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Publication Details

Reference
Roy, Arundhati  (2002) Ukubhekana ngeziqu zamehlo noMbuso.  : -.

Summary
ibhalwe ngu–Arundahti Roy yahunyushelwa esiZulwini ngu–Nontobeko Hlela.

Ngicelwe ukuba ngikhulume ngokuthi “kungaliwa kanjani noMbuso?” Lo ngumbuzo onzulu, anginazo izimpendulo ezilula.

ibhalwe ngu – Arundahti Roy yahunyushelwa esiZulwini ngu – Nontobeko Hlela

ibhalwe ngu–Arundahti Roy yahunyushelwa esiZulwini ngu–Nontobeko Hlela.

Ngicelwe ukuba ngikhulume ngokuthi “kungaliwa kanjani noMbuso?” Lo ngumbuzo onzulu, anginazo izimpendulo ezilula.

Ngicelwe ukuba ngikhulume ngokuthi “kungaliwa kanjani noMbuso?” Lo ngumbuzo onzulu, anginazo izimpendulo ezilula.


U-Arundhati Roy

Uma sikhuluma ngokuphikisana no “Mbuso”, kudingeka sizibuze ukuthi “uMbuso” uchazani? Ngabe uchaza uhulumeni waseMelika (kanye namazwe ezwa yona ase-Europe), iBhange lomhlaba (World Bank), inhlangano yezizwe ebheka izindaba zezimali (International Monetary Fund), noma inhlangano yomhlaba ephathelene nezokuhweba na (World Trade Organization)? Noma mhlawumbe yinto engaphezulu kwalokhu.

Emazweni amaningi lombuso usuzale imixhantela eminye, eminye yalemixhantela evela emaceleni iyingozi – njengoku phakamisa ubuzwe (nationalism), ukucwasana ngokwenkolo, ukuphatha ngengcindezelo nobuhluku, kanye nobuphekula zikhuni. Zonke lezi zinto zihambisana ncamashi kanye nezinhloso ze-corporate globalization.

Ake ngichaze ukuthi ngiqondeni. I-Ndiya – le eyaziwa njengezwe elinokuphatha kwabantu okukhulu– njengoba sikhuluma nje, leli izwe elihamba phambili kwizinhloso ze-corporate globalisation. “Imakethe” yalelizwe inabantu abayibhiliyoni, livulwa ngenkani yi-WTO. I-corporatisation ne privatisation sekumukeliwe nguhulumeni kanye nalabo abakhethekileyo baseNdiya.

Akwenzekanga ngephutha ukuthi uMongameli wezwe, uNgqongqoshe wezasekhaya, uNgqongqoshe we-Disinvestment- kube ngamadoda asayinda isivumelwano nenkampani yakwa Enron eNdiya, yiwo futhi adayisa I-infrastructure ezinkampanini ezinkulu, ezisebenza emazweni amaningi ahlukene,yilamadoda afuna ukuthi amanzi abe sezandleni zabantu abazimele hhayi zahulumeni, ugesi, u-oyela’ amalahle, insimbi, ezempilo, imfundo, kanye nezokuxhumana nazo bafuna ukuzidayisa – lamadoda wonke angamalunga noma abancomi be- RSS. I-RSS inhlangano engathandi izinguquko, eqhayisa ubuzwe bobuHindu, engafihli futhi ukuthi iyamncoma uHitler ngendlela ayenza ngayo izinto eJalimane.

Ukudicilelwa phansi kwentando yeningi kuqhubeka ngesivinini nangekhono eliseqopheleni eliphezulu. Ngenkathi isu le-corporate globalistaion liklebhula izimpilo zabantu eNdiya, ukudayisa kwezinto ebeziphethwe nguhulumeni ziye ezandleni zabantu abazimele kwenzeka kakhulu kakhulu, “izinguquko” endleleni yokusebenza zixosha abantu emhlabeni wabo zidale nokuthi abantu balahlekelwe umsebenzi. Amakhulu ngamakhulu babalimi abantulile bancama ukuthi bazibulale ngokuthi baphuze ushevu wokubulala izilokozane. Imibiko yabantu abafayo kungenxa yendlala eyafika ezweni lonke.

Ngenkathi laba abacebile nabakhethekileyo bethatha uhambo lwabo ngokomqondo olungathekiswayo ngasokhakhayini lomhlaba, laba abadingisiwe bashona phansi bakhalakathele ebulelesini nasekuphithizeleni. Lesi simo sashaqisa, futhi baphelelwa ithemba ezweni lonke, uma sibheka umlando uyasitshela ukuthi izimo ezinjalo ziyindawo evundile yokuzala ingcindezelo.

Izingalo zikaHulumeni waseNdiya sezikuyolile ukusebenza njengodlaka. Ngenkathi enye ingalo imagange idayisa isigaxa sezwe, enye iphambukisa ukunganakwa. Umkhulungwane, ukuhohoza okukhuluma ngobuzwe bohlanga lamaHindu nokucindezewla ngokwenkolo. Uhulumeni wenza ucwaningo ngezikhali ze-nuzi, ushicilela kabusha izincwadi zemilando, ushisa amasonto, ubuye udicilele phansi izindawo zamaSulumane zokukhonza. Ukuhlolisisa izinto ezibhalwayo nezivezwa komabonakude ukuze ziveze lokho uhulumeni akufunayo, ukubhekwa nokulandelwa kwabantu, ukumiswa kwenkululeko yabantu, kanye namalungelo abantu, konke lokhu kudala ukuthi incazelo yokuthi ubani oyisakhamuzi saseNdiya nokuthi ubani ongesona, ikakhulu nxa kuphathelene nalabo abayingcosana uma kufikwa ezindabeni zenkolo, kungabe kusaqondakala kahle.

NgoMbasa odlule, esifundazweni saseGujarat, izinkulungwane ezimbili zamaSulumane zabulawa ngonya, lesi senzo sasikhuthazwe nguhulumeni. Abesifazane bamaSulumane babenonjoliwe. Babe khunyulwa, bese bahlukunyezwe ngokocansi idlanzana lamadoda, ngaphambi kokuthi bakhongelwe ngomlilo bephila. Abanye babephanga, bashise ngamabhomu izitolo, imizi, izindawo zokukhiqiza izimpahla ezilukiweyo, kanye nezindlu zokusonta zamaSulumane.

Angaphezulu kwekhulu nezinkulungwane ezingamashumi amahlanu (150 000) amaSulumane asexoshiwe emizini yawo. Ingqikithi yesimo somnotho samaSulumane sesicekelwe pahansi.

Ngenkathi isifundazwe saseGujarat singