ukuyigwema ngayo
yonke indlela. (Bond, Hinley, noMeth 2008).

Belandela ukuyalelwa okwakuqhamuka kuSutcliffe ukususa abantu baseCongo,
iphoyisa elaliphethe, uConstable Khwezi Mathenjwa, wakhuluma
kwisiqophamazwi neCentre for Civil Society yaseUniversity of
KwaZulu-Natal ngokususwa ngendluzula kanye nokuthathwa kwezimpahla
(okuhlanganisa namaphepha emvume asemthethweni abokufika) wavela
ngokubanzi ingcindezi eyayihambisana neNdebe Yomhlaba.

U2010 uzofika la, ngakho-ke abantu abaqhamuka kwamanye amazwe, mabeza
kulelizwe, kufanele babe nesithombe sokuthi eNingizimu Afrika, idolobha
laseThekwini lihlanzekile, ukuthi ayikho imihambuma, abekho abadayisi
emgaqweni. (Bond, Hinley, noMeth 2008).

Enyangeni elandelayo, indawo yaseAlbert Park yaba ofakazi ngezimpawu
ezintsha zokuchukuluzwa kwabokufika. Kokunye ukuhlaselwa, abaseNingizimu
Afrika basendaweni bangena eJamba House eSt. Georges Street baqhubekela
phambili bexosha abokufika. IJamba House kwakuyindawo ehlaselwa kakhulu
ngamaphoyisa. Abahlali bathi amaphoyisa ayevele athathe noma yini
abanayo. Abameli Bamalungelo Esintu (Lawyers for Human Rights) LHR
okuyinhlangano ezimele yamalungelo esintu, yayithathe amacala ambalwa
emva kokuba abahlali bekhiphe amarisidi ezimpahla. Ngenkathi abahlali
sebephumele engaqweni, amaphoyisa ayebahlukumeza baze banyamalale ebusuku.
Owokufika waseZimbabwe uEugene Madondo, owayazi ngalesisimo,
wayengakhululekile ecabanga ukuthi imiphumela yokuzijabulisa kakhulu
ngesikhathi samaholide kaKhisimusi. Uma sekuhwalala, wayecasha
ekamelweni lakhe eVenture Afrika, enye indawo yamaflethi eseduze ehlala
kakhulu abokufika.

Kwasekubakhona lokhukuhlaselwa ngoJanuwari 4, 2009. Kwakuyisonto
ligamenxe ihora leshumi ebusuku. Ngabona iqembu labantu bephethe
izikhali ezifana namazembe kanye nezagila. Babephethe nezando, futhi.
Babefutha amavuvuzela. Behaya izisho ngolimi lwesiZulu, abanye babo
babecula. Ngababona beza ngendlela yaseflethini lapho ngihlala khona,
eVenture Afrika. (Desai noMadondo 2009.)

Ukuze lifike eVenture Afrika, leliqembu kwakufanele lidlule esiteshini
samaphoyisa. Ukubuka omabonakude bangasese abasuke beqaphile
kwabakhombisa ababehamba bemasha emigaqweni. Umqashwa ehovisi laseLHR
eduze kwaseVenture Africa washo ephindelela ukuthi abantu ‘ balizwa
iqembu, balibona iqembu.’ Kwathintwa umnikazi weVenture Afrika, futhi
washayela ucingo ezakadalawane ukuthi zingenelele. Amaphoyisa amtshela
ukuthi iqembu lalenza umsebenzi osemthethweni wabaQapheli Bomphakathi
(Community Policing Forum – CPF). UEugene Madondo wasilandisa-ke ukuthi
kwase kwenzekani:

[Iqembu] laphoqa langena ngenkani ngaphakathi. Izitezi eziyisithupha. .
. Kuqala okwenzekayo ngangilele, kodwa ngeSaba kakhulu. Ngezwa umsindo
wabantu bememeza. Izicabha zazihleshulwa. Babeshaya izicabha ngezando.
Ngenkathi ngibona ukuthi babehlephula nezicabha, ngacabanga ukuthi
ngibaleke, ngakho ngavula umnyango, ngenkathi ngibona umakhelwane wami
etshingwa kusukela esitezi sesithupha – PHANSI! Ngaphambi kokuba
ngikhiye isicabha sekamelo lami, kwafika kimi abanye baleliqembu –
iningi labo; babeBaningi! Amadoda ayengaphambili’ abesifazane bengemuva
bememeza, “Shaya! Shaya! Bangibuza ukuthi ngiqhamuka kuphi. Ngathi
ngingowaseZimbabwe. Bamemeza, “Shaya ikwere-kwere! Shaya!” Oyedwa wabo
wangishaya ekhanda ngesagila. Igazi laqala lavuza. Ngazizwa
ngibuthakathaka. Ngamemeza ngicela usizo. Owayengihlasela wajoyinwa
ngabanye. Bangishaya ngezibhakela esiswini Babengishaya ngisho nezitho
zangasese. Ngazizwa ngibuthakathaka kakhulu. Ngawela phansi.
Ngangicabanga ukuthi sekuphelile. Ngezwa oyedwa wabo ekhuluma ngolwimi
lwesiZulu. Bathi, “Asijikijele lenja ngewindi”. Abayisihlanu babo
bangiphakamisa, bangiphusha ngewindi. Ngazama ukubambelela ngepulangwe
lewindi, ngimemeza ngicela usizo. Baphula amapulangwe ewindi,
bangiphushela phansi kusukela esitezi sesihlanu. Ngenhlanhla, ngawela
phezu kwalamadoda amabili ayesefile Ngesikhathi sengiphansi lapho, futhi
sebebona ukuthi angifile, babelokhu bengijikijela ngezinto futhi
bengishaya ngamabhodlela kaBhiya nengezinye izinto. Ngangingaboni
nanokuthi lamadoda ayesefile. “Wozani madoda. Kunendawo yokugcina
izimpahla esingagaqela kuyona. Igazi lalopha kakhulu ekhanda lami.
Ngangizwa ubuhlungu obumangalisayo kumgogodla wami kanye nasekhanda.
Ngase ngiya[quleka].

Lababangani ababili abase befile uMadondo awela phezu kwabo kwakunguOmar
Said waseSomalia kanye noVictor Zowa waseZimbabwe. Emva kokuhlala
isikhathi eside esibhedlela, uMadondo waphindela lapho kwafa khona
lamadoda. Ikamelo lakhe lalisaphazekile. Abaningi ayehlala nabo bavele
banyamalala besaba ukuphindwa bahlaselwe. UMadondo wafuna usizo eLHR
kanye neRefugee Social Services. Into yokuqala okwathiwa akayenze
kwakungukukhomba abenzi balokhu.

Ngayakhona, ngingedwa. Ofakazi abaningi abangazange babe izisulu
babesaba. Banovalo. Bacabanga ukuthi bazobulawa ngabaphesha udweshu
lalokhukuhlaselwa, ngoba iningi labo lingaphandle ngebheyili. NgoMeyi 19
kwakunabaphenyi becala lapho ngakwazi ukukhomba abanye babaphehli
bodweshu, ngisho noVusi Khoza uqobo lwakhe. UVusi, ngingathini ngoVusi?
Mubi kakhulu. Akakwazi ukuhlalisana ndawonye nabanye abantu. Ngaphambi
kokuhlasela akhombe ngeminwe [ku] bantu bokufika abahlala emaflethini .
. .Akalungile, leyandoda. Futhi, akafuni ukushitsha noma axolise. Uzama
ngayoyonke indlela ukucekela phansi ubufakazi ngokubulala ofakazi bombuso.

Ngenkathi ngimkhomba, wayengangiboni ngoba ngangifihliwe. Wayeyinombolo
yeshumi nesihlanu. Bathi, “Oweshumi nesihlanu akaphumele obala.”
Ngesikhathi enza lokho, noma wayengangiboni, wangikhomba ngomunwe wakhe
ukuze angenze ngisabe futhi ngibe nemizwa emibi. Kodwa angimzondi.
Engingakuthandi nhlobo indlela aphatha ngayo abanye abantu, ikakhulukazi
abokufika. Konke engikudingayo ngaye, ikakhulukazi yena, uVusi, ukuthi
abekwe icala ngalesisenzo futhi bese eyagwetshwa . . .Isimo ekhaya isona
esenza sishiye amazwe esidabuka kuwo. Ngakho-ke, uma ukhosela kwelinye
izwe futhi uthola ukuthi isimo kulelozwe sibucayi kakhulu kunasezweni
lakho, nabantu bendawo bafuna ukukubulala, sizoyaphi-ke kanti ngempela?
Kwasekuzwakele ukuthi uMadondo usePort Shepstone. Empeleni, emva
kokuhlaselwa waqhubeka nokuhlala endaweni yaseAlbert Park. Kwakuyindlela
engikhombisa inkani ngayo. UMadondo uphila engxenye ngokunikela ngempilo
yomndeni wakhe: Umkakhe, uFungai, kanye nendodana yakhe esencane,
uAshley, asebakade baphindela eZimbabwe. Ngenkathi usuku lwecala
selusondela, uMadondo wahamba wayofihlwa evikelwa. Wayebeke impilo yakhe
ukuthi ivikelwe ngamaphoyisa ayekade emhlukumeza esahlala edolobheni.
UKhoza, omunye wabaphehli baloludweshu lokuhlasela ngoJanuwari,
wayehamba hamba endaweni yaseAlbert Park. Wonke unyaka ka2010 waqhubeka
waba ikhansela leANC kulewadi futhi engusihlalo Oversight Committee
Lamaphoyisa KaMasipala, kodwa ngokhetho lango2011 akazange akhethwe
kwiANC futhi kwaqala ukuqulwa kwecala lakhe. Kwahlehliswa emva kosuku
kokulalelwa, njengoba amasondo ezobulungiswa aseThekwini ayesebuthuntu.
NgoJuni 26, 2009, uMasipala waseThekwini wathumela isimemezelo
sikhombisa ngeAfrican Unity Six-a-Side Soccer Tournament, lomdlalo
wawuzoba ngaphansi kwesiqubulo esithi ‘Silwa nokucwaswa kwabokufika
futhi sigqugquzela ukubambisana kwamaAfrika ngeBhola.’ Incwadi
yayinesigxivizo sikaKhoza.
Kulesisikhala esincane maphakathi nedolobha, ukungazwani, kuyaqhubeka,
kube sezindaweni ezithile, bese futhi kuyaqubuka. Iziqapheli
Zezomphakathi balinganisa ukuba khona kobugebengu nokubakhona kwezifiki
zaseAfrika. Besebenzisa lomqondo, obenza bahlasele amaflethi lapho
kuhlala khona izifiki bazilahlele ngaphandle. Futhi sekuphumele obala
ukuthi abaqashisi balamaflethi asesimweni esibhedayo abiza uR700
ngenyanga ngendawo encane abayihlukanise phakathi, isikhathi esiningi
engenamanzi noma ugesi, lapho kwakukade kuyizindlu zokugcina izimpahla
kanye namahovisi asesimweni esingesihle. Uma abokufika sebesemgaqweni,
amaphoyisa ayabasukela abahlukumeze abaphoqe ukuthi balokhu besuka
kulezizindawo, baze bagcine sebehambile lapho. Ngokusho kweLHR,
amaphoyisa ahlasela amaflethi bese ethatha izimpahla zabokufika,
engenandaba noma banaphepha yini akhombisayo ukuthi bazithenga noma qha.
Ingxenye esempumalanga neAlbert Park. Inhlangano exhasa abokufika
kwiSizinda saseDiakonia, indawo lapho enezinhlobonhlobo zezinkolo
eziyizishoshovo ezilwela intuthuko eminingi iminyaka le, bamatasatasa.
ILHR kanye neRefugee Support Services banesivumelwano neUN High
Commission for Refugees. Noma ingaluphi usuku, kuba nemigqa emide kanti
izinsiza azikho kakhulu. Umsebenzi wabo ukubhala, ezomthetho, kanye
nokubhekana nesimo somuntu ngendlela yaso ngamunye. Ezinye zezinhlangano
zaziphikisana nokubekwa ndawonye kwabokufika abangu47 baseDRC eAlbert
Park. Babengawuboni umqondo wabokufika – ukuthi ngenkani yabo yokuhlala
lapha yayenza kube sobala ukuthi akukho ukuxhaswa iziphathimandla
zedolobha; ukuthi ngokuqhubeka ngokuphikelela bebona amatende edilizwa
futhi behlukunyezwa ngamaphoyisa futhi kwamema ukuqhubeka kokucwaswa
kwabokufika ngokusemthethweni; nokuthi izikhwama ezimnyama zeplastiki,
abazimboza ngazo, lokhu kwaqhubeka kwaveza obala ukungaxhaswa uhulumeni.
Izinhlangano ezingaphandle kukahulumeni ezizimele ezixhaswa iUNHCR
zatolika izenzo zabokufika baseCongo njengomdlalo abokufika
abawudlalayo: Befuna indawo yabo yokufihla ikhanda ngendlela yabo
yokuzifunela ukusizwa ‘kwelinye lamazwe ahamba phambili emhlabeni’.
Umbono wabo, kwakungukuthi lendawo yokuhlala engekho ezingeni yokuhlala
kwakungesona isenzo sabaxakekile kanye nokuzimisela kodwa
esokuzibhekelela kanye nesamaqhinga.
Ngenkathi ukuxhaswa kwabokufika kwakugxile ezintweni zokuthi baqhubekele
phambili kanye namacala amuntu ngamunye, idolobha lasebenzisa izazi
ukubhekana nabo. Abaholi beKwaZulu-Natal Refugee Council, uBaruti Amisi
beno Piere Matate (2009), baveza iqiniso lokuthi eminyakeni engaphambili
edlule, ukukhunjulwa kweWorld Refugee Day kwakuhlelwa umphakathi
wabokufika uqobo lwabo. Kodwa-ke, eminyakeni emibili edlule kukhunjulwa
iWorld Refugee Day, abalethi bezinsiza bexhaswe nguhulumeni ibona
asebathatha umsebenzi owawenziwa ngaphambilini umphakathi wabokufika.
Lokhu kwashintsha indlela kwalokukhunjulwa kwalolosuku ‘okwaba elinye
ngelabampofu kanye nabokufika (isikhathi esiningi ngaphandle ngokudla
kanye nokuphuzwayo, futhi isikhathi esiningi etendeni); bese kuba abanye
bezikhulu ezindaweni ezithokomele njengaseCity Hall, lapho kudliwa khona
ukudla okubizayo kanye nokokuphuza.’ Njengoba uAmisi noMatate (2009)
bebika, abalethi bezinsiza sebenza lokukukhunjulwa kwaba yindlela
‘yokuzijabulisa bona’.
Ukubulala kwangoJanuwari ngo2009 kwakungumphumela wokucwaswa kakhulu
kwabokufika eAlbert Park. Kwenye ingxenye kodwa-ke, icala elihanjwa
enkantolo lehlisa ukudonsisana, njengoba nedumela futhi lenza kwaxwayisa
labo abanokuthanda ukuhlasela abokufika ukuthi lokho kungababeka
engcupheni uma behlasela ngokusobala. Kodwa kusekhona noma kungagqamile
ukusatshiswa emigaqweni, okuphinde kwavela ngoJulayi ka2010 ngenkathi
ukuhlasela kwabokufika kwakubikwa izwe lonke emva KweNdebe Yomhlaba.
Lokukuhlaselwa kuqhubeka ngokujwayelekile lapho kunezibheku zokulethwa
kwezinsiza okugcina sekunokucwaswa kwabokufika. Kodwa kololonke
loludlame, uThabo Mbeki wayephindelela ephika ukucwaswa kwabokufika
ngoOctober ngo2010:

Ngakho ngithi umangabe kukhona ukucwaswa kwabokufika, ngingakulindela
ukuthi kwenziwe kubantu abahlukile kunami futhi, uma sesibheka umlando
wethu, laba ngabantu ababesicindezela. Kodwa awunabo ubufakazi bokucwasa
kubantu bakithi . . . Asigxile ezimpandeni zomsuka [wale] nto futhi
sikhulume nezwekazi lonke, enginesiqinisekiso . . .ngiyagcizelela ukuthi
abantu bakithi abanayooinkinga yokucwasa abokufika (Ncana 2010).

Ngokufanayo, kubhala isikhulumi sikaKhongolose uJackson Mthembu (2010)
ngenkathi sekugoqwa iNdebe Yomhlaba,

Imibiko yokuhlaselwa kwabokufika yizakhamizi zaseNingizimu Afrika,
ikakhulukazi abaqhamuka ezwenikazi laseAfrika, emva kokuphela kweNdebe
Yomhlaba kaFIFA ngo2010 eNingizimu Afrika, akunamnyombo futhi
akunangqondo [sic].

USihlalo kaZwelonke kaKhongolose uBalekaMbete waphawula wathi, emibiko
Ayinangqondo futhi ayinamnyombo nhlobo’ (Mthembu 2010). Ngaleyonkathi
futhi,
Umnyango wedolobha wezezindlu – odume kakhulu ngenkohlakalo, njengoba
Kufakazeka ecaleni lamathenda akwaMpisane, okwaholela kwinzuzo enkulu
Kubathuthukisi abakha izindlu zamanani aphansi kanye nokungenzeka
kubenophenyo
Kumkhonyovu ofika kuR3.5wezigidigidi – futhi lomnyango uxhase izinhlelo
zokuvuselela amaflethi azodayiswa kusukela kuR300 000 noR400 000. Abokufika
abangenayo imvume kanye nokukwazi ukuboleka ngeke bakwazi ukusebenzisa
lamathuba. Futhi, ukususwa kwaMaphoyisa kaMasipala kwekomkhulu lawo ngo2010
kwenza iAlbert Park kungabi indawo engahlala abokufika. Iyona ndawo
yokugcina
ejwayelekile lapho abokufika behlangana, balale elangeni, babuke
ichweba, futhi
bathole nokudla kubantu abenza okuhle noma ezinhlanganweni zezenkolo.

I ‘Dolobha laseAfrika’ ngaphandle kwabadayisi abancane; ichweba elingenabo
Abadobi?

Loluhlelo lokukhipha ngaphandle; abangafuneki’ futhi lalumbandakanya
nokwesabisa
okwacishe kwanyamalalisa amaqembu amabili asengcupheni: abadobi
abasekuqaleni
kolwandle kanye nabadayisi abangenamvume eWarwick Avenue Market (ebuye
yaziwe Ngemakethe Yasekuseni Kakhulu –Early Morning Market), eminyakeni
eyikhulu ebiyikhaya labadayisi abakhiqiza izitshalo bamaNdiya kanye
nabamaAfrika, abahlanza amakhanda ezinkomo (kulabo abangochwepheshe
ukulungiselela inyama yenkomo yasebusweni, kanye nezinye izinhlobonhlobo
zabadayisi (ukuze wazi umlando wendawo bheka umbhalo kaMaharaj ngo19990.
IWarwick Avenue Market isibone izimpi ezidlula amashumi eminyaka. Uchuku
lwezikhulu lwanyuka kakhulu ngoJuni18, 2007 lapho abadayisi abangu-500
baboshwa ngokungezwani ngosuku olulodwa.Ngo2009, izikhulu zedolobha
zamemezela ukuthi kunezinhlelo zokwakha inxanxathela yezitolo
esikhundleni salezizimakethe eyayizokwakhiwa ngomunye wabalingani
ongobhululu bezohwebo – umkhuba iTheku elidume ngawo. UCaroline Skinner
(2009) uwucacisa kahle lomzabalazo:

Lemakethe inezindawana ezingu673 zokuhweba, kanye nabezingadi abangu50
abadayisa imikhiqizo yabo lapha. Labahwebi badayisela abanye abahwebi
abangekho emthethweni edolobheni lonke; ngakho-ke bayingxenye
ebalulekile yedolobha lonke yokusabalalisa imikhiqizo. Osukwini
olumatasatasa, cishe bafinyelela ku8 000 abadayisi basemigaqweni
nabasezimakethe abasebenzela ngaphandle kwaseWarwick. Kunabaningi
abasebenzayo ukuxhasa loluhwebo, njengabagqubi bezinqola kanye nabaletha
amatafula, uparrafin, kanye nezikhwama zokudayisa. Asibanga khona
isimemezelo esenziwa ikomidi kulabo ababengathanda uma ngabe lomhlaba
obiza kangaka usudedelwa, futhi akuzange kube khona uhlelo
lwezomphakathi lwamathenda. Futhi, akukho mhwebi okhona owenziwa waba
yingxenye yokuba umnikazi weqembu leBlack Economic Empowerment
eyayishayela lentuthuko.

Idolobha lasebenzisa izinkulumo ezimbalwa zokuphikisana njengesizathu
zokuphushela ngaphandle abahwebi, okuhlanganisa nokuphoxwa kwezifundiswa
zendawo nguMphathi weDolobha uMike Sutcliffe ngokuxhasa imakethe. Yini
engenza noma ubani aye kuleyandawo kubuza uSutcliffe (2009) ?

Cishe osukwini lonke indawo ingcolile, futhi zimbalwa nezindawo
zokuzikhulula futhi nabagibeli basengcupheni yokuhlaselwa, ngoba lendawo
iyona eyingozi kakhulu ezinhlanganweni zaseNingizimu Afrika. Akukho
mabhange, amahovisi amaposi kanye nezinsiza zomphakathi ngokwanele
endaweni ukusiza abadinga usizo.

Vele kwakungaphansi kokuphatha kwakhe okwenza lesisimo siphumelele futhi
siqhubekele phambili ngokonakala. Ngenkathi ekhala ngokusweleka kwezimali
ukuthuthukisa lengxenye ebaluleke kakngaka yedolobha, imali akukaze
kubonakale
iyinkinga ukuthuthukisa iNkundla iMoses Mabhida eyadla ngaphezulu kwezimali
eyayikade ibekelwe zona, Ukuthuthukiswa kwe-uShaka Point Waterfront,
kanye neICC, konke okwakudinga amashumi ezigidi ngokuxhaswa izimali
zikamasipala zemisebenzi.Othelawayeka bemigwaqo emisha abahambela
phezulu esekususa iningi labahambi bezimoto ngaphezulu kweWarwick
Junction – bakhiwa ngemali yezakhiwo zeNdebe Yomhlaba – okwabiza
ngaphezulu kukaR1.4 wezigidigi (billion), kodwa izindawo zikamasipala
azikakabinenqubekela phambili kubantu abangaphezulu kuka-460 000
abangabasebenzi abama njalo ezizindeni zamatekisi usuku nosuku kuWarwick
(Comins
2009b).

Ngo-2009, abahwebi kanye nabangani babo baphikisana ngokunamandla
ukucekelwa phansi kwemakethe futhi baphoqa idolobha ukuthi lihlehlele emuva
kwizinhlelo zalo zokwakha inxanxathela yezitolo usuzophela lowonyaka. Kodwa
lokhu kwakungukuphumelela okungenazinselelo, ngoba idolobha liyanqaba
ukufaka
izinsiza ukwenza ngcono imakethe nokuyenza ikwazi ukusetshenziswa
nguwonkewonke.Futhi, ngenxa yokuthi indawo lapho abantu bangathenga
khona izimfino ezitshalwe endaweni ezingabizi, iWarwick Avenue Market
ingenye indawo ebalulekile kakhulu lapho kunenhlanganyela kakhulu
kwezombusazwe kanye nezemvelo.
Amakhilomitha ambalwa uma ubheke empumalanga, ekuqaleni kolwandle,
Abadobi bavele bavunyelwa ukusebenzisa izndawo ezincane ezindaweni
ezisolwandle.Kusukela ngama1800, babekwazi ukudoba eNingizimu Pier
emlomeni wechweba (engamamitha angu-400 ubude), nnjengokusho komthwebuli
wezithombe uSjoerd Van Grootheest (2010), kodwa ngo-2005, kusetshenziswa
umgomo woMhlaba Wonke Wezemikhumbi kwaye neZokuvikela, inxusa laseMelika
langenelela ukuthi kungavunyelwa ukudoba noma ikuphi echwebeni lithi
ingenxa yokuvikela ichweba.Lokhu kwakuneminye ‘yemithetho kanye kanye
nemigmo ethwalisa ijoka eyaphoqa iNingizimu Afrika yiMelika
njengengxenye ‘’ yempi kubaphekuli’’ (war on terror) [okwakungase]
kungcwabe ichweba laseThekwini kanye nezimboni ezingaphansi kwemithetho
yolwandle, ‘njengokusho kwemibiko yasendaweni (Ryan 2007). NgoNovemba
ka2009, imigomo emisha yokudoba kamasipala yaqala yasetshenziswa,
yayunka kangangokuthi ngoJulayii ka2010, abadobi basebevunyelwe ukudoba,
kwipier emfishane engenamsebenzi walutho (eyayaziwa ngokuthi iSnake Park
Pier) eyayikude nalapho kugcwele khona ofishi. Abadobi abakaze babhekane
kahle nalokukusatshiswa, ngokubika kukavan Grootheest (2010) :

Kodwa-ke, nabadobi badube kabi ngokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa ngabanye
kozakwabo, kwezinye izikhathi kuholela ezingxushungxushweni kanye
nodlame ezindaweni zomphakathi ezisolwandle kanye nakumapiers. Abadobi,
okungebona abantu abahlangene noma umphakathi oqinile (baqhamuka
ndawozonke futhi bathembela kwabakudobile ngezindlela ezahlukene)
banenkinga ngesimilo sabo.

Ngokusho kukachwepheshe kwezenhlalakahle zabantu (an anthropologist)
uKeith Hart (2011), ukungezwani kuqhamuka engxenye yalokhu :

Izinhlelo zesikhathi eside zikamasipala kwindawo engaphambi kolwandle
kaMasipala weTheku (okumbandakanya noMphathi weDolobha, uMike
Sutcliffe,uchwepheshe webalazwe owayekholelwa kwiMarxism), ezagcwaliswa
iminyakazo eyayimelana neNdebe Yomhlaba . . . Izinhlelo zeDolobha
ukubhidliza isibhedlela bese kwakhiwa ihotela eliphambili lapho noma
okufana nalokho. Sebegqugquzele ukutshalwa kakhulu kwezimali kuleyondawo
engasolwandle ehlanganisa uShaka Marine World, ukuthuthukiswa kwezindlu
ngendlela yaseVenice (idolobha eliseItaly) ePoint, kanye nendawo
yokupaka imikhumbi emincane ehamba izicebi, nokunye nokunye. Indebe
Yomhlaba yabona ukwandiswa kwalendawo ngokweqile, futhi lokhu kwaholela
ekubhidlizweni kwemijondolo, izindawo ezingekho emthethweni zokudla,
njalonjalo.

Kubenemizamo emikhulu yamaphoyisa eminyakeni eyisihlanu edlule ukwenza
lendawo iphephe kakhulu kunendlela eyayiyiyona ekuqaleni. Umqondo ukuthi
iNingizimu Lendawo Engaphandle Yolwandle ibe ngokwemvelo indawo imakethe
esezingeni eliphezulu eduze maphakathi nedolobha ngenxa yeNyakatho
nengaphandle koLwandle lapho kunendawo yokugembula khona (casino) ITheku
lalibalwa njengengxenye yezindawo zasolwandle eziyishumi zokuvakasha
zemindeni emhlabeni yiphephandaba iLonely Planet ngonyaka odlule. Isimo
sezulu esihle ngoba kakhulu futhi siyaheha kubusika baseningizimu uma
kuqhathaniswa neKapa kanye neGoli. Idolobha libhekene nezentela
ezinciphayo. Ichweba lalo ilona elikhulukazi eningizimu yonke, kodwa
izimboni eziningi ezisemazingeni aphezulu seziyasuka ziya ngasenyakatho
yedolobha ngaseMhlanga, futhi nesikhumulo sezindiza sesikude
ngamakhilomitha angu35 enyakatho yedolobha lapho okwakuyiseZululand
kudala. Ezokuvakasha ilona themba eliphambili ledolobha elingakhulisa
ezomnotho, kanye nokutshuza (surfing) ikona okubalulekile.

Umnyango wechweba, iPoint, ulwandle oluseningizimu kanye namahotela
Ezokuvakasha empeleni zingenza kangcono kakhulu uma ukudoba
kungavunyelwa ekungeneleni kwechweba kanye nakumapiers amathathu amade
ancike eduze kwalapho kugcwele khona amahotela, ngokusho kwabamele
ezokudoba. Kodwa ezinye izimpi mayelana nendawo sezike zabakhona ngenxa
yabatshuzi abagxuma kumapiers ukubamba amagagasi, okujwayele ukona
imingcele noma ukubhajwa. Njengoba kwaqaphela uHart (2010),

Abatshuzi bayakhononda ukuthi abadobi bashiya ukungcola
(izilwane,imifino and namabhodlela) lapho basuke bekhona. Umasipala
weTheku ukhathazekile ngokwaziwa kwalelidolobha njengendawo
esemgangathweni yabatshuzi, kodwa ikakhulukazi ngomphumela wokubhekana
‘’nalenkilayitheka’’.

Idolobha lathatha amagxathu amakhulu ngo2010 lidweba kabusha indawo
nenhlabathi eseduze kolwandle eduze kwamapiers, bephampha inhlabathi
ukudala amagagasi angcono. Kodwa-ke, ngalowonyaka, ubuhixihixi okwafika
nokuthuthukiswa kabusha kanye ngosiyazi kwezikhulu zikamasipala
okwaholela ekutheni umqhudelwano omdala obuhlala wenziwe edolobheni
wokutshuza, owawaziwa ngeGunston500 kodwa manje osuwaziwa ngoMr. Price
Pro – usuka ufudukela kumakhilomitha angu25 enyakatho eBallito. Abadobi
bakhononda futhi ngokufanele ukuthi abatshuzi abaqhamuka emindenini
esuthayo esikhathini esiningi yabamhlophe basebenzisa amapiers mahala
(ayikho imali abayikhokhayo ngokusebenzisa lengxenye yolwandle), kodwa
abadobi bebe bekhokhela imvume njalo ngonyaka ukuthi badobe.
Noma-ke ngabe kwaba imizamo elula ukuhlanganisa abatshuzi ukuthi
bakhokhela abahlanzayo – mhlawumbe izingane ezingenamakhaya eziqhamuka
endaweni yokukhosela eMthombo esezitshuza ngendlela emangalisayo – ukuze
izinto eziyingozi zokuhuka ngeke zingcolise amapiers, esikhundleni
salokho ukungaziphathi kahle ikona okwaqhubekela phambili. Esikhundleni
sokuthi bakwazi ukusebenzisa lendawo ngokuzwana, abameli abanolimi
olubusheshelezi babatshuzi bakwazi ukuthi abadobi bavalwe.

Abatshuzi benza ngendlela abathandayo, kodwa-ke, abaningi babo baphuma
olwandle laseThekwini oluhle bekhishwa izisu futhi nezifo ezindlebeni.
Isikhathi esiningi ezinsukwini ezishisa kakhulu, izibalo zeE.coli
ziyanyuka, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi lapho inhlabathi igcwele kakhulu
olwandle noma emva kwezimvula ezinkulu, ezigeza amanzi angcolile
angenele emifuleni emine emikhulu engenelela olwandle : Umngeni
(okuyiwona othekela kakhulu amanzi asemapayipini edolobha edlula eDamini
iNanda), Umbilo kanye noMhlathuzana (ephumela echwebeni), kanye noMlazi,
ogijima phakathi kwezizinda zamafutha (refineries) ezimbili eNingizimu
neTheku. Umbiko wokugcina Wesimo seMifula Womnyango Wezindaba Zamanzi
(2010) wathi isifundazwe saKwaZulu-Natal sakhombisa ukuthi umfula
nomfula unesimo ‘esiphansi’ samanzi ikakhulukazi lapho idlula khona
ezakhiweni zasemijondolo ezinkulu ezisenqenqemeni ledolobha, ngale
‘kwebhande lenhlanzeko’ lapho izikhulu zaseThekwini sezinqume
akunambuyiselo ukulethela lababantu izindlu zangasese ezisezingeni
(Umnyango Wezindaba Zamanzi) 2010).
Ngisho nasezindaweni zasemijondolo ezinabantu abaningi, umasipala uletha
izindlu zangasese ezimbalwa – eyodwa kubantu abayinkulungwane futhi
lokho kujwayelekile – ngoba zesaba ukwenza emthethweni ukuhlala
ngokungemthetho kulezizindawo yilabantu. Ngakho-ke amanzi emvula ageza
indle kusuka ezakhiweni zasemjondolo kuye emifuleni, njengoba nesibalo
seE.coli njengokusho kwezikhulu zezwe zithole ukuthi idlula kwisigidi
(1million colony forming units –CFU’s per 100 ml) kuMngeni eduze
kwaseKennedy Road ezakhiweni zasemjondolo (the safe limit is 130CFU’s
per 100ml) Umnyango Wezamanzi kanye neZemvelo waseNingizimu Afrika 2008.
Futhi ukungabikhona kokuhlanzeka emsukeni womfula, njengokusho
kwentatheli ehamba phambili yedolobha ebhala ngezemvelo, uTony Cairne
(2008a0, umasipala uqobo lwawo ‘uvele wabhekwa ‘njengomgcolisi ohamba
phambili’ kweminye imifula ngenxa yokwahluleka ukuphesha amapayipi
aqhumile athwala indle kanye nokuhola okungekho ezingeni kwezinye izinda
lapho kuhlanzwa khona amanzi’ (bheka futhi uCarnie 2008b kanye no2008c).
Inkinga ngezinga eliphezulu le-E.coli emanzini asolwandle yabanzima
kakhulu kusukela ngo2008 kuya ku2010, kangangokuthi ukuba semgangathweni
kweTheku ngeFlegi elisasibhakabhaka – okwakukhombisa ukwamukeleka
kwamanzi alo emhlabeni wonke kanye nezindawo zasolwandle – kwabuyiselwa
emuva, okwaholela ehlazweni lezwelonke (Pullan 2010).

Isiphetho: Ubulungiswa besimo sezulu eThekwini ?
Ukukhethwa njengedolobha lokwamukelwa iCOP 17 kwakuyimpumelelo
emangalisayo uma sesibheka indlela ezemvelo ezicekeleke ngayo phansi
kwindawo eseduze ne International Conference Centre. Idolobha elihle
kakhulu laseKapa lanqatshwa, ngenxa yomyalezo owaposwa ngowakade
enguMphathi weDolobha uAndrew Boraine kwiblog yakhe,

Izinga elikhulu lezokuvikela elidingekayo . . . iInternational
Conference Centre yaseKapa ingemuva kakhulu uma iqhathaniswa neICC
yaseThekwini. Uyakwazi ukuvala yonke futhi ugcine amabhilikishi bekude
kwizikhulu ezisuke zifikile.

UBoraine, owayekade esebenzela iNGO yaseGoli wasiza izinhlangano
zemiphakathi yaseAlexandra zizivikele, ngenkathi yeminyaka yokuqala
yama1990’s ngezibhelu zobandlululo, kodwa emva kwalokho wayeseba
ngumxhumanisi phakathi kobudlelwane bomphakathi-kanye nangasese.
‘Isicelo saseKapa,’ esho, ‘saqaphela ukuthi kufanele kube khona isidingo
sokuvala ngci ezinye izindawo lapho kuhleli khona izikhulu zikahulumeni
kanye nababalulekile’ (Boraine 2010). Kodwa iTheku lalikwazi ukukhombisa
ukuzethemba, futhi ngoAgasti 2011, uSutcliffe waxwayisa izishoshovu
zezemvelo (ikakhulukazi iGreenpeace) ukuthi uma ababusi bamazwe befika
eThekwini beze kwiCOP 17 njengoba kwenzeka eCopenhagen, ngeke-nje
kugcinwe ngokuvalwa thanqa ezindaweni ezizungeze iICC, kodwa futhi ngeke
kubhekhona izingxoxo zokubonisana:’ [i] dolobha ngeke linyakaze’
njengoba asho kuKhumalo 2011). Ukuhlola lokho kuyoba Ngosuku Lomhlaba
Lokunyakaza (Global Day of Action) ngoDisemba 3, lapho izinkulungwane
ngezinkulungwane zezishoshovu zesimo sezulu ziyobe zimasha kusukela
eCurries Fountain kuya kuWarwick, kudlulwe eGrey Street Mosque kanye
neRed Square endala, lapho ukuhlanganyela kwamaqhawe ayemelene
nobandlululo kwakwenzeka khona, kuyiwe eConsulate yaseMelika kanye
naseCity Hall, kudlulwe eICC, bese kugcinwa olwandle kumbhikisho,
umcimbi kanye nokuphikisana nababusi.
Ngaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi edlule, sekuphela inyanga kaAgasti 2001,
imashi yabangu-15 000 iya eICC iholwa nguFatima Meer kanye noDennis
Brutus imelene neNgqungquthela Yomhlaba Emelene Nobandlululo yeNhlangano
Yezizwe (UN World Conference Against Racism0 kwaba seduze ukuthi ingene
kwizihambeli ezazikhathele (Desai 2002). Abagxeki balengqungquthela
bathi akukho ngxoxo enohlonze eyenzeka neNhlangano Yezizwe mayelana
nokunxeshezelwa okudingekayo mayelana nobugqila, ukubuswa komhlaba
ngabamhlophe bokufika, kanye nobandlululo, futhi kwakungekho mnyakazo
owanele weNhlangano Yezizwe omelene nobandlululo kanye nokuthathwa
ngendluzula kwezwe lasePalestine izwe lakwaIsrael. Uma sesiqhubekela
phambili, umnyakazo omkhulu yizishoshovu ngo2001 wawuqondiswe
kubandlululo lwezigaba (class apartheid) oluqhamuke kusukela ngo1994,
okwaholela ukuthi kuvele kakhulu obala ukuhlukana ngebala. Kuleminyaka
eyishumi, ukungaboni ngasolinye kwaseThekwini sekusesimweni esibucayi
kakhulu kunakuqala.

Ngokungakholeki, ubandlululo kwezomnotho maphakathi neThekwini
ladunyiswa isikhulu esinomdlandla, uSutcliffe, owayaziwa ngokuba
‘ekholelwa kwiMarxism yomdwebi webalazwe’ (Tolsi 2008). Ngaphansi
kokubusa kwakhe, umgwaqo ohamba ngasempumalanga usuka eAlbert Park
udlula lapho kuhlala khona omacaphuna kusale eGlenwood wawushintsha kade
unguMoore Road wasubizwa ngoChe Guevara – kodwa izakhamizi zazihlale
njalo zingcolisa leligama elisha (njengoba, mhlawumbe, noChe uqobo
wayeyokwenza njalo). Futhi, ngokungakholeki, ngo2008 Usosheni Wabadwebi
Bamabalazwe aseMelika (American Association of Geographers) yahlomulisa
uSutcliffe ngomklomelo iGilbert F. White Distinguished Public Service
Honors kanye neJames R. Anderson Medal of Honor in Applied Geography.
Umxhasi kaSutcliffe kulomhlomuliso, uKevin Cox – umdwebi webalazwe
oyiMarxist ohlala kude uyena owayehlola umqingo wobudokotela (Ph.D
thesis) ngo1984 eOhio State University – wachaza wathi lokhukuhlomula
njengoku

Ukuhlonyuliswa okuphambili kakhulu kwezebalazwe . . . futhi ukuqeqeshwa
kwakhe njengomdwebi webalazwe ikona ebekukade kubaluleke kakhulu
kwakufezile. Emva kwesikhathi eside esebenza njengesishoshovu
sezombusazwe kanye nelunga eliyisethenjwa likahulumeni kaKhongolose,
uMike uzivezile njengomdwebi webalazwe ongungqaphambili futhi oncikelene
kakhulu nabantu (Cox 2008).

Abantu abasesimweni esisengcupheni (okuhlanganisa nezingane njengamanje
banokuhlaselwa nguhulumeni kamasipala wongxiwankulu, futhi kanye nezinye
izakhamizi – ezihlala emijondolo sasemaflethini asemiweni esicayi,
abafuna ukuziphilisa onqenqemeni lwemiphakathi – okuyibona
abazohlukumezeka kakhulu ngokushintsha kwesimo sezulu. Izindlela
zokuzivikela, njengomzabalazo waseMakethe yaseWarwick Avenue, ikona
okuseyisibonelo esibambekile, ngoba umsuka wezokudayisa lapho imifino
kanye nezithelo ezintsha zingena eThekwini kuyoba sengcupheni emashumini
eminyaka ezayo yizimo zesomiso kanye nezimvula ezinkulu, njengoba
kuyokwenzeka kwabalimela ukuzondla nemindeni yabo ezindaweni zasemakhaya
KwaZulu-Natal noma eZimbabwe eNingizimu naseMatabeleland (okuyodala
ukufika kwabantu abasha bebalekela lezizimo, bebalekela isimo sezulu),
njengoba kuyokwenzeka kofishi abadobwe abadobi nabo abasesimweni
esibucayi uma ulwandle seluqala lufudumala. Futhi-ke, njengoba izigigaba
zokucwaswa kwabokufika kanye nomkhankaso owawumelene nokususwa
kweWarwick Avenue kwakhombisa, mikhulu imizamo eyayidingeka
kwizishoshovu zemakethe yendawo kanye nabokufika ukuthi babumbane kanye
nezinye izindawo ezazingaphansi kokusatshiswa, okwaba yinto enkulu,
ngenxa yamashumishumi eminyaka yobuhixihixi kobandlululo ngebala kanye
nangobuzwe.

