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Bond, Patrick Translation ka-Manzi, Faith (2014) The 'World Versus Bank' Seen from South Africa (‘Ukumelana komhlaba neBhange’ njengokubona kweNingizimu).  : -.

Is age 70 a dignified time for retirement, especially for policies and practices long considered destructive but now back in official favour at the World Bank

Founded in 1944 to finance war-torn Europe’s reconstruction, the Bank is now suffering one of its most severe credibility crises. A new civil society campaign, ‘WorldVsBank’, features protests and teach-ins on Friday, October 10, at the Bank’s Annual Meeting in Washington and ten other countries, including South Africa’s three largest cities.

This country, after all, was the model ‘Knowledge Bank’ pilot after 1990,adopting policy advice but, before 2007, contracting only a dozen relatively small World Bank loans and investments. Experiences here, reminiscent of the Bank’s support for apartheid, help explain the upsurge in anger.

To illustrate, powerful South Africans Trevor Manuel and Leonard McCarthy have, in very different ways, become responsible for scandals now hot-brewing in Washington.

New excerpts from the ‘Zuma Spy Tapes’ put into the public domain last week prove McCarthy’s malfeasance as the government’s Scorpions anti-corruption unit leader in Pretoria. City Press editor Ferial Haffajee explained in a column this week, “McCarthy was impaled by the seductions of power. He ruined our criminal justice system. I find it breath-taking that he is vice president of integrity at the World Bank.”

The Bank’s on-going defence of McCarthy’s ‘integrity’ looks suspicious in the wake of the cancelled April 2009 prosecution of SA President Jacob Zuma on 783 corruption charges. This was a direct result of McCarthy’s anti-Zuma conspiracy and the spy-versus-spy culture he fostered.

The new transcripts reveal Manuel’s apparent endorsement of McCarthy’s job application, even though his Machiavellian manipulation of SA politics and law should have disqualified him. Because of prolific corruption at the Bank, the job required a ‘squeaky-clean’candidate, McCarthy is heard to remark, so he needed someone to fib in an April 2008 job reference.

A year later, as a loyal ally of Washington, Manuel helped the International Monetary Fund raise $750 billion during its last crisis. An oft-mentioned candidate to run the Bank or IMF, Manuel recently retired from SA politics and was hired by Rothschilds bank early this month.

To his credit, in 2013, Manuel formally reviewed the Bank’s controversial Doing Business report and recommended it halt its biased,indefensible country-ranking system. But the Bank has just rejected his advice to drop the ranking system and, worse, is now also in the process of trashing its operational eco-social safeguard protections which were introduced after years of civil society lobbying due to unmitigated Bank project disasters.

Bank loans to the apartheid regime date to 1951, when Eskom’s generators provided electricity only to white businesses and people (blacks got none). The Bank never apologized or paid reparations for empowering apartheid, but instead kept lending until SA achieved middle-income status in 1967, in spite of economic sanctions calls by Albert Luthuli and Martin Luther King in 1962.

The IMF also lent billions to the Pretoria regime during financial crises that were in part caused by pro-democracy activism in 1976 and 1982. After financial sanctions hit Pretoria hard in 1985, the destructive, corrupt Lesotho dam was another route the Bank used to fund apartheid, resulting in >long-lasting problems for displacees.

As South Africa finally democratised during the 1990s, the Bank played a crucial role in many areas of public policy. Worsening inequality, poverty and unemployment followed directly from Knowledge Bank advice, such as the GEAR macroeconomic policy and neoliberal water pricing that was ‘instrumental’ in causing mass disconnections of water to poor people and, in turn, KwaZulu-Natal’s cholera epidemic. Yet President Nelson Mandela, facing severe pressure from big business, adopted numerous ineffectual Bank strategies.

In the same vein, more recent Bank activity includes funding Lonmin’s notorious Marikana operation, including the supposed construction of 5000 houses for workers. As the Bank bragged without apparent irony,“The company has embarked on a multi-stakeholder effort to help bring prosperity and sustainable development to the local communities in which it operates. Alongside Lonmin,there are three key stakeholder groups – the traditional authority, local government,and local mining companies – that share the same vision for socioeconomic

Cyril Ramaphosa admitted to the Farlam Commission in August that only three of the promised houses were built. The day after the 2012 massacre, the Center for International Environmental Law recommended that the Bank >reconsider further extractive industries investment given such conditions - but to no avail. Two weeks later, Bank president Jim Yong Kim visited Johannesburg but neither visited nor even mentioned Marikana.

Kim, an anthropologist-medic, had co-founded the path-breaking NGO Partners in Health and ran World Health Organisation AIDS programmes. As a Harvard academic, the book Kim co-edited in 2000, Dying for Growth,demolished neoliberal Bank policies.

But in South Africa, Kim praised the Bank’s biggest-ever project loan – $3.75 billion for Eskom’s Medupi power plant – as ‘clean coal,’ all evidence to the contrary notwithstanding. Instead of restructuring BHP Billiton’s Special Pricing Agreement, which over the last 22 years has provided the world’s largest mining house up to 10 percent of SA’s electricity at US$0.01/kWh (a tenth what we pay), the Bank allowed Eskom to start repaying the loan by hiking prices by more than 100 percent. Government’s most recent survey of energy use predicts that price hikes will force 37 percent of low-income people to return to dirty household energy.

The coal-fired fiasco is a symbol of the Bank’s mega-project bias. In February 2010, the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA) launched a global campaign to halt the Bank’s Medupi funding, because of its climate-wrecking, poverty-creating corruption. SDCEA coordinator Desmond D’Sa, winner of the 2014 Goldman Environmental Prize for Africa, played a leadership role in the 400 000-strong People’s Climate March in New York last month. He asks, “Should we again launch a World
Bank Bonds Boycott
, to get investors to run on the Bank?”

Writing in the Guardian, Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu last month repeated his call for climate to be the basis for financial divestment. The World Bank is a logical target, since it continues fossil financing (with a major shift now to fracking), carbon trading and other ‘false solutions’ to the climate crisis – a crisis for which it is inordinately responsible as the world’s largest historic fossil fuel lender.

The last time the Bank faced such hostility was when 30 000 global-justice activists gathered at their April 2000 Washington meeting. At the time, independent Johannesburg city councillor Trevor Ngwane – who subsequently co-founded the Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee – taught the crowd ‘toyi-toyi’ protesting. Inside, Bank board chair Manuel attempted to cover up (not fix) the flaws, as revealed in the SABC Special Assignment documentary Two Trevors go to Washington.

What, then, should be done about this institution, especially given its surreal links to South Africa? The Bank has made the world a worse place: socially, politically, economically and environmentally. Since elites don’t have a clue how to reform the Bank, it’s time again for civil society to debate options and then hit the streets. In Washington and other cities on Friday, people will learn more, and many will join the WorldVsBank.

Bond directs the UKZN Centre for Civil Society, one of the teach-in locales.
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‘Ukumelana komhlaba neBhange’ njengokubona kweNingizimu
NguPatrick Bond (version originally published by SA Civil Society Information Service)
Umhumushi nguFaith ka-Manzi

EThekwini, Mhlaziyisishogalolunye keMfumfu - EWashington, DC kanye namanye amazwe ayishumi emhlabeni wonke, azobhikisha mhlaziyishumi kuMfumfu bebhekene neBhange Lomhlaba ngesikhathi salo Somhlangano Wangonyaka.Abaningi bayabuza, ngabe iminyaka engamashumi ayisikhombisa akusona isikhathi sokuba lesisikhungo sidle endala, ikakhulukazi kwimigomo kanye nezindlela ekudala zabonakala ukuthi zicekela phansi kodwa manje esezibonakala sezibuyile futhi ezivunwa ngokwamukelekwa abaphethe?

Lokhu yasungulwa ngonyaka ka1944 ukuxhasa ngezimali izwekazi laseEurope elalikade licekeleke phansi ngenxa yempi futhi lemali izovuselela ukwakhiwa kwaleliyalizwekazi, lelibhange manje manje selibhekene nenkilayitheka yokungakholeki kakhulu, okwenziwa kube kubi kakhulu umkhankaso oqhamuka emiphakathini omusha obizwa ngokuthiwa, ‘Umhlaba umelene neBhange’.

Amadolobha amathathu amakhulukazi aseNingizimu Afrika azobe efundisa ngalomkhankaso ngenxa yokuthi lelizwe, emva kwakho konke phela, lasetshenziswa njengesibonelo, ‘seBhange Lolwazi’ emva konyaka ka1990

Umbuso kahulumeni omdala wobandlululo kanye nombuso wangelesisikhathi wentando yeningi bobabili bamukele umbono womgomo waleliBhange, kodwa uhulumeni omusha wentando yeningi wazibophezela imali yemboleko kanye nokutshala kusukela ngonyaka ka1994 kwaze kwaba yinkathi lapho sekuqhamuka izakhiwo ezimbili ezinkulukazi ezidale isiphithiphithi ezaxhaswa ngonyaka ka2007 kanye nangonyaka ka2010:isikhungo sezimayini yeplatinum eMarikana kanye nesikhungo samandla kagesi iMedupi.

Izakhamuzi zaseNingizimu Afrika ezikuleliBhange
Ngolwazi esinalo lapha, ume sesikhumbula ukuxhasa kwalelibhange ubandlululo eminyakeni edlule, kusiza kucaze ukwenyuka kwezinga lolaka. Futhi okunye, izakhamizi ezimbili ezisebuholini obuphezulu zaseNingizimu Afrika uTrevor Manuela kanye noLeonard McCarthy baye , ngezindlela ezahlukene, baba yingxenye yamahlazo manje enzeka edolobheni laseWashington.

Okunye okucashunwe ‘Kwinkulumo eqoshiwe kaZuma yezimpimpi’ enekelwe imphakathi emva kwempi ethathe isikhathi eside enkantolo ukukhombisa ukuganga kukaMcCarthy ngesikhathi engumholi ephalamende owayemelene nenkohlakalo. Njnegone yezintatheli ezihlonishwa kakhulu kulelizwe, umhleli wephephandaba iCity Press uFerial Haffajee uchze kanje kumbhalo wakhe wombono kulelisonto, “uMcCarthy wawenygwa ngamandla okubusa. Wacekela phansi inqubo yethu yezobulungiswa ebhekene nobugcwelegcwele. Kuyathusa kakhulu ukuthi uyisekela likamongameli weBhange Lomhlaba.”

Ukuqhubeka kweBhange ukulokhu livikela ‘isimilo’ sikaMcCarthy siyasolisa ikakhulukazi uma sesibheka ukusulwa kokushushiswa kwangenyanga kaApril ngo2009 koMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika uJacob Zuma kumacala ayebhekene nawo enkohlakalo. Lokukusulwa kwafika ngenxa yokumelana kukaMcCarthy nababemelene nozungu olwalekhelwe uZuma kanye nomkhuba wezimpimpi zimelene nezinye izimpimpi okuyinto ayeyutshalile. Iziqephu ezintsha ezibhaliwe ziveza ukuthi ukusekwa kukaMcCarthy nguManuel ngesikhathi esafuna ukusebenzela leliBhange, phezu kokuba indlela ayelawula ngayo ezombusazwe kanye nomthetho waseNingizimu Afrika yayinobuqili futhi kwakufanele imenze angawutholi lomsebenzi kuleliBhange. Ngenxa yenkohlakalo eyandile kuleliBhange, lomsebenzi wawufuna, umuntu ‘ongenasici’, lokho kwezwakala kushiwo nguMcCarthy, ngakho wayedinga umuntu owayezoqamba amanga ngesikhathi esaziswa ngokuba khona kwalomsebenzi nozomkhulumela.

Emva konyaka, njengobhululu othembekile waseWashington, uManuel wasiza iInternational Monetary Fund ukuthi ithole imali engu $750 wezigidigidi ngesikhathi sokugcina senkinga eyayibhekene nalelibhange. Njengomunye owayelokhu ecatshangwa ukuthi angaliphatha lelibhange noma iIMF, uManuel usanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi kwezombusazwe waseNingizimu Afrika futhi useqashwe yisikhondlakhondla sebhange lakaRothschilds ekuqaleni kwalenyanga.

Ngonyaka ka2013,uManuel wabuyekeza ngokusemthethweni inking yaleliBhange indlela eyayilenza ngayo ibhizinisi kumbiko walo iDoing Business futhi wase ebeka umbono wokuthi liyeka indlela yalo echemile, engamukelekile yendlela ababheka ngayo izwe. Kodwa iBhange futhi seliwunqabile umbono wakhe wokuqeda indlela elibheka ngayo izwe futhi, okubi kakhulu, ukuthi manje basezinhlelweni zokucekela phansi elikwenzayo ngokuvikela ezenhlalakahle zemvelo okwaqalwa emva kokuba kweminyaka yokukhankasa kwezinhlangano zemiphakathi ngenxa yezibhicongo zamaprojekti ezingenakulungiswa nalutho zalelibhange.

Ukukweleta okwakwenziwa yileliBhange kumbuso wobandlululo kusukela ngonyaka ka1955, ngesikhathi uhulumeni uboleka amagenerator ayeletha kagesi akwaEskom kubahwebi abamhlophe kanye nezakhamizi ezimhlophe (kodwa abamnyama bangathola lutho). IBhange alizange lixolise futhi alizange likhokhe imali yezinxephezelo ngokuxhasa umbuso wobandlululo, esikhundleni salokho baqhubeka nokuboleka imali kwababehola ngamazinga phakathi nendawo eNingizimu Afrika ngonyaka ka1967, phezu kokuba uAlbert Luthuli beno Martin Luther King babeqale ukukhankansela ukunswinywa kwaleli kwezomnotho ngonyaka ka1962.

IIMF ibolekise ngezigidigidi kumbuso wasePitoli ngesikhathi senkinga enkulu yezimali ingxenye yayo eyayidalwe ubushoshovu obabulwela intando yeningi ngonyaka ka1976 kanye nango1982. Emva kokuba unswinyo kwezezimali olwalumelene nobandlululo laqala lazwela kakhulu ePitoli ngonyaka ka1985, idamu lenkohlakalo laseLesotho khona ezweni laseLesotho kwakungenye indlela yokuthi iBhange iyenze ukuxhasa ubandlululo, okwaholela ezinkingeni ezathatha isikhathi eside zokuthi abantu balahlekelwe amakhaya abo.

INingizimu Afrika yagcina uwuzuzile umbuso wentando yeningi ngeminyaka yama90’s, futhi iBhange ladlal indima eqavile kwizingxenye eziningi zomgomo womphakathi. Ukungalingani kwamazinga okuphila okwanda kakhulu, ububha kanye nokusweleka kwemisebenzi okwalandelwa umbono owawuqhamuka kwiKnowledge Bank, njengomgomo wezomnotho wezwelonke iGEAR kanye nendlela yongxiwankulu yamanani amanzi ‘okwaba yindlela’’ eyaholela eokunqanyulelweni kwabantu abaningi abampofu amanzi futhi, okwajika, kwaholela kwisifo sohudo esasabalala kakhulu kwisifundazwe saKwaZulu-Natal . Kodwa uMongameli uNelson Mandela, ebhekene nengcindezi enkulu eyayivela kubahwebi abakhulu, wamukela izindlela eziningi ezazingenamphumela zeBhange.

Kunomthelela wezandla okubonakala endaweni lapho kwabhujiswa khona abantu eMarikana
Ngendlela eyodwa, esinye isenzo esingekudala-nje saleliBhange simbandakanya ukuxhasa kakhulu indlu yezokumbiwa phansi yaseLondon iLonmin okwenziwa eMarikana ngeplatinum, okumbandakanya obukushiwo njengokwakhiwa kwezindlu ezingu5000 zabasebenzi. Isekela likaMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika uCyril Ramaphosa, onamaphesenti angu9 ‘Wokuthuthukiswa KwaBamnyama Kwezomnotho’ owayengumnikazi weLonmin ngonyaka ka2012, waba nemihlangano futhi wathumela imiyalezo ephuthumayo kungqongqoshe wombutho wamaphoyisa efbuza mayelana ‘nokwenza okuqondile’ mayelana nokubhikilisha okwakungekho emthethweni. Ngosuku olulandelayo, abasebenzi abangu34 babulawa ngamaphoyisa. Emva kweminyaka emibili, uRamaphosa usevumile kwikhomishani kahulumeni eyenza uphenyo mayelana nesibhicongo sokubulawa kwabasebenzi eMarikana ukuthi wayengumqondisi waseLonmin owayebhekene mayelana nohlelo lwezindlu, nokuthi zintathu kuphela izindlu ezakhiwa.

Kodwa ‘kwincwajana yabo yokusimamisa ukutshala kwezimali nangokuziphatha kahle’, iBhange laqhosha nge ‘Rekopane Development Forum’ yaseLonmin ngaphandle kokubonakala ukuthi lokho kwakukokushayisana. “Imboni isiqale ngomzamo wokuhlanganyela ukusiza kube khona ukupthuthuka okunokusimama kwimiphakathi yasendaweni lapho inezindlu zokumbiwa phansi khona. Kanya kanye neLonmin, kunamanye amaqembu amathathu ahamba phambili okubambisenwe nawo – izikhulu zasemakhosini endawo, uhulumeni wasendaweni, kanye nezimboni zezindlu zokumbiwa phansi zasendaweni – ezinombono ofanayo wokuthuthukisa ngezomnotho kanye nezenhlalakahle.”

UThumeka Magwangqana ungumholi weqembu elihamba phambili labesifazane emijondolo yaseMarikana, iSikhala Sonka. Kulelisonto ungitshele ukuthi akakazwe ezwe ngezinhlelo zeBhange Lomhlaba ngeLonmin kanye nangeRekopane Development Form. Mayelana ‘nombono’ okubanjisenwe ngawo yiziphathimandla zaseLonmin zihlanganyele nobhululu balo, “Thina bantu besifazane beSikhala Sonke asikaze sithole lutho oluqhamuka kubona. Ngonyaka odlule, iLonmin yasitshela ukuthi izosinika isakhiwo senkulisa (yokunakekela abantwana) – kodwa ngeke isixhase ngezimali zokuthi sisebenze lapho. Namanje sisalindile.”

Ukuzithemba okunokuqhosha kweBhange mayelana neLonmin kuveze ukungazi ngokwenaba ngezimo ezivelele mayelana neprojekti yezenhlalakahle yaseMarikana. i Bench Marks Foundation ebunjwa imiphakathi yezenkolo ehambisana nokuthuthuka, lapho ngonyaka ka2007 yaqopha ukuba semuva okukhulu mayelana nezenhlalakahle kanye nezomnotho kumbiko wayo iPolicy Gap.

Njengoba sekuphele iminyaka emihlanu, emva kwesibhicongo sokubulawa kwabasebenzi ngo2012, Abaseshi Abanombono (iCAO) bangaphakathi kuleliBhange baqala ngokusesha okwakuchemile.

Ngokwamukela “iziphakamiso mayelana nokwenza okwakusezingeni mayelana nokutshalwa kwezimali’’ kanye futhi ‘’kwakungokwenzeka mayelana nezindaba ezibhekene neNdlela Yokusimamisa eyayenziwe ngayo,’’ iCAO yathola kungekho kuhlangana phakathi kweBhange eLonmin, kanye nabasebenzi ababedangele, imigomo yamiphakathi kanye neyezimvelo, kanye nesinqumo esiqinile – besizwa nguRamaphosa – ukumema amaphoyisa angababulali kubasebenzi ababebhikilisha. ‘’ICAO inqume ukuthi asikho isidingo sophenyo nokuthi lelicala livalwe.

Kodwa lokhu ngeke kuqede ubunxushunxushu. Emva kwesibhicongo sokubulawa kwabavukuzi, iCenter for International Environmental Law edolobheni laseWashington lafika nombono ukuthi iBhange libuyekeze ukusthalwa kwezimali kwimikhiqizo embiwa phansi uma kubhekenwe nalezizimo – kodwa lokho akusizanga. Emva kwamsonto amabili, umongameli weBhange waya eGoli kodwa akazange avakashele noma akhulume nhlobo ngeMarikana.

Imali yokubolekisa enkulukazi ekhishwe iBhange ukwakha isizinda esikhulukazi smandla kagesi aphehlwa ngamalahle
UKim, onejazi lobudokotela ngezimo abantu abaphila ngaphansi kwazo, wabumba nabanye iNGO eyyihamba phambili iPartners in Health futhi wabuye wengamela izinhlelo Zengculazi zeNhlangano iWorld Health Organisation. Njengesifundiswa saseHarvard, incwadi ayihlela nomunye uKim ngonyaka ka2000, iDying for Growth, yayilwa nemigomo yeBhange. Kodwa ngesokhathi sohambo lwakhe eNingizimu Afrika, uKim wancoma imali yesikweletu enkulukazi ekhishwe iBhnage - u$3.75 wezigidigidi ibolekwa uEskom ukwakha isikhungo samandla kagesi iMedupi –‘ njengamalahle ahlanzekile,’ konke okungubufakazi obuphikisayo. IMedupi izokhiphela emoyeni amathani asuka ku25 kuya kwangu35 esisisi esingcolisayo njalo ngonyaka, ngaphezulu kwokwenziwa ngamazwe angu115.

