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Publication Details

Reference
Meth, Oliver Translation ka-Manzi, Faith  (2014) Africa suffers from climate change (iAfrika ibhekene nengqinamba yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu:Ukuguquka kwezimo zezulu ikhona okunobungozi kakhulu ukuthi kungasweleki ukudla eAfrika).  : -.

Summary
Changing weather conditions are a major threat to food security in Africa

Rising temperatures and volatile weather conditions are not only affecting
agricultural production but also influencing farming methods and practices
in Africa. Many farmers are facing this challenge head on and are forced
to adapt to changing weather conditions.

Research by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
states that the southern region of Africa could be hit the hardest by
rising temperatures. This is a major threat to food security, particularly
in South Africa.

There are already effects that have had a major impact on South African
farms. And just by the shifting rainfall patterns, farmers have to plant
in a shorter time period. The first rains always fell in September, we
have in recent years seen first rains only in the second half of October
and the intensity of the rain is much harder, larger quantities and less
scattered.

The overall climate change vulnerability of the agricultural sector should
be viewed as representing both risk and opportunity.
With risks relating to potential changes in food security through the
adverse impacts of climate change, socio-political conditions, and
population growth, while opportunities include those related to regional
trade within sub-Saharan Africa and technology sharing.

The IFPRI study explains that rainfall is, to a large extent, the most
important factor in determining potential agricultural activities and
suitability across the country. Rainfall variability introduces a high
risk to climate change at many time scales.

The exceedingly high evaporation, in South Africa, coupled with unreliable
rainfall is often resulting in semi-arid conditions on grounds of high
evaporation rates alone and despite often adequate rainfall.

In the US, research by scientists suggests that farmers might have to
change their farming practices in order to adapt to changing weather
conditions. "Farmers might choose to grow different crops that fare better
in drier conditions and require less water," explains Rob McDonald, a
senior scientist of sustainable land use. There is an urgent need to adapt
to the impacts of climate change for the African continent. The Africa
Adaptation Gap Report (2013) estimates that Africa will have to face very
significant adaptation costs. It cites from $7bn up to $15bn per year by
2020.

Findings of the IFPRI research stipulate that maize and sorghum yields, on
average, will decline, yet some areas are bright spots and will see a
rise, such as southern Mozambique. The research indicates that "successful
agricultural adaptation to climate change is not just about better seeds
and practices, but building better roads and education systems, which give
farmers greater access to markets and the background necessary to make
fully informed decisions about new agricultural practices".

With maize been the most widely grown staple food crop in sub-Saharan
Africa. The high sensitivity of maize to drought stress discourages
smallholder farmers growing maize under rain fed conditions.

In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 20 million metric tons of potential
maize production is lost each year due to drought. Because over 90% of
sub-Saharan Africa's cropland is rain fed and is likely to remain so.

Identifying ways to mitigate drought risk, stabilise yields and encourage
investment in best management practices, is fundamental to realising food
security and improved livelihoods for the continent. The reality of
climate change goes far beyond global social and environmental concerns
and could potentially have a major effect on the economic sustainability
of vulnerable developing countries in Africa.

Oliver Meth is a social advocacy journalist based in South Africa Follow
him on twitter - @oliver_meth

iAfrika ibhekene nengqinamba yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu:Ukuguquka kwezimo zezulu ikhona okunobungozi kakhulu ukuthi kungasweleki ukudla eAfrika
NguOliver Meth
Umhumushi nguFaith ka-Manzi

Ukunyuka kwamazinga okushisa kanye nesimo sezulu esinokuguquka noma inini akulethi-nje inking ekukhiqizeni ezolimo kodwa kuba nomthelela kwizindlela ekulinywa ngazo eAfrika. Abalimi abaningi babhekene ngqo nalengqinamba futhi bayaphoqeleka ukuthi bashintshe ukwenza ukuze babhekane nesimo sokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu.

Ucwaningo olwenziwe yizizwe ezingaphansi kweInternational Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)luthi isifundazwe esiseningizimu neAfrika kungaba yiso esihlaseleka kakkhulu ngukunyuka kwamzinga okushisa. Lokhu kunobungozi obukhulu ekubeni khona kukudla, ikakhulukazi eNingizimu Afrika.

Vele seyikhona imiphumela enomthelela omkhulu kumaplazi aseNingizimu Afrika. Futhi ngokujika-nje kwendlela yokuna kwemvula, abalimi kufanele batshale ngesikhathi esincanyana. Izimvula zokuqala zazihlale zifika ngenyanga kaMandulo, kodwa kuleminyaka sesibone izimvula zokuqala sezifika ngesigaba sesibili enyangeni kaMfumfu futhi nangendlela enetha ngayo inkulu kakhulu, iza ngamandla bese ingasabalali ngokwanele.

Ukuba sengcupheni kwethu ngokuguquka kwesimo sezulu mayelana nezolimo kufanele kubonwe njengokuletha ingozi okubhekene nokungabikhona kokudla ngokwanele, izimo zezomnotho kanye nezombusazwe, kanye nokunyuka kwesibalo sabantu, ngesikhathi amathuba ambandakanya labo okuhweba esifundazweni eningizimu neAfrika kanye nezobuchwepheshe.

Isifundo esenziwe yiIFPRI sichaza ukuthi izimvula, empeleni, yinto ebalulekile kakhulu nefanelekile kwezolimo. Ukungabikhona kwemvula ngendlela eleindeleke ngayo kuletha ubungozi ngokuguqugukq kwesimo sezulu ngezikhathi eziningi.

Ukuphelela kwezisisi emoyeni, eNingizimu Afrika, kuhlangene nemvula kujwayele ukuba nomphumela ongemuhle kwizimo eziomhlabathu owomile noma ngabe kunemvula ekhona ngokwanele.

EMelika, ucwaniingo olwenziwe ochwepheshe bezesayensi luthi abalimi kungenzeka bashintshe izindlela abalima ngazo ukuze babhekane nesimo esisha sokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu. ’’Abalimi kungafanele bakhethe ukutshala izitshalo ezahlukene ezikwazi ukumila ezimweni ezomile kakhulu futhi ezidinga amanzi angamaningi,” kuchaza uRob McDonald, usosayensi osenolwazi olunzulu mayelana nokusetshenziswa komhlaba ngendlela ezosimama. Kunesidingo esiphuthumayo ukuthi kushintshwe ume ukuze kubhekwane nokushintsh kwesimo sezulu kwizwekazi laseAfrika. Umbiko obizwa phecelezi iAfrica Adaptation Gap Report (yangonyaka ka2013) iqagelisa ukuthi iAfrika ingahle ibhekane inani elikhulu lokubhekana kabusha nalesisimo. Lombiko uthi kungachithwa imali esuka kwizigidigidi eziyisikhombisa zamadola kuya kweziyishumi nesihlanu njalo ngonyaka kuze kube unyaka ka2020.

Ngokuthola kocwaningo lweIFPRI luthi okuzobe kuvunwe ngombila kanye nokugaya utshwala, ngokungekukhulu, kuzokwehla, kodwa ezinye izindawo zigqamile zona ziyobona ukunyuka, njengaseningizimu yaseMozambique. Lolucwaningo luthi ‘’ukushintsha ngendlela enempumelelo kwezolimo mayelana neokuguquka kwesimo sezulu akukho-nje mayelana nembewu engcono kanye neaindlela, kodwa ukwakha imigwaqo engcono kanye nezindlela ezingcono zezemfundo, okunganika abalimi indlela yokufinyelela ezimaketheni kanye nolwazi oludingekayo olubalulekile ukuthi benze izinqumo ezinokuqonda ngezindlela ezintsha zokulima.”

Ummbila ikona kudla okukade kuyikhona okudliwa kakhulu eningizimu neAfrika. Manje ukuzwela kakhulu kommbila kwingindezi efika nesomiso kwenza abalimi abancane bangabi nawo umdlandla wokumilisa ummbila ngaphansi kwezimo ezinemvula engenele.

Eningizimu neAfrika, cishe amathani ayizigidi ezingamashumi amabili okufanele ukuthi ngabe akhiqiziwe alahlekayo njalo ngonyaka ngenxa yesomiso. Ngenxa yokuthi umhlaba wokutshalo ongaphezulu kwamaphesenti angu90 eningizimu neAfrika wondliwe yimvula futhi kungenzeka kuhlale kunjalo.

Ukubona izindlela ezingenza ubungozi besomiso singabhebhetheki, ukusimamisa imikhiqizo yezitshalo kanye nokugqugquzela ukutshalwa kwezimali kwizindlela ezihamba phambili zokuphatha, ezibalulekile ekutheni kube khona ukudla ngokwanele kanye nokuthi izimpilo zibe ngcono kwizwekazi lonke. Lesisimo sokushintsha kwesimo sezulu sisabalele kakhulu ngale kwezidingo zezeznhlakahle kanye nezemvelo zomhlaba wonke futhi okungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekusimamemi kwezomnotho wamazwe antekenteke asathuthuka aseAfrika.

UOliver Meth isishoshovu sentatheli saseNingizimu Afrika.

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