Umqondo wabambubene kwabagcindezelwe eThekwini kubonakala njengesifiso
esikude kakhulu.Kodwa-ke kulabo abafuna lokhukubumbana –
njengabahlanganisi beSouth Durban Community Environmental Alliance
(SDCEA) kanye namanye amaqembu njengeDurban Social Forum kanye neClimate
Justice Now! laKwaZulu-Natal – bahlale bekhumbula abaholi bedolobha
abanamandla beminyaka eyikhulu edlule abamangaza izinhlanganyela
zikahulumeni kanye nabezimboni, futhi benza amagxathu enqubekela
phambili: izinhlelo zeSatyagraha zikaMahtma Gandhi elokishini
laseThekwini ePhoenix ngaphambi kokubuyela e-India ngo1914; umongameli
wokusungulwa kukaKhongolose uJohn Langalibalele Dube kanye nomongameli
walenhlangano owokuqala owahlonyuliswa iNobel Peace Prize, uAlbert
Luthuli; umholi womphakathi owabulawa, uJohannes Nkosi; uMonty Naicker
okwathi ngeminyaka yokuphela kwama1940’s wambandakanya amaNdiya
noKhongolose; umsunguli Womnyakazo Wokuzigqaja Ngokubamnyama uSteve
Biko; abaholi beUnited Democratic Front uVictoria noGriffiths Mxenge;
abasebenzi basechwebeni ngo1973; izishoshovu zomphakathi waseChatsworth
ezavuselela ezombusazwe ngezigaba ngokuphela kwam1990’s; labo abakha
umlando omuhle wenkululeko beDiakonia Council of Churches; kanye
nezifundiswa ezabulawa ngesinyenyela njengesifundiswa sezombusazwe,
uRick Turner futhi kungekudala-nje, uchwepheshe kwezomphakathi
(sociologist) uFatima Meer nembongi uBrutus – manje abangasekho
emhlabeni, kodwa abakhunjulwa ngenkulu inhlonipho yizishoshovu. Ngezinye
izikhathi, njengaseWorld Conference Against Racism ngo2001, kunethemba
ukuthi lolusiko lwebushoshovu baseThekwini bayathola amathuba afanayo
ngomqondo ukuhlanganyela nezivakashi.
Umangabe bebesekanye nathi, ngabe lezizishoshovu ezazisezingeni
eliphezulu kanye nabahleli ngabe benzani maphakathi neTheku sekuphela
u2011? Ngabe yini izimfuno zabo? Ngabe bebezobhekana kanjani neCOP 17?
Babeyoyibheka ngokubalulekile inhlanganyela yamaqembu Obulungiswa Besimo
Sezulu kwiSivumelwano Sabantu eCochabamba (Cochabamba People’s
Agreement) ngoEpreli ka2010, esenziwa kwingqungquthela yabangu35 000
eBolivia. Izimfuno ezihamba phambili kulomqulu yilezi ezilandelayo:

• ukwehliswa kwegesi eluhlaza ngesigamu ngo2017 ukusimamisa amazinga
anyuke ngo1Celsius degree kanye nango300 kwisigidi sesisisi
esingcolisayo (CO2)
• bamukele isikweletu sesimo sezulu esidalwe ngamazwe athuthukile
(ngamaphesenti angu-6 eGDP ngonyaka)
• ukuhlonipha amalungelo esintu kubantu abangumsinsi wokuzimilela kanye
namalungelo kaMama OnguMhlaba (Mother Erath)
• kwenziwe Inkantolo Yomhlaba Wonke Yobulungiswa Besimo Sezulu
(International Court of Climate Justice)
• baphikisane nezimakethe zesisisi ikhabhoni kanye nokudayiswa
kwezemvelo kanye namahlathi ngaphansi kweREDD
• kushintshwe izindlela zokuthenga zamazwe athuthukile
• kuqedwe amalungelo ezomqondo kwimikhiqizo yobuchwepheshe ukwehlisa
ukushitsha kwesimo sezulu

Lezizimfuno zinqamula lokhukungunaza kweUNFCCC ngezikhawu ezine:
Okokuqala ukwehliswa kakhulu kwezisisi ezingcolisa umoya kuyadingeka
kuenesimo esibhekene naso njengamanje uma izingxoxo zokubonisana
zingavuma; okwesibili, ukwehluleka kweUNFCCC ukubhekana namacala esimo
sezulu kanye nezikweletu ezikweletwa izisulu zokushintsha kwesimo
sezulu; okwesithathu ukudayiswa kwayoyonke into yiUNFCCC kusukela
kumalungelo omqondo kuya emahlathini (kanye nezilwane ezinhle
ezitholakala khona); okokugcina, ukwahluleka kweUNFCCC ukuchitha
izimakethe zesisisi esingcolisa umoya. Ngenkathi okusondelene lokho
iUNFCCC eyoza (eThekwini) ukubhekana nokuxhaswa ngezimali, nokucaciswa
ngesiKhwama seSimo Sezulu Esiluhlaza (Green Climate Fund) esiphoxayo,
kubonakala kungeke kwenzeke ukuthi kuphume isinxephezelo – elinganiselwa
kuUS$ 100 wezigidigidi ngonyaka – ukuthi kungase kwenzeke, njengoba
izimakethe zesisisi esingcolisa umoya siyogcwalisa isigamu
salesisikhwama (nayo yonke imibandela yakhona), kanye nezinqumo
eziyokwenziwa ukuqhubekela phambili ngokuxhasa ngezimali ‘izixazululo
ezingamanga’ esikhundleni sokuzinikela ekunqanyulweni okudephile
kwezisisi ezingcolisayo kanye nokushintsha ezomnotho okudingekayo
ukuxazulula lembedumehlwana.
Ukwamukela kweTheku ukuthi kungenzeka okukhunjulwa kakhulu ngeCOP 17
ngabe okwenzeka endaweni; idolobha uqobo lwalo lugcizelele ukuthi
ukungabikhona kobulungiswa kwezombusazwe vele sekuyabonakala
ngokucindezelwa kwabantu abaningi ngaseICC, kusishiya sisezinhlungwini
njengoHerbert Dhlomo futhi sinefuthefuthe njengoDennis Brutus ngabanye
ongxiwankulu abaqhubekayo ngokwenza semthethweni iUNFCCC kanye
nezihambeli zayo ukuhlanza amaketanga okubandlululo ngesimo sezulu
emhlabeni jikelele. Futhi kungakho lezozishoshovu zesimo sezulu
emhlabeni wonke (abaqhubekayo ngokwemfanelo ukukhathazeka
ngokulahlekelwa ithuba lokugcina izidingo zokunqanyulwa kwezisisi
ezibophezelelayo zeKyoto Protocol kulokhu kuqhubekile), futhi bayobe
bedinwe began’unwabu ngoDisemba ngenkathi abakusabayo kufezeka. Umbuzo
ukuthi kabe lezizinhlobo zabantu ziyothola isikhalo esifanayo, njengoba
kwenzeka kwabaningi eThekwini.

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