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Bond, Patrick Translation ka-Manzi, Faith (2014) The BRICS remix climate damage and corporate collusion (IBRICS ibhebhethekisa ukungamukeli kwePitoli isimo sokuguquguquka kwezulu
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As world leaders gather at the UN next week, the window to halt runaway climate change is closing fast this decade, with world-wide emissions cuts of 50 percent needed by 2020, and 90 percent by 2050. Not much can be expected to come out of the UN talk-shop. Emerging powers, on the other hand, are not pursuing any new strategies eitherThe movement from below to tackle climate change is gathering pace in South Africa, and elsewhere in the world, in advance of the September 21 mass march against the United Nations.

Environmentalists lead, but this struggle invokes the world’s greatest class-race-gender-NorthSouth conflict, too. Ban Ki-Moon’s heads-of-state summit on September 23 may generate greater publicity for the cause, but if, as anticipated, world rulers simply slap each other on the back, activists will have to even more urgently intensify the pressure.

This was the message from the Venezuelan-initiated People’s Climate Process last month in Caracas, which built upon a mass meeting four years ago in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Such demands for ‘climate justice’ remain most relevant to our times, in contrast to the watered-down slogans and vacant demands that, sadly, characterize the big march this weekend. The day before, however, the ‘Converge for Climate’ gathering will offer much more robust analysis, strategies and tactics, seeking much wider alliances than ever before.

Our window to halt runaway climate change is closing fast this decade, with world-wide emissions cuts of 50 percent needed by 2020, and 90 percent by 2050, to keep the planet at even a 2 degree rise. Extreme weather now feels commonplace. If runaway methane from thawing Siberian tundra and melting Artic ice worsens, the cuts will have to come even sooner and deeper. Can civilization face up to this, or will corporations keep us looking the other direction?

The gathering in New York next week will be followed by the formal UN Framework Convention on Climate Change summits in Lima, Peru, in November and then the literally last-gasp effort in Paris in late 2015. The other week, a militant prep-com of climate justice activists began preparations, while the Indigenous People of the Andes are expected to mobilize militantly in Lima.

Still, these ‘Conferences of the Parties’ (COPs) are so far merely fortnight-long talk-shops. The 17th was hosted here in Durban in 2011, and was a failure on all accounts, including activism. The COPs are invariably sabotaged by US State Department negotiators, joined by brethren climate-denialist regimes in Canada, Australia and Japan. Best that these events be remembered as Conferences of Polluters.

At the COP15 in 2009, four other major polluters – Brazil, China, India and South Africa – signed on to US President Barack Obama’s Copenhagen Accord. It not only “wrecked the UN,” as Bill McKibbon of put it, in terms of process. The Accord promised only inadequate and voluntary emissions cuts. Indeed at the BRICS summit in Brazil last month, the most substantial comment about climate change was not reassuring – “bearing in mind that fossil fuel remains one of the major sources of energy” – and so it appears that the BRICS will follow a COP negotiating strategy that they initiated five years ago. Added to that is the BRICS strategy of introducing carbon markets (‘privatising the air’) in spite of the massive European and US pilot project failures.

Copenhagen represented, simply, as climate justice writer-activist Naomi Klein accurately described the experience, “nothing more than a grubby pact between the world's biggest emitters: I'll pretend that you are doing something about climate change if you pretend that I am too. Deal? Deal.” In her new book, This Changes Everything, Klein blames the profit-logic of mega-corporations, not just their pocket governments, and she insists on post-capitalist climate policies.

If she is correct, in this opportune context there is already some evidence that activist pressure is beginning to affect even Washington, DC, surely the most corporate-dominated political capital in world history thanks to recent campaign finance deregulation. Teased by activists for five years, Obama finally gathered enough will to regulate the powerful coal energy industry in June. He announced what is in effect a ban on constructing 150 coal-fired power plants proposed in 2001 by then Vice President Dick Cheney. Only two have been built since then, mainly thanks to vigorous community opposition but also because Sierra Club lawyers bogged down the coal industry, and so Obama has only recently codified what was already a major shift away from the dirtiest energy source, coal.

To be sure, the US climate movement’s next challenges are extreme: fracking, new oil drilling in deep-sea waters and national parks, coal exports, and the import of Canada’s tar sands shale oil, not to mention the full economic reboot Klein calls for. As for claims by Obama and Europeans that their economies’ greenhouse gases are being cut, these brags are not genuine, for the North is simply outsourcing dirty industries to East Asia, while enjoying cut-rate products sent back, paid for by degraded currencies.

If capitalism is the problem, undercutting financial flows to the status quo is a vital strategy. Divestment from fossil-funded profits parallels what worked so well thirty years ago when we were fighting South African apartheid. Financial jujitsu is one way to turn capitalism against itself, as we learned then. And today, traditional bankers are increasingly wary of socio-ecological controversy, with the London NGO Carbontracker pointing out Big Oil’s ‘unburnable carbon.’ Under growing pressure, even the fossil-saturated World Bank last year agreed not to lend more for coal-fired power plants, though Bank President Jim Yong Kim’s recent broken promises on environmental and social safeguards confirms his Obama-style unreliability.

Financial sanctions helped bring down apartheid by splitting South Africa’s banking elite away from the Afrikaner ruling racists. They are now being used by Palestine solidarity activists to great effect (causing elite panic in Tel Aviv), after leading Dutch and Norwegian pension funds and a major Danish bank disinvested from Israeli banks possessing illegal West Bank Occupation branches in January. Divestment of fossil fuel stocks from major funds – even Stanford University’s endowment a few weeks ago – was stimulated by calls from Archbishop Desmond Tutu to follow our example: hitting the oppressive system in the wallet, hard.

“People of conscience need to break their ties with corporations financing the injustice of climate change,” Tutu argued in a Guardian op-ed in April. “The good news is that we don't have to start from scratch. Young people across the world have already begun to do something about it. The fossil fuel divestment campaign is the fastest growing corporate campaign of its kind in history.”’s Africa-Arab Team Leader Ferrial Adam aims to start SA’s herd dash from fossil stocks, shares and securities, with a “campaign for divestment from fossil fuel infrastructure projects.”

Putting on the financing lid is difficult since so much money sloshes around the world thanks to capitalist crisis conditions that Marxists term ‘overaccumulation.’ Nevertheless, in these volatile circumstances, South Africa’s $140 billion foreign debt – a ratio similar to the mid-1980s, having risen from the $25 billion Nelson Mandela inherited in 1994 – works in the climate activists’ favour, just as it did 29 years ago during the darkest days of apartheid when PW Botha gave his infamous ‘Rubicon Speech’ here in Durban. He made no concessions and all hell broke loose; the country would never again be the same, once the financiers began their run the next day.

A similar David & Goliath match was won by South African activists from the Treatment Action Campaign ten years ago, in their fight against governments in Washington and Pretoria, Big Pharma, the World Trade Organisation and the very notion of Intellectual Property. Winning that battle raised life expectancy from 52 in 2004 to 62 today. With the threat to life posed by climate change, an even greater scale of activist intervention will be needed again, especially on the African continent which is home to most of the 400 000 people now estimated to be dying annually from climate change, already.

Changing national public policy is vital and again, South Africa is one of the world’s great battlegrounds. The mining-smelting-shipping corporates (whether local, Western or BRICS in origin) and their Pretoria servants are frightened when climate is raised. At long last, on August 29 in Durban, members of parliament will gather testimony on climate change, and government’s fronting for fossil capital will become evident.

The critical baby step towards a sane climate policy is relatively simple: measure how much SA’s major greenhouse gas polluters emit so they can be capped and cut. Most countries now have quite accurate ways to assess both atmospheric greenhouse gases and extreme point sources. For example, the privatized SA oil company Sasol – now listed on the New York Stock Exchange – has a huge facility not far from Johannesburg, Secunda, squeezing coal and gas to make liquid petroleum, in the process creating the single greatest site of CO2 emissions on earth.

In contrast, SA Environment Minister Edna Molewa’s new $500 million budget is revealing. Her recent $2 million spending cut from the SA Weather Service means, according to Parliament, “South Africa would be unable to meet its international obligations regarding the monitoring of greenhouse gases through the Global Atmospheric Watch station. As a result, there would be a limitation on monitoring the impacts of Climate Change Mitigation and Scenario Strategies for the country. The country would also be unable to formulate baselines and monitor emissions versus set targets.”

Molewa might, logically, aim to keep her subjects ignorant about the economy’s reliance upon fossil fuels, because she is bowing to the durable power of the so-called ‘Minerals Energy Complex’? That power was unveiled when her cabinet colleagues Nathi Mthethwa and Cyril Ramaphosa assisted London-based platinum firm Lonmin by deploying the police against striking workers, for the sake of maintaining corporate mining profits on August 16, 2012. Ramaphosa, later to become deputy president of South Africa, was a 9 percent owner of Lonmin, and it was his emails that brought massacre-minded troops to end the wildcat strike (he called it ‘dastardly criminal’), leaving 34 corpses of surrendering workers. Testimony he gave to the Marikana Massacre commission in mid-August confirmed his loyalties: he admitted that instead of building 5500 houses for Lonmin workers, as promised, the corporation’s Transformation Committee he oversaw built just three.

Ramaphosa’s massive coal mines and similar dirty coal corporations were long pampered by Molewa’s water ministry. At least forty major new mines are now being dug or planned to feed the state electricity company Eskom’s Medupi and Kusile power plants (the two largest under construction in the world today), not to mention massive new coal digs to export to China and India. The coal-producing province of Mpumalanga is, quite literally, wheezing, yet Eskom has applied to Molewa for ‘rolling postponements’ on pollution reductions required by law at 14 power plants there. According to the NGO groundWork, this would ‘amount to exemption.’

Eskom has the gall to try this because Molewa has turned a blind eye to many pollution violations. One poignant example is an illegal coal operation close to the border of Hluhluwe-iMfolozi park – Africa’s oldest game reserve and the centre of rhino survival efforts – where local peasant livelihoods are being wrecked by the opencast Somkhele mine. Nearby, even more damage is likely, if the Ibutho Coal company opens a similar mine on the historic park’s direct border. It is a hare-brained plan but government has already approved it in principal. Ibutho is a shady operation and refuses to disclose its corporate sponsors, but of the six principals named in its application, half are tied to Glencore and BHP Billiton, which are by far the world’s largest commodity trader and mining house, respectively.

Can Molewa resist their charms? After all, BHP Billiton still enjoys an extraordinary revolving-door relationship with very powerful South African officials. The crony capitalism dates to apartheid, when it boosted the salaries of finance minister Derek Keys and Eskom treasurer Mick Davis. The door continued spinning after 1994, and through it went the first democratic energy regulator, Xolani Mkhwanazi, the first director general of trade and industry Zav Rustomjee, and current national planning commissioner Vincent Maphai.

This revolving door helps explain why the Australian/UK firm gets electricity at a fraction of the price of ordinary people, consuming between 6 and 10 percent of our national power load, and exporting the profits while employing fewer than 1500 at the main Richard Bay smelters. Molewa is implicated in the power structure, and that may help explain another absurd budgeting choice revealed last month: explicit climate change programming will be slashed 8.3 percent after adjusting for inflation, leaving just $22 million in this year’s budget to address the greatest threat to our survival. Also cut was environmental monitoring, in spite of growing attention to pollution hazards.

The SA Parliament’s Environment Committee warned on July 8, “As a country, we must be seen making our fair contribution to the global effort to mitigate climate change by ensuring that we reduce our greenhouse gas emissions below the business-as-usual by 34 per cent by 2020 and 42 per cent by 2025, consistent with the pledges that President Jacob Zuma made” at the UN climate summit in Copenhagen. The obvious question is how these emissions cuts can be accomplished with the country’s controversial 2012 National Development Plan (NDP), drawn up by former Finance Minister Trevor Manuel (the country’s most neoliberal politician) and now overseen by Ramaphosa:

• The NDP gives multinational and local fossil fuel corporations all the subsidized infrastructure they need to rip out South Africa’s coal, burn it in Medupi and Kusile, each capable of polluting 35 million tonnes of CO2 per year, with most benefits going to mining houses and smelters.
• The NDP helps ship massive amounts of coal from South Africa to China and India through Richards Bay – the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission’s main priority project, at “the single largest coal export terminal in the world” – at a cost of several tens of billions of dollars.
• The NDP’s second priority investment is $25 billion to expand Durban’s port from throughput of 2.5 million to 20 million containers a year from now to 2040, with huge implications for the climate.
• The NDP supports CO2-intensive fracking in the dry western Karoo and deepwater oil exploration offshore Durban in the dangerous Agulhas Current: ExxonMobil is asking for prospecting permission in depths of more than 3.5 km, in spite of sharpening community opposition, while Sasol and a Burmese company are also trying their luck nearby, with Big Oil acquiring Zuma’s endorsement in Durban last month.

The NDP is most strenuously opposed by the National Union of Metalworkers, the continent’s largest union and also the most advanced regarding the need for a Just Transition to a post-carbon, post-capitalist economy. There is also a new left party that derides the NDP in parliament: the Economic Freedom Fighters. In contrast, the ruling African National Congress doesn’t seem to have a single vocal MP who cares about climate change. Indeed any eco-socialists who might be lurking in parliament, in the Congress of SA Trade Unions and in the Communist Party, still aiming to reform the NDP from the inside, should be forewarned: on the one hand, climate change and crony capitalism provide excellent reasons to redirect the NDP’s pro-corporate $80 billion infrastructure spending away from perpetual fossil dependency, towards meeting basic infrastructure needs.

On the other hand, though, Molewa’s defunding of her climate responsibilities provides an indicator of why reform is highly unlikely, at least not without a rapid deepening of eco-social-justice activism. For as Klein insists, This Changes Everything.

Prof Patrick Bond’s ‘Politics of Climate Justice’ was recently named amongst the Guardian’s ten leading books on the topic. This article was originally posted at Telesur



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IBRICS ibhebhethekisa ukungamukeli kwePitoli isimo sokuguquguquka kwezulu
NguPatrick Bond
Umhumushi uFaith ka-Manzi

Ingxaki enkulu ebhekene nabantu, ukuguqugukquka kwesimo sezulu, okunengozi enkulu ezwenikazi laseAfrika. Inhlangano ebonelelayo yasedolobheni laseLondo, iChristian Aid, iqagela ukuthi cishe abantu abayizigidi ezingamakhulu amabili bozokufa ngokungenasidingo kuleminyaka eyikhulu umangabe amazing okushisa angase-nje akhupguke ngamaphesenti amabili. Njengamanje ndlella umhlaba ofudumala ngawo, okubhekwe yiBhange Lomhlaba ukuthi kuphule amazing amane ngaphezulu kwalokho okujwayelekile ngonyaka ka2100, kungase kwenzeke ukuthi imaphakathi laseAfrika liyoshisa okufinyelela kumazinga asuka kwayisithupha kuya kwayisikhombisa.

Eminyakeni ezayo lokhu kuyoholela kwisibhicongo, ikakhulukazi ophondweni laseAfrika, eNtshonalanga neAfrika kanye nasemaDamini Amakhulu (phecelezi aziwa ngokuthi iGreat Lakes), izindawo ezintathi kulelizwekazi okuyizona ezibonakala zisengcupheni kakhulu. Izingxenye ezinkulu eNingizimu Afrika, zizoshisa uma kuqhathaniswa nezomiso ezindaweni ezomile kulelozwe ezisentshonalanga kanye nalezo ezinozamcolo empumalanga, futhi kunezimo ezinzima ezizokwenza kwenzinye izindawo yonke indawo.

Njengoba kubhekenwe nesimo esibucayi kakhulu kangaka esingakaze sibe khona, ngabe uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika wenzani? Ngabe abezombusazwe abasePitoli kanye nezikhulu bazibophezele ukuvikela abantu, ezemvelo kanye nezomnotho kwimiphumela yokuduma kwezulu kanye nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, kanye futhi nokwehlisa futhi nokubuyisela emuva ukungcolisa okwenziwa yilelizwe kakhulu ngesisisi esisiphafuza kakhulu , icarbon, bese singcolisa umoya. Ngabe umbuso usuqalile ukulawula lezizimboni ezingcolisa kakhulu umoya kulelizwe – oEskom, Sasol, kanye nezomboni ezihlanza amafutha,( phecelezi ama-oil refineries) kanye nezindlu ezinkulu zokumbiwa phansi – eziphafuza kakhulu futhi eziwumsuka wezisisisi eziluhlaza zohlobo olulodwa ezingcolisa umoya? Noma kungase kwenzeke ukuthi umbuso uyasiphika isimo esibhekene naso sokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu ngokungekho emthethweni?

Phela emva kwakho konke lokhu, idolobha laseMelika iWashington, DC – empeleni ikomkhulu lezombusazwe okuyilona eligcwele izimboni kakhulu kumlando wonke womhlaba futhi ngalokho sibonga umkhankaso ongekudala-nje wokwehlisa amandla okulawula ezezimali ngabezombusazwe – njengoba-nje noMongameli waseMelika uBarack Obama azama ngawo wonke amandla ukulwa nemboni yamalahle enamandla kakhulu. Ngenyanga kaNhlangulana, wabikezela ukuthi empeleni okungukunqabela ukwakhiwa kwezizinda ezingamakhulu namashumi ayisihlanu zamandla kagesi aphehlwa ngamalahle okwakuhlongozwa ngonyaka ka2001 ngulowo owayeyisekela likamongameli ngalesosikhathi uDick Cheney.

Zimbili kuphela esezakhiwe kusukela ngaleyonkathi, futhi kungenxa yokumelana nalokho kakhulu okwenziwa ukumelana nalezizinda umphakathi kodwa futhi ngenxa yeqembu labammeli, iSierra Club, bekhinyabeza imboni yamalahle, ngakho-ke uObama kungekudala-nje wayalela okuvese kwase kuyindlela enkulu yokusuka kwisizinda esingcole kakhulu samandla,amalahle. (Ukuqinisekisa-nje,omunye-ke manje umshikshsikaobhekene nenhlangano yezishoshovu mayelana nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu eMelika ukuqeda ukufakwa kokusaketshezi emadwaleni ukuze kukhiqizwe uwoyela (phecelezi fraking), ukumuncwa kwamafutha emanzini ajulile asolwandle kanye nasemapaki esizwe, ukuhwebelana namanye amazwe ngokuwadayisela amalahle, kanye nokuhwebelana nezwe laseCanada ngokulanda inhlabathi yetiyela enguwoyela ongahlaziwe.)

Ukwenza imfihlo ukucekeleka phansi kwesimo sezulu ngokuyisinyenyela
EPitoli, igxathu elibalulekile esingalenza lomntwana ukubhekelana nalokhu ukuthi izikhulu bakwenza kubelula-nje: abalinganise ukuthi ngabe izilelesi zezimboni ezingcolisakakhulu ngezisisi eziluhlaza eNingizimu Afrika ziphafuza kangakanani ukuze kuhlonyeliswe izimboni (ezehlisa amazing okuphafuza emoyeni izisisi ezingcolisa emoyeni) kanye nokuthi ukuphafuza izisisi ezingcolisa emoyeni zinqanyulwe. Amazwe amaningi aseqalile ukuba nenqubekela phambili mayelana nalesisimo ngokukala amanani futhi asezinezindlela ezishaya emhlolweni ukuhlonza izisisis eziluhlaza ezisemoyeni kanye nezizimnda kumbe izimboni okuyizona ezingcolisa kakhulu. (Ngokwesibonelo-nje, uhlelo lwemboni yakaSasol yokwenza amalahle abe uwoyela nokuthi igesi ibe uwoyela eSecunda yaziwa njengesizinda esisodwa esikhulkazi emhlabeni wonke esiphafiza kakhulu isisisi esingcolisa emoyeni i-carbon.)

Uhlelo lwemali olusha lwezigidigidi ezingu5.6 zamarandi ezenziwe nguNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo uEdna Molewa kukhona okulukhombisayo: unqume izigidi ezingamashumi amabili zamarandi kuHlelo Lwezosimo Sezulu lwaseNingizimu Afrika, ngokusho kwekomidi elibhekelelayo lasephalamende lezemvelo kumbhalo eliwukhiphe ziyisishagalombili kuNtulikazi lithe,”INingizimu Afrika ayikwazanga ukuhlangabezana nezinqumo zayo zomhlaba mayelana nokuqaphela izisisi eziluhlaza isebenzisa Indlela Yomhlaba Yokuqapha (phecelezi iGlobal Atmospheric Watch). Umphumela walokho-ke, ukuthi kuzoba khona ukungafinyeleli ukuqapha imiphumela Yokwehlisa Ukushintsha Kwesimo Sezulu kanye nezindlela zokubhekana nalesisimo kulelizwe.Lelizwe futhi ngeke likwazi ukuqamba izindlela eziphansi kanye nokuqapha ukuphafuzwa kwezisisi ezingcolisayo uma sekubhekenwe nebelizimisele ngokufinyelela kulona.”

Mhlawumbe uMolewa futhi ukuthi thina – kanye nomhlaba jikelele – sihlale singazi ngokuthembela kwezwe lakithi kwezokubasa zemvelo, ngoba egobela kumandla angapheli azwa ‘Ngokuxakile Okungamandla Okuwuketshezi’ (phecelezi iMinerals Energy Complex? Lawomandla anobubi agqanyiswa ngesikhathi ozakwabo ephalamende njengoNathi Mthethwa kanye noCyril Ramaphosa besiza iLonmin ababecabanga ukuthi kwakuzoholela enzuzweni enkulu kwezokumbiwa phansi, ngeshumi nesithupha lenyanga kaNcwaba ngonyaka ka2012.

Ngakho-ke ngeke kumangalise ukwazi ukuthi – njengoba phela iphephandaba iMail&Mail lakukhiphela obala ngonyaka ka2013 (okwalandelwa okujwayelekile ngoMolewa umkhuba wakhe wokuphika) – ukuthi izimboni zokumbiwa phansi zikaRamaphosa iShanduka kanye nezinye izimboni zamalahle angcolisayo ziyatotoswa. Kusolwa ukuthi uMolewa wayalela abasebenzi bakhe ukuthi zizibe imigomo ehambisana nesivumelwano samanzi esidingekayo kwizimboni zokumbiwa phansi zamalahle eSifundazweni saseMpumalanga. Cishe zingamashumi amane izimboni ezintsha zombiwa phansi ezimbiwayo noma ezihleliwe ukuphakela izizinda zamandla iMedupi kanye neKusile, uma-nje singasabali ukumbiwa okwenzeka kakhulu kwamalahle okusha azohanjiswa emazweni aseChina kanye naseIndia. Indawo yaseMpumalanga esendawenui ephakeme, isicinene emoyeni, kodwa uEskom usufake isicelo kuMolewa ‘ngokuthi ulokhu uqhubezela phambili’ kwizizinda eziyishumi ekufanele ukuthi ngabe ziyakwehlisa ukungcolisa emoyeni, ngokusho kwenhlangano ezimele igroundWork okufana nokuthi ‘lezizimboni ziyekelelwe’.

Banesibindi sokuzama lokhu ngoba uMolewa uvele wavala amehlo ekuphulweni komthetho okuningi mayelana nokungcoliswa komoya. Isibonelo esidabukisayo ukusebenza okungekho emthethweni kwezokumbiwa kwamalahle eduzane nomngcele wepaki laseHluhluwe kanye naseMfolozi – indawo endala kakhulu yaseAfrika kanye nekomkhulu Yemizamo yokuphila kobhejane – lapha KwaZulu-Natal, lapho izimpilo zabasebenzi basemasimini zicekelwa phansi ezokumbiwa phansi okwenziwa onqenqemeni lomhlaba.

Kodwa ukucekeleka phansi kungenzeka kumakhilomitha ayishumi nambili, umangabe Amalahle ebutho evula imboni yezokumbiwa phansi kumngcele oqondene ngqo nalelipaki i elinomlando, uhlelo oluwumqondo kanogwaja uhulumeni asevele ewuvumele. Ibutho uhlelo olungenabulungiswa futhi elinqabayo ukuveza obala abatshali balo bezimali abahamba phambili, kodwa kwabayisithupha abaphambili, ingxenye yabo inobuhlobo neGlencoe kanye neBHP Billiton, okungezinye zezimboni ezinkulukazi emhlabeni wonke kwezokumbiwa phansi kanye nabadayisi ngokulandelana kwazo.

Ngabe sizofika isikhathi lapho uMolewa angeke avumele ukuluthwa yilezizimboni? Phela emva kwakho konke lokhu, iBHP Billiton inobudlelwane obuhle kakhulu kwiminyango yezikhulu eziphezulu zaseNingizimu Afrika kusukela ngesikhathi sombuso wobandlululo (okumbandakanya lowo owayengumongameli wezimali uDerek keys kanye nomphathisikwama waseEskom uMick Davis) okwaqhubeka futhi kusukela ngo1994 (ngokwesibonelo-nje umlawuli wokuqala kwizindaba eziphathelene namandla kagesi kuhulumeni wentando yeningi uXolani Mkhwanazi kanye namanje lowo ongukhomishani wokuhlela kazwelonke uVincent Maphai). Lokhu kusiza ukuthi kuchaze ukuthi yini imboni yaseAustralia naseUK ithola ugesi ngenani eliphansi kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa no wonkewonke, imboni esebenzisa amandla kagesi aphakathi kwamaphesenti ayisithupha kanye neshumi, futhi ibe ithuthela inzuzo yayo phesheya ibe iqashe abasebenzi abangaphansi kwenkulungwane namakhulu amahlanu kwizincibilikisi zayo eRichards Bay.

Uma elokhu eqhubeka nokugqugquzela Ukutshalwa Kwezimali Okubheke Ngqo kueli, okuxhasa izimboni ezingcolisa kakhulu umoya eNingizimu Afrika, kuyodingeka ukuthi uMolewa enze sengathi akanakile imali echithekayo ngalokhu, ikakhulukazi mayelana nokuguquguquka kwesimi sezulu. Inhlangano yethu yohlelo lwesimo sezulu akuyona kuphela eshayekile kuhlelo lwakhe lwezimali olusha: ukuhlela okusobala mayelana nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kuzokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angu8.3 emva kokuba esehlele kabusha ukwehla kwezinga lemali yakuleli, okusho ukuthi, izigidi eziyishumi nesishagalolunye zamaradi, okuyoshiya-nje amakhulu amabili nesishagalolunye ezigidi zamarandi ukubhekana nesimo esingasihlasela esikhulukazi mayelana nokuphila kwethu. Okunye futhi okunqunyiwe kuloluhlelo lwakhe olusha lwezimali ukuqapha ezemvelo,phezu kokuba kunokubhekana okukhulayo mayelana nobungozi obudalwa ukungcola okusemoyeni njengaseNingizimu neTheku lapho kunoshevu kakhulu wezisisi ezingcolisayo, lapho ngihlala khona.

Uhlelo likaZwelonke Lokuthuthukisa mayelana nesidididi ngesimo sezulu
IKomidi lasePhalamende leZemvelo laxwayisa mhlaziyisiShagalolunye kwinyanga kaNtulikazi lathi, “Njengezwe, kufanele sibonakale ukuthi nathi siyazi mbandakanya ngobulungiswa kwimizamo eyenziwa umhlaba wonke ukusiza ngesimo sezulu ngokwehlisa ukuphafuza kwethi izisisi eziluhlaza ezingcolisa umoya ukuthi zibe ngaphansi ngokuvumelana nezohwebo ngamaphansi kwamaphesnti angu34 ngonyaka ka2020 kanye futhi ngamaphesenti angu42 ngonyaka ka2025, okuzohambisana kanye nesithembiso esenziwa nguMongameli uGedleyihlekisa Zuma kwingqungqthela yeCOP15 [njengoba kwenzeka keUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties] yeshumi nesihlanu] eyayiseCopenhagen ngenyanga kaZibandlela ngonyaka ka2009.”

Lezozithembiso zabaluleka kakhulu ngesikhathi iNingizimu Afrika kuyiyona eyayisingethe iCOP17 ngonyaka ka2011 kuqeda umehluko phakathi kwamazwe ahola mamaphakathi kanye nalawo ezicebi. Umbuzo osibheke emehlweni ilona ngabe ukwehliswa kokungcoliswa komoya kungenzeka yini ngoHlelo LlikaZwelonke Lentuthuko (phecelezi iNational Development -NDP),

1) okunikeza izimboni zasekhaya nezisabalele umhlaba wonke zemikhiqizo yokubasa yemvelo zezizinda ezixhasiwe ukumba amalahle aseNingizimu Afrika, kuthi ashiswe kwizizinda ezimbili ezinkulukazi zamandla kagesi aphehlwe ngamalahle (iMedupi kanye neKusile) ezakhiwayo njengamanje la emhlabeni – isizinda ngasinye esikwazi ukungcolisa umoya ngamathani angamashumi amathathu ezigidi zesisisi icarbon ngonyaka – bese futhi kuthi
2) bahambise ngemikhumbi inqwaba yamalahle kusukela eLimpopo, eMpumalanga kanye naKwaZulu-Natal eya eChina naseIndia kusetshenziswa umzila waseRichards Bay – Uhlelo Lokuqala LukaMongameli Lwezizinda Lokuhlanganisa Uktshalwa Kwezimali [phecelezi i Presidential Infrastructure Co-ordinating Commission Strategic Investment Project (PICC SIP1)] –ngenani lezigidigidi zamarandi, kulandelwa yi

3) iPICC SIP yesibili,elahla amakhulu amabili namashumi amahlanu ezigidigidi zamarandi ngokwandisa ichweba laseThekwini kusukela kumakhoyintena angu2.5 wezigidi kuya kwizigidi ezingu20 ngonyaka kusukela manje kuze kuba ngonyaka ka2040, okuyoba nomthelela omkhulu kwisimo sezulu, okuzokwenyuswa kakhulu

4) ukufakwa kokusaketshezi emadwaleni kufunwa amafutha eKaroo kanye nasemanzini ajulile kufunwa amafutha eduze kwaseThekwini (fracking in the Karoo and deepwater offshore oil exploration near Durban (njengoba iExxonMobilifuna imvume yokuhlonza ukujula okungaphezulu kwamakhilomotha angu3.5, phezu kokuba umphakathu umelene kakhulu nalokhu).

Uma ngingase ngisho-nje, iPhalamende lilele njengomholi, ngaphandle kweqembu elisha iEconomic Freedom Fighters omele ikomiti lalo uAndile Mngxitama obuza imibuzo enzima ngokuthi ubani ophumelelayo nohlulwayo. (Ngake ngaba namathemba okuthi isshoshovu sezemvelo seqembu leIndependent Democrats , uLance Greyling, unesibindi – kodwa-ke njengomxhantela weqembu leDemocratic Alliance elishaya kakhulu iBhayibheli, ubhozo wakhe kumamabhuleki awuzange-nje umnyakazise uHelen Zille kwisivinini ayeshayela ngaso.)

UKhongolose akabonakali uneLunga lasePhalamende eliphumele obala ngaloludaba ebucayi kangaka yesimo sezulu, kanti kunjalo futhi nangamanye amaqembu. Ngenyanga kaMasingana kulonyaka, ngesikhathi isishoshovu sezemvelo saseThekwini esivelele uDesmond D’Sa ephakmisa udaba lwesimo sezulu ngokubheka kade Umgomo Wokuthuthukisa Izizinda (phecelezi iInfrastructure Development Bill), wathuliswa ethula nobufakazi esakhulume imizuzu emine. Labo abafuna ukwenza ushintsho kwiNDP kufanele siyabaqwashisa ngokwenzeka kuloludaba.

Transnet inomthelela oyingozi kakhulu kwisimo sezulu
Kodwa futhi, uMolwe nabasebenzi bakhe basenawo amathuba okulawula ekutheni babuze – noma bahudule izinyawo – kwizinhlelo ezingcole kakhulu, ezicekela phansi isimi sezulu, neziletha inzuzo. Empeleni noma-ke Umthetho Wokuthuthukisa Wengqlazizinda omusha (phecelezi iInfrastructure Development Act) ezenza nguNgqongqoshe Wezokuthuthukisa Umnotho uEbrahim Patel ukuthi aphuthumise izinhlelo ezinkulukazi zokwakha abazokwenza inzuzo kakhulu kuzoba phambili izimboni zasemazweni aphesheya, njengoba uhlelo nohlelo kufanele luletho izincomo ezizwakalayo zeEIA ukuze lezizinhlelo ziqhubekele phambili. UTransnet uhambisa phambili amaPICC SIP amabili. Ngakho-keimpendulo yesisiphathimandla uBrian Molefe ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kubaluleke njengokubhekelela kukaMolewaumthwalo wokulawula.

Noma-ke uTransnet kanye nezinye izinhlaka zombuso kusobala ukuthi azizimisele ukubhekelela isimo sezulu uma ngabe zakha amaPICC SIP,ngenhlanhla, kudaba nodaba okubhekenwe nalo, izinhlangano ezizimele ezibhekelele ezezemvelo - njengoEarthlife Africa, igroundWork,iGreenpeace, iTreasure, iKaroo Action Group kanye nethe South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA) – zilwa nokugcoliswa komoya kakhulu okwenziwa ngamaPICC SIP. Okungukuphikisana okubalulekile njengamanje, ukuthi umzamo weTransnet wokwandisa indawo yokudiliza izimpahla lapho kupaka khona imikhumbi echwebeni , izisebenzi zikaMolewa babhekene ngqo nalengqinamba, kodwa lokhu kusenzeke ngendlela engafinyelel ezingeni eligcwele.

Ngenyanga kaMfumfu kunyaka odlule, Umnyango kaZwelonke Wezindaba Zezemvelo, umangaze imboni ethutha ngemikhumbi ngokukhipha lomyalelo wokuthi iTransnet aygcinanga-nje ngokuhluleka ukuveza iqiniso ngomonakalo ngendawo yenhlabathi ebalulekile yasechwebeni, kodwa ababehlonzela ezemvelo abazange bacabange ngokwanele ukuthi ukunyuka kwezinga lolwandle kanye nezimvula ezinkulu kuyominzisa kanti futhi kucekele phansi ukuxhaswa ngezimali eziyizigidigidi ezingu5.6 zamarandi.

Okwenza lapha kubalulekile, ngoba uhlelo lokuqala lolu ngaphakathi kwePICC SIP yesibili enkulukazi,eyayigqugquzelwa ngowayengumholi weKhomishani Yokuhlela uTrevor Manuel kanye nalowo owangena esikhundleni sakhe, uRamaphosa, kanye nababusi bakulelidolobha. Kodwa-ke kungase kwenzeke bangaphumeleli, ngoba omunye wabagxeki babo ngoklonyeliswe nge2014 Goldman Environmental Prize eAfrika, uDesmond D’Sa wenhlangano iSDCEA. uJwayele ukuthi akhombise umhlaba wonke ngokungcolisa ngokusaluketshezi umoya okwenzeka ngaphandle kokuhlolwa endaweni yaseNingizimu neTheku futhi kwathi sekuzophela inyanga kaMbasa, amaphephandaba eThe Economist kanye neGuardian zabhala ngempi ka D’Sa’s ebhekene nokwandiswa kwechweba kwimboni yamafutha.

ISDCEA (njengoba mina ngiyisakhamuzi saseBluff ngingomunye wabayixhasayo lenhlangano) izikhathi eziningi iphikisane nalesisincibilikisi esikhulukazi samafutha eAfrika yonkana, lapho iEngen, iBP kanye noShell zidale umonakalo emoyeni. Uma sigcina-nje ukubala, ngaphezulu kwengxenye yezingane zesikole esiphakathi kwezincibilikisi ezimbili zaseNingizimu neTheku, iSettlers Primary, zinesifo sofuba, okuyilona daba olubi kakhulu elaziwa emhlabeni wonke.

Ngenyanga edlule, u D’Sa kanye nabacwaningi balenhlangano iSDCEA oEunice Asante, uTristan Ballard kanye noPriya Pillay basebenzisa ingqinamba yeEIA inking yokunyuka kwezinga lolwandle, njengoba kade kubhekenwe nenkulumo mpikiswano yeminyaka emibili nengxenye noTransnet kanye nababehlonzela lemboni iNemai, iZAA (abazinze eKapa futhi ababhekelele kakhulukazi ezasolwandle) ngisho neCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research.

Okwenziwa uMnyango Wezindaba Zezemvelo, okuyisincomo kuMolewa, ukunqaba iEIA yeTransnet yangonyaka ka2013 kanti futhi ngenyanga kaMfumfu ngonyaka odlule lomnyango wagcizelela ukuthi lemboni iqale phansi ngokuthi ibhekisise isimo sezulu ngokubaluleka. Imininingwane eyayithunyelwa iTransnet kulomnyango yayincike kulwazi lweminyaka emihlanu edlule, futhi yabukela phansi ukunyuka kwamanzi kanye nomonakala wezimvula ezinkulu, kube kodwa isizinda salemboni eThekwini sasicekeleke phansi kakhulu ngonyaka ka2012 ngesikhathi amagagasi amakhulu – edala ukuthi ingxenye yeskungeneleni kwechweba izshone phansi futhi yande – okwadududlela imikhumbi kumacranes.

Ababehlonzela iTransnet babengabangavumelani nesimo sezulu okukhombisa ukuthi babengenalo ulwazi olunzulu okungangokuthi ngisho nomnyango wesimo sezulu lapha kumasipala waseThekwini (owawuholwa nguDeborah Roberts) wangenelela ukubuza ngolwazi olwanele nge-EIA. Lokho kwaholela ekuphoxekeni kakhulu kulabahlonzi, ngakho-ke iTransnet yafaka ulwazi olusha nge-EIA ngenyanga kaNhlangulana. Esikhundleni sokuqasha abanye abazobahlonzela abasha, izikhulu zeTransnet zasebenzisa zona kanye lezizinkampani ezazihluleka futhi zenza umsebenzi ongagculisi iNemai kanye neZAA – eyaqhamuka nolwazi olufanayo. Ukufaka kwabo lolulwazi lwaqhamuka emva kwamasonto lapho kwavela khona ulwazi lokuthi iMvelweni ukuthi ishidi leqhwa leMpumalanga yeAntartica lalincibilika ngendlela engenakuphindela emuva, indlela eyayizophonsa isigaxa esikhulu olwandle okungangokuthi ababhali beZemvelo baqagela ukuthi ukunyuka ngamamitha amane ngesikhathi kukhona ukuzika okugcwele kuqhamuka eminyakeni yamakhulukhulu eminyakeni edlule Lesisikhathi senkulumompikiswano, kodwa-ke, sisukela ku2014 kuya ku2060, futhi ngeminyaka emva kwalena, iTransnet iqagela ukuthi 0.58 wamazinga amamitha okunyuka kolwandle kwanele. Kodwa abacwaningi baseSDCEA bathola iphutha elisobala: iTransnet ayizange ifunde kahle umbiko wokugcina weIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change futhi umphumela walokho usho ukuthi, kwakungekho amaphesenti angu20 angabalwanga.Njengoba iSDCEA uakhononda. iEIA yokugcina “yenza iphutha ngamazinga okunyuka kolwandle konyaka k2018 kuya ku2100 okucishe kulingane nonyaka ka1986 kuya ku2005 ukuthi ulwandle lunyuke ngalendlela ngonyaka ka2100.”

ISDCEA yaqala yabhekana neTransnet ngokushintsha kwesimo sezulu ngeEIA yangonyaka ka2008 ngepayipi lamafutha elisuka eThekwini libheke eGoli, kodwa izinkulumo mpikiswano zazitshwa. Ungqongqoshe owayephethe ngaphambi kukaMolewa uMarthinus van Schalkwyk wavumela ukenziwa kabili kwesisindo sokumpompa amafutha, ngakho-ke kwanyuka ukusebenza kwesincibilikisi okwenza ukuthi izakhamizi zalapho kuhlala khona uD’Sa zesabe kakhulu, uma phela sekubhekwana nezingozi ezisabisayo kanye nokuqhuma noma ukubhamuka okwenzeke kwizincibilikisi kanye namathangi aseNingizimu neTheku lapho kugcinwe khona amafutha.

UVan Schalkwyk wakwenza lokhu phezu koubandlululo lwezemvelo plwalusobala olwalenziwa Isiphathimandla sangaleyonkathi seTransnet uMario Ramos (manje oseyiSiphathimandla sebhange lakwaABSA), ngesikhathi lendlela ende kangaka futhi ejikelezayo lomzila wepayipi wamakhulu amakhilomitha kusukela eNingizimu neTheku naseMbumbulu esikhundleni komzila ojwayelekile odlula lapho kuhlala khona abamhlophe ezindaweni eKloof naseHillcrest kanye nasemapulazini abalimi abamhlophe. Inani lalomzila lagxuma lisuka kwizigidigidi eziyisithupha zamarandi lafinyelela kwizigidigidi ezingamashumi amabili nantathu zamarandi.

Uma sesikhuluma singananazi ngenyanga kaZibandlela ngo2012 ngesikhathi kuchazwa ngaloluhlelo, lowo owayengungqongqoshe wezimboni zikahulumeni uMalusi Gigaba wavuma ukuthi “ukuhluleka kokuhleleka…Izinhlelo Ezinkul zeTransnet zazingenawo amandla ngokwanele futhi lungekho ulwazi olujulile lokuthi abathengi baloluhlelo babheke kahle lesisizinda esikhulukazi ngaloluhlobo. Akubanga khona ukuhlaziya ngokwanele ngemiphumela engemihle eyayingabakhona.” Njengoba uGigaba avumelana nalokhu, ‘’Itransnet eyayinikele kukhona ngaloluhlelo njengokuthola izimvume – Ieia, ukuthola umhlaba ukuze ikwazi ukwenza umzila, nezimvume zamanzi nasezindaweni ezinamanzi – akuzange kulandelwe ngokubhekelela okwanele nangokuzimisela.” Kusobala ukuthi lezi izifundo ezingazange zinakwe.

Ukwenza ngasese umoya ngendlela ekhinyabeza umgomo womhlaba wonke
Iphutha elikhulu kakhulu elilandelalayo like Molewa mayelana nomgomo wesimo sezulu ukuxhasa okubizwa ngokuthi “ukwenza ngasese umoya’’ ngokudayisa ngesisisi esingcolisa umoya icarbon. Uhlelo lokuqala lwaseNingizimu Afrika lokugcwalisa umhlabathi emgodini eThekwini( phecelezi ilandfill) okwakuwuhlelo lokuqoqa umoya onukayo imethane ukuze iphendulwe ibe amandla kagesi olwabiza isigidi eisyikhulu lamarandi. Kodwa loluhlelo olwalukumgwaqo iBisasar labonakalisa ubandlululo ngezemvelo – lomgodi wyokulahla imfucuza wawulapho kuhlala khona abntu abamnyama kusukela eminyakeni engaphambilini yango1980 – kwenziwa ngenkohlakalo iUnited Nations Clean Development Mechanism. (Omunye oyisiqashwa esihamba phambili eBisasar, uJohn Parkins, wavuma kwintatheli uKhadia Sharife ngokuphela konyaka ka2011 ukuthi isidingo esasibizwa ‘ngokwenzelele’ sasingelone iqiniso, enye yezindlela eziningi yokunqamulela eyayenziwa yiTheku ngesikhathi kusaphethe uMike Sutcliffe kusukela ngonyaka ka2002 kuya ku2012.)

Uma sekwengezelwa kokwaqala kubonakala sengathi kuyaphumelela, uhulumeni waseNgilandi ngenyanga edlule umemezele ukuthi uzosiza isikhwama sombuso wezwe ukugqugquzela iNingizimu Afrika ukudayisa isisisi esingcolisa umoya, icarbon.Kodwa izimakethe zokuphafuza umoya ongcolile zasedolobheni laseLondon ziyinhlekisa ngenxa yamanani awayo, inkohlakalo, ubugebengu kanye nemiphumela esuke ingalindelwe enyenza izimboni ezizuza kakhulu ngokugcolisa ngokwedlulele zikwazi ukujikelezisa ukuphafuza izisisi ezingcolile ezindaweni ezahlukene.

Ngakho-ke iskhwama Semali sombuso sihlasela umzamo wokwenza imigomo ebalulekile ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu ekubeni ochwepheshe bezomnotho bakulelize ngonyaka ka2012 bavela nesu lentela ebhekene nesisisi icarbon ngaphandle kokudayisa ngayo. Ngalesosikhathi izikhulu zabona ukuthi ukuphambanisa iqiniso okwedlulele eNingizimu Afrika ngeke kuyohelela ngendlela engavimbeleki umphumela wayo okuyoba ukwehluleka kwemakethe. Ngokwenza ngasese umoya ukuze kusizakale laba abafuna ukutshala izimali kanye nezimboni ezingcolisa kakhulu umoya, kuyoba nzima kakhulu ukuthi iPitoli likwazi ukubhekana nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu ngendlela okuyiyona.

Indlela eyodwa yokwenza lokho, lapha kanye nakuyo yonke indawo, ukugcizelela ukuncishiswa kokuphafuzwa kwezisisi ezingcolisa umoya ngokusemthethweni – amaphesenti angu10 ngonyaka ayobaluleka kuze kufike unyaka ka2050 – kuthi lokho kwenzeka sihlele ukushenxisa ezamandla kagesi zethu, ezokuthutha, ezolimo, ezokumbiwa phansi, ukukhiqiza emadolobheni, ukuthenga kanye nezizinda zokulahla okubhekene nokwehlisa isisisi icarbona kanye nezindlela zokunyusa amazinga okusebenza.

Isibonelo-nje esisodwa, indlela ‘yeSigidi Semisebenzi Yesimo Sezulu’ eqalwe edolobheni laseKapa yinhlangano iAlternative Information and Development Centre. Lolohlobo loshinstho – ukushintsha imisebenzi yabasebenzi kusukwa kwizimboni yezokubasa yezemvelo kushintshelwa kumandla kagesi ezniwa kabusha kanye nezinye izindlela ezibalulekile ezidingakalayo zokuqasha okubalulikle kwinhlalakahle – okungabalula ukuthi uNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo, umangabe enamandla kwezombusazwe ukubhekana namandla abezimboni ezinkulu. Futhi ngisho neNational Union of Metalworkers of South Africa, okuyinhlangano yabasebenzi enkulukazi nenenqubekela phambili eAfrika yonkana, enohlaka lezocwaningo olubhekelene naloluhlobo loshinstho futhi esiqalile ukufaka ingcindezi kwizimali zempesheni ekwaziyo ukuzilawula ukuthi ithathe imali eyisigidigidi esisodwa samarandi ukuthi ifakwe ekwenzeni kabusha amandla kagesi.

Kodwa-ke njengokujwayelekile, kubonakala isikhwama semiali yezwe sinezwi lokugcina, sehlisa yonke into eNingizimu Afrika ukubhekelela imali yezimboni ezisabalele emazweni amaningi kanye nezimboni zokumbiwa phansi zaseNingizimu Afrika kanye nababusi bezimboni ezixhaswe nguhulumeni. Asikhumbule phela ukuthi Iningizimu Afrika iphafuza izisisis eziluhlaza emoyeni ezingaphezulu kwamaphesenti angu40 eAfrika, futhi lokho kudalwa ukushisa amalahle nokuxhasa izimboni ezisabalele umhlaba wonke zezimboni zokumbiwa phansi kanye nezincibilikisi. IBHP Billiton isaqhubeka nokuthola amandla kagesi kuEskom ngmaseni ayishumi ikholowathi ngehora uma kuqhathaniswa nemali ekhokhwa yizakhamizi eyishumi lamarandi namasenti angamashumi amabili, asebengaphezulu kwengcindezi yokunyuselwa amandla kagesi ngamaphesenti angu200 kusukela ngonyaka ka2008 ukukhokhela iMedupu kanye neKusile.

Umgomo womhlaba okhinyabezayo kanye nesiphithiphithi kwezokuthutha ngemikhumbi
Isikhathi esibekelwe ukuvala ukunyka kakhulu ngamazinga okuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu sesifika ekupheleni kuleminyaka eyishumi, njengoba emhlabeni wonke sekuvalwe ukuphafuza okungamaphesenti angu50 adingeka ngonyaka ka2050, ukugcina umhlaba ukuthi unganyukeli phezu kumazinga amabili. Umangabe iphunga elinuka kabi ngokuncibili kwetundra 9phecelezi indawo engenazi hlahla) kanye neqhwa lase Artic elincibilikayo kuqhubekela phambili, ukuqunywa kokuphafuzwa kwezisisis ezingcolisa umoya kuzoanelwe masinya futhi ngokujula.

Ngabe abantu bomhlaba bangabhekana nalokhu? Ngoba vele-je, ngokocwaningo olwenziwe emiphakathi ehloniphekayo yePew, okungabaningi kakhulu emhlabeni – amaphesenti angu50- babuka isimo sezulu ‘njengekuyisona esinokusabisa kakhulu’, okuyikona kuvumelana okunyuke kakhulu emhlabeni wonke ngonyaka odlule.Kodwa eNingizimu Afrika, lapho okubonakala lokhu kunobungozi obuhamba phambili kakhulu (ingaphambi kwe lamandla aseChina kanye futhi nengcindezi yezezimali ebhekene nomhlaba wonke), lesisibalo siwela kumashumi amane nesishagalolunye. Futhi lapho kubaluleke khona kakhulu, kumazwe amabili agcolisa kakhulu umoya, iphesenti labantu abshoyo ukuthi isimo sezulu sinobungozi kakhulu singamashumi amane eMelika bese siba ngamashumi amathathu nesishagalolunye eChina, ngokulandelana kwawo lamazwe.

Isehlakalo esikhulu esilandelayo ngengqungquthela yomoya oshisayo ngusuku lwamashumi nantathu enyangeni kaMandulo ngesikhathi sekuhlangana abaholi bezizwe benhlangano yezizwe eNew York, kulandelwa yiCOP eLima ngenyanga kaLwezi kanye neCOP yokugcina eyoba sedolobheni laseParis ngokuphela konyaka ka2015. Kodwa ngenyanga edlule kwingqungquthela yeBRICS eFortaleza, ukuphawula okubalulekile okwenziwa ngokuguquguquka kwesimi sezulu kwakethusa –“uma sesikhuluma iqiniso ezokubasa zemvelo izona ezihamba phambili zamandla okubasa” –futhi-ke kubonakala ukuthi iBRICS izolandela indlela yeCOP yendlela yokuxoxisana eyaqalwa ngonyaka ka2009 edolobheni laseCopenhagen ngeCOP yeshumi nesihlanu.

Kulowonyaka, amazwe amane kwayisihlanu eBRICS azimbandakanya noObama ukuhlukana neKyoto Protocol kanye nezibophezele zayo zokuphafuza (omunye umlingani weBRICS, iRussia, yaziyeka izibophezelo zeKyoto Protocol kwi COP yeshimu nesikhombisa eyayiseThekwin). Esikhundleni, iCopenhagen yayimele, ngokusobala-nje, “ungcolisa umoya, nathi siyawungcolisa, lokho kusenza ukuthi sibe nesivumelwano,” njengokuba isishoshovu sobulungiswa mayelana nesimo sezulu esingumbhali uNaomi Klein akubeka ngokucacile echaza ngalokhu okwenzeka.
ICopenhagen yashayelela ngesipikili ngokuvolontiya umbuso wokwehliswa kokuphafuzwa kwezisisi ezingcolisa umoya. Ukunqamula kweNtshonalanga kunokuzenzisa, ngoba imelika kanye namazwe aseEurope asesusa ukuphafuza okukhulu akudlulisela endaweni entsha yokukhiqiza eMpumalanga neAsia. Kusukela lapho-ke, izimpahla sezithuthwa ngemikhumbi ziyiswe eCalifornia nguWalmart ngemikhumbi emikhulukazi ekwazi ukumumatha amacontainer angu15 000, edinga abasebenzi abayishumi nantathu.(!).

Uma sesibuyele ekubeni yimpimpi kukaTransnet kwisimo sezulu, lena imikhumbi emikhulukazi lapho iTheku lizozama ukuyimema umangabe Isip2 iqhubekela phambili. Kodwa-ke bayobuyisela emuva ezezimboni kumnotho wethu. kusale isibalo esincane semisebenzi kwezokuthutha ngwmikhumbi bese ‘kuzuza’ ezokuthuthela ngaphandle imikhiqizo embiwa phansi kanye nokokuncibilikisa kakhulu ngamandle kagesi? Okubi kakhulu, isizulukulwane esilandelayo semikhumbi yakwaWalmart, njengamanje eyakhiwayo eKorea, iyomumatha amacontainer angu24 000, lokho kukhombisa ubuhlanya bezinga lokusimamisa kanye nokukhiqiza ngokweqile kulemboni.

Empeleni, uma bebuzwa ukuthi ngabe ezokuhweba zolwandle ngabe zisebenzisa zinazo izinjini ezinkulu ezimumatha amafutha okuhambisa imikhumbi – okuholela kakhulu ekuphafuzeni okungamaphesenti amane emhlabeni wonke – ukuthi ngabe lokhu kuyabakhathaza ngesimo sezulu 9njengoba ngenza ngezinhlelo zeEIA), impendulo kaTransnet ukuthi imikhumbi emikhulukazi zinamanani aphansi/ngamunye, okuyiqiniso. Kodwa umbuzo omkhulukazi ukuthi ngabe singakwazi yini ukuqala indlela ezwakalayo, nesimamile yomnotho enegeke ibe sengcupheni
engajwayelekile yezindlela ezintsha ezenzeka emhlabeni, njengoba futhi uma phela sesibheka lokhu kunyuka kasishsgalombili kwamacontainer azobe esefika echwebeni lethu ngonyaka ka2040. Sidinga ukucabanga kabusha ukunekeleka kumnotho womhlaba ngokujikajika kwezezimali, kanye nokwenza kubengokwasezweni ukukhiqiza okusabalele kulolonke lakuleli, sizenzela thina-nje hayi ngenxa yesimo sezulu.

Futhi, uma sesibheka ukuthi lemikhumbi iyobe ifikela eThekwini idlula kwizimo ezinobungozi zamanzi olwandle emhlabeni, njengase Agulhas. Lapha, okuhlale kuhlale kube khona ‘amagagasi amakhulu ayingozi ‘ kwiminya engekudala nje edlule ezikise ngisho nemikhumbi emikhulu eyayithwele amalahle Erichards Bay (ngenyanga kaMnadulo ngonyaka ka2013) kanye nomkhumbi wamafutha enyakatho neTheku (ngenyanga kaNtulikazi ngonyaka ka2011), kanye namakhulu eminye imikhumbi eminyakeni angamakhulu khulu edlule. Awukho umkhumbi ovikelekile, ikakhulukazi umangabe isimo sezulu esingesihle silokhu sinyuka.

Phezu kwazo zonke lezizinkinga zezizinda. uTransnet unezinto okufuna ukuzenza ngelikhulu ihaba leli. Ngenyanga edlule uPatel wamemezela ukuthi uzonyusa imali yokukweleta ‘’yokuxhuma isizinda sokufika kwamacointaner sasendaweni yaseWaterberg ecebile kakhulu ngamalahle ukuya esizindeni salapho kulayishwa khona amalahle ayiswa phesheya esiseRichards Bay, noma kuya kwizizinda zamandla kagesi zika Eskom, eMedupi kanye naseKusile. Izimboni zokumbiwa phansi zizibophezele kuTransnet ukuthi azithuthele emazweni angaphandle izinkulungwane ngezinkulungwane zamathani amalahle kwimizila yezitimela. UTransnet bese ethatha lezo zovumelwano aye nazo emabhange ukwenyusa imali yokwakha noma yokwandisa ukumumatha kwemizila yezitimela.

Kodwa-ke uma kwenzeka ehla kakhulu amanani amalahle, njengoba sekuke kwenzeka ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule – ngamaphesenti angu44 –futhi uTransnet bese eba nenkinga yokwehla kwemali engenayo kubathengi abathuthela bemikhiqizo embiwa phansi abahamba phambili? Vele phela izinkinga zeTransnet zezimali zihlanganisa ukuthathelwa izinyathelo zomthetho okukhulu ngabaholi bempesheni abasola lemboni ngokuntshontsha, futhi kube kunesizathu esihle, kanye nokuhlale njalo kucwaswa ngokuphatha amachweba amabili abaiza kakhulu emhlabeni wonke ngamani okuphuma kwamacotainer: eThekwini naseKapa. (Ngabe ukukhokhela imali kanye nemali eyengezwa uma uboleke imali – kanye nezindleko zokulawula kanye nokusimamisa – kumakhulukhulu ezigidigidi zamarandi okufukula kwehlise lezozindlelko).

Enkinga enkulu kakhulu kumbono waseTransnet ukuthi ezokuthutha ngomzila wezitimela ngeke ukwazi ukuncinstisana nemboni yamaloli engalawulwa futhi engahlelekile, ehlale yenza izindlela zokungahambi ngemizila ebekelwe yona kanye negekho emthethweni. Akekho eThekwini ongakhohlwa iloli elalimumethe icontainer elalishayelwa ngowokufika kuleli ngokungemthetho ngaphandle kwemvuma yokushayela owatshelwa ukuthi angahambi kwiR40 ekhokhelwayo kumgwaqo omkhulu kazi onguthelawayeka osuka eGoli uza eThekwini, esikhundleni wahamba ngomgwaqo osemzileni ongemuva owehlela kakhulu kuField’s Hill mhlaziyisihlanu ngenyanga kaMandulo, kwadlula imiphefulo yabasebenzi abangamashumi ababili nane ababegibele izithuthi ezingamakombi ngesikhathi ewashayisa, ngenxa yokuthi kwaphela amabhuleki. IContainer kwakungeyemboni yaseTaiwan iEvergreen, okumthuthi ngemikhumbi wesine omkhulukazi emhlabeni wonke, kodwa-jengabo bonke, abajwayele ukuqasha abashayeli abangenalo ulwazi olunzulu abashayela amaloli ahamba ebusuku.

Ngabe loTransnet ogulayo kanye nabaxhasi bakhe kwisikhwama semali sombuso baye kubanikazi bamabhange kwizinhlelo ezicekela phansi ezinjengokuthuthelwa kwamalahle emazweni aphesheya ngokuxhasa imizila yezitimela kanye nokwandiswa kwechweba lokuthuthwa kwamafutha eNingizimu neTheku? Ngonyaka odlule ngesikhathi uTransnet uya edolobheni laseLondon ngemali inani lalo noma inzuzo engehla noma inyuke noma inini, kwafenele ukuthi ikhokhe amamphesenti aphezulu kakhulu angu9.5 enzuzo; imininingwane ayizange iilethwe mayelana ngokubiza kwemali ayiboleka eChina okuyizigidigidi eziyisihlanu zamadola ngenyanga kaNdasa ngonyaka ka2013. Kodwa kwakucacile ukuthi ingxenye yalokhu kukhokha kwakungukuhlanganyela kwezivumelwano uTransnet azeznile nezwe laseChina ngezokuthutha ezabiza izigidigidi ezingu4.8 wamadola ezasayinwa emva konyaka, izivumelwano abasebenzi bezinsimbi abasola ukuthi zinamaphutha amaningi.

Ababolekisi bezimali bakudala sebenokuxwaya izinxushunxushu ezidalwa ezenhlalakahle kanye nezezemvelo, ngisho neBhange Lomhlaba eligcwele kakhulu umqondo wezokubasa ngezemvelo ngonyaka odlule alivumanga ukwenza imali yembolekiso efana nalena elayenza ukuze kwakhiwe iMedupi. Ngabe iTransnet kanye neSikhwama Sombuso bazokwenzejani-ke manje? IBhange Elisha Lentuthuko leBRICS elenza izethembiso ezingenasiqinekiso ‘’zokuthuthukisa okusimamile okuhlanganyelwayo’’ lizobe selikulungele ukubolekisa ngonyaka ka2016 kanye nongqongqoshe wezezimali uNhalnhla Nene ngenyanga edlule omemezele ukuthi ‘iAfrika’ (okusho ukuthi iPitoli) ukuthi libe phambili emgqeni wokuthi baboleka kuqala.

Uswinyo kwezezimali njengendlela yokubhekana nobulungiswa ngesimo sezulu
Iningi lethu elalithamela ukuhlangabezana kwemiphakathi ngengqungquthela eyayiseFortaleza ngenyanga kaNhlangulana sakhononda ngokuthi akukho bantu ngaphandle kwalabo abanxusela izimboni ezinkulu ababevumelwe ezingxoxiswaneni ezisethethweni seBRICS ukuthi sizobhekelela abantu, sinxusele futhi sivele nombono ophikisayo. Sonke sacabanga ukuthi izizinda ezixhaswe ngezimali yiBRICS ezinokucekela phansi eAfrika zuyoba nomphumela oyokwenza kube khona izibhelu ezinamandla kubantu abaphucwe umhlaba wabo, ngesikhathi lapho ukubhikilisha ngaseAfrika abangenzelwanga ubulungiswa vele sekusezingeni eliphezulu kakhulu (okukhulu kakhulu kunezibhelu eziningi ezenzeke ngonyaka odlule kunonyaka ka2012, ngokubika kweAgence France Press kucwaningo langonyaka olwaluvunyelwe, ngokucacisayo, yiBhange Lokuthuthukisa laseAfrika).

Futhi kungenxa yalokhu okungase kwenzeke, lapho ‘iBRICS-from-below’, kufanele iqhamuke ngomfutho omkhulu. Ngokwesibonelo-nje, kungenzeka izinhalngano ezizizimbandakanya noD’Sa’s zingenza ngokusemthethweni umkhankaso wokwenziwa koswinyo ngezezimali umangabe uTransnet engabuyekezi izinqumo azithathile. Kwakumangalisa ukuphumelela kokusabisa okokugcina ngesikhathi uD’Sa ekwanza futhi lokhu, ngenyanga kaNhlolanja ngonyaka ka2010 ngesikhathi iBhange Lomhlaba liboleka uEskom izigidigidi ezingu3.75 zamadola ukuze yakhe uMedupi.Sibonga ukuhlanganyela kweSDCEA’s,ixhaswe yiEarthlife Africa kanye negroundWork, lokhu kuphikisana ngamandla kangaka kwashesha kwaveza ukuthi isikhulu esilawula leliBhange esimele uObama empeleni sazihlangula ngesikhathi kuvotwa ezinyangeni ezintathu emva kwalokho, ngisho emva kokuncengwa kakhulu yilowo owayengungqongqoshe wezezimali u Pravin Gordhan.

Uswinyo lwezezimali lasiza ngokubhidliza umbuso wobandlululo, futhi manje lendlela isisetshenziswa ngumfelandawonye wezishoshovu zasePalestine ngendlela emangalisayo(njengoba sekutatazela ababusi eTel Aviv), emva kokuba izimali zomhlalaphansi wasezweni lamaDutch zilandiwe emabhange akwaIsrael athathe ngaphandle komthetho amagatsha aseWest Bank ngenyanga kaMasingana. Lokukulandwa kwezimali kwezimali ebezigciniwe zokubasa ngezemvelo kwizimali ezinkulu – ngisho nokuphiwa izimali isikhungo semfundo ephakeme izimali iStanford University emasontweni ambalwa edlule –kwagqugquzelwa ukukhala okwakugqamuka kuMbhishobhi Omkhulu uArchbishop Desmond Tutu ukuthi kulandelwe isibonelo sethu: ukuthi kuliwe nombuso onengcindezi ezimalini, kanzima.

Ingqinqmba yokuxhasa ngezimali ezokubasa ngezemvelo kukhulu kakhulu ngoba imali eningi igudiza kakhulu emazweni amaningi, kodwa ekubeni iNingizimu Afrika ikweleta amazwe anagaphesheya izigidigidi ezingu140 wamadola – isibalo esisafana ngonyaka ka1985, esinyuke kusukela ngezigidigidi ezingu25 zamadola ngonyaka ka1994 – okusebenzela izishoshsovu, njengoba kwenzeka eminyakeni engamashumi amabili nesishagalolunye ngezinsuku zobumnyama zobandlululo ngesikhathi uBotha ekhulume kwinkulumo eyaduma ngokuthiwa iRubicon Speech eThekwini. Bachitheka bugayiwe futhi lelizwe ngeke liphinde lifane naleyonkathi, ngesikhathi ababxhasi bezimali beqala bebaleka ngosuku olwalandela.

“Abantu abanonembeza kufanele bazihlukazise nezimboni ekuxhaseni ngezimali ukungabikhona kobulungiswa ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu,” kuloba uTutu kumbono wakhe owshicilelwa kwiphephandaba iGuardian ngenyanga kaMbasa. “Izindaba ezinhle ukuthi ngeke size siqale phansi. Abantu abasha emhlabeni wonke sebeqalile ukwenza imizamo ngalokhu. Umkhankaso wokunswinya ngezimali ezemvelo zokubasa ngumkhankaso okhulu ngamandla kakhulu obhekene nezimboni kumlando wawo.”

Ngabe izishoshsovu zizoqala zibhekelele ngodlame izimali ezigciniwe namasheya ngezokubase ngezemvelo? Enye indlela ukufundisa abatshali bezimali baseDolobheni laseLondon kanye nabakuWall Street umqondo ophusile, njengoba iqembu iCarbonTracker lenze ngempumelelo enkulu. IExxonMobil yatshelwa yiSDCEA ngomhlangano owawushubile ngomhla zingamashumi amathathu nanye ngenyanga kaNtulikazi ukuthi lapho ku kugcinwe khona ‘isisisi (carbon) engashiseki’ - was informed by SDCEA at a tense July 31 meeting that its own ‘unburnable carbon’ reserves – ‘iphupho lesimo sezulu’ ngokucacile mayelana nezimali ezigciniwe- kusho ukuthi kungumqondo ongaphusile kwimboni ukuhlongoza amafutha amasha eduze kwolwandle. Ngeke kwenzeke ukuthi kushiswe amafutha amadala (ngaphandle umangabe sonke singazika – futhi lokho kungenzeka ngempela).

Omele lemboni eNingizimu Afrika, u Ross Berkoben,akakkwazanga ukuphendula, futhi ngisho nabaxhumana nabo mayelana nokugezwa kwezisisi eziluhlala mayelana nezemvelo eERM - ngaphandle kokukhumbuza uZuma uqobo lwakhe ukuthi wayexhase ukumbiwa ngokujula olwandle kwamafutha ngesikhathi ekhuluma eThekwini ezinsukwini ezingaphambidla kwalokho. Yebo, iSDCEA iyakwamuleka ukungamukelwa kwesimo sezulu ngumongameli,kodwa iyaqhubeka ukugcizelela ukuthi IExxonMobil iphansi inzuzo enayo ngezokubasa ngemvelo njengokunganamsebenzi, ngoba umqondo ophusile ophumelelayo (hay-ke kodwa empeleni, ngesikhathi sokubusa kukaZum), imboni ngeke ivunyelwe ukuhlonza lenzuzo.

Esikhundleni kufanele istshale kabusha yonke lemali kwezamandla kagesi ezikwazi ukwenzeka kabusha, ilandela ukuhola kweNational Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (Numsa) efuna ukuthi isgidigidi esisodwa samarandi sezimali zomhlalaphansi ngokufanayo zibhekiswe kwenye indawo.

Kuyobiza ukuthi amaqembu anamandla njengeSDCEA kanye neNumsa ukubhekana nalesisilwane esikhulukazi esifana neTransnet kanye neExxonMobil, kanye futhi nezishoshsovu ezizimisele nezihlakaniphe njengoTutu kanye noD’Sa ukwenza ukuthi kwanele ukuhlanganyela kwasendaweni kanye nokomhlaba ukuze kube khona ubumbano oluphumelelayo. Sekuke kwenzeka ngaphambilini, ngesikhathi impi efanayo nekaDaivide noGoliyathi yanqontshwa yi Treatment Action Campaign eminyakeni eyishumi edlule: kumelwene ne Washington nePretoria,amaBig Pharma, iWorld Trade Organisation kanye nomqondo weMpahla Yokuhlakanipha (pheceleziand Intellectual Property) – futhi kungenzeka futhi.

Ukunqoba impi enyuswe ukunyuka kweminyaka yokuphila kusukela kwiminyaka engamashumi amahlanu nambili ngonyaka ka2004 kuya kwiminyaka engamashumi ayisithupha namhlanje. Njengoba kunokusabisa empilweni okufika nokuguquguquka kwesimi sezulu, umfuhto ongamandla wokungenelela kwezishoshsovu uzodingeka futhi, ikakhulukazi kwizwekazi laseAfrika eliyikhaya kubantu abangu400 000 njengamanje okuqagelwa ukuthi sekuyenzeka bayafa njalo ngonyaka ngenxa yokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu.

INingizimu Afrika ingelinye lamazwe emhlabeni eliyindawo lapho kunempi enkulu kulomzabalazo. Izimboni zokumbiwa phansi/ezokuthutha ngemikhumbi/ ezokuncibilikisa (noma ngabe umsuka ukuleli, emazweni aseNtshonalanga noma kwiBRICS) kanye nezigqila zabo zasePitoli – ikakhulukazi uZuma, uRamaphosa kanye noMolewa – bayofunda ukuthi ukunquma izabelo zezimali ukwehlisa ukudlulisela ulwazi emiphakathini ngoku, guquguquka kwesimo sezulu kungaholela ekuhuduleni kwezinyawo kodwa ngeke kuvimbe ukubhekana okugcina kukhona kokuhlaselwa yizishoshovu ezizinikele ezimele ubulungiswa ngesimo sezulu.

(Incwadi eyalotshwa nguBond ‘Ezombusazwe ngobulungiswa Besimo Sezulu’ (phecelezi Politics of Climate Justice) imenyezelwe njengenye ehamba phambili kweziyishumi yiphephandaba i Guardian ngaloludaba

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