Ubano ozuzayo?Esikhundleni sokwenza kabusha Isivumelwano Esiphuthumayo Samanani semboni iBHP Billiton kanye noEskom, lapho eminyakeni engu22 edlule kade unikeza imboni enkulukazi emhlabeni wonke ngamaphesenti angu10 kagesi waseNingizimu Afrika ngenani elingu-US0.01/kWh (ingxenye encane kakhulu uma kubhekenwe nemali abampofu abayikhokhayo), indlela yokukhokhela lesisikweletu eyenziwe iBhange imbandakanya nokunyuka kwamnanai okungaphezulu kwamaphesenti ayikhulu kubasebenzisi bakagesi basemakhaya, nomangabe lesisikweletu kwakusolwa ukuthi sasisiza ekulweni nobubha mayelana namandla kagesi. Ucwaningo olungekudala-nje lukahulumeni lamandla kagesi luqagela ukuthi ukunyuka kwamanani kaEskom kamandla kagesi kuzophoqa amaphesenti angu37 abantu abahola kancane ukuthi babuyele emuva kumandla okubasa njengezinkuni, amalahle kanye noparaffin.

Lokukuhluleka kokuletha amandla ngamalahle kuwuphawu lokuchema kweBhange ngamaprojekti amakhulu. NgoFebruwari ka2010, inhlangano iSouth Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA) yamemezela umkhankaso womhlaba wonke ukumisa ukuxhaswa ngeziali yiBhange kweMedupi, ngenxa yokucekeleka phansi kwesimo sezulu, nobubha obuholela enkohlakalweni. Umdidiyeli weSDCEA uDesmond D’Sa,owazuza umklomelo i2014 Goldman Environmental Prize for Africa, udlale indima yokuhola abantu abangu400 000 kwimashi yePeople’s Climate March edolobheni laseNew York ngenyanga edlule. Ubuza ukuthi, ‘’Ngabe kufanele futhi sethule okunye Ukubhikilishela Amabhondo eBhange Lomhlaba, ukuze abatshali bezimali kube yibo abagijimela kuleliBhange?”

Ebhala kwiphephandaba iGuardian, Umbhishobhi Omkhulu uDesmond Tutu ngenyanga edlule ubuye waphinda wamemezela ukuthi isimo sezulu isona okufanele kube isizathu sokuthi zangabe zisatshalwa izimali. Umqondo ophusile ukuthi kubhekwane ngqo neBhange Lomhlaba, ngoba lilokhu liqhubeka nokutshala izimali kwezokubasa zemvelo (ikakhulukazi manje njengoba sebebheke kwifracking), ukuhweba ngesisisi esingcolisa umoya kanye nezinye ‘izixazululo ezingamanga’ kwinkinga yesimo sezulu – inkinga engeke likwazi ukumelana nayo njengombolekisi omkhulu wezimali ngokomlando mayelana nemikhiqizo yokubasa yezemvelo.

Isikhathi sogcina lapho iBhange labhekana kanye nokudelelwa kanje ingesikhathi lapho izishoshovu ezilwela ubulungiswa emhlabeni wonke zazihlangene emhlanganweni owawungoApril 2000 eWashington. Ngalesosikhathi, ikhansele elizimele lasedolobheni laseGoli uTrevor Ngwane – owagcina ebumbe kanye nabanye iSoweto Electricity Crisis Committee – wafundisa izishoshovu ‘ukugxoba itoyi-toyi’ ngesikhathi kubhikilishwa. Ngaphakathi, ongusihlalo webhodi laseBhange uManuel wazama ukufihla (hayi ukulungisa) amaphutha, njengoba kwakuvelile kumbiko oqoshiwe kuhlelo lweSABC iSpecial Assignment olalubizwa ngokuthi oTrevor Ababili Baya eWashington ( Two Trevors go to Washington).

Manje-ke, kufanele kwenziwenjani ngalesisikhungo, ikakhulukazi uma kubhekwanwa nokuxhumana kwaso okunoxakile neNingizimu Afrika? IBhange selenze umhlaba waba yindawo embi kakhulu: ngezenhlalakahle, ngezombusazwe, ngezomnotho kanye nezemvelo. Njengoba ababusi bengazi ukuthi bazolishintsha kanjani iBhange, sekuyisikhathi futhi lapho imiphakathi kufanele izbe nezinkulumo zezindlela zokukhetha bese futhi kuphindelwa emgaqweni. EWashington kanye namanye amadolobha ngoLwesihlanu, abantu bazokwazi kabanzi, futhi abaningi bazozimbandakanya noMhlaba Omelene NeBhange.

(UPatrick Bond ungumqondisi waseUKZN Centre for Civil Society,enye yezindawo lapho kuzobekufundiswa khona emiphakathini yakuleli.)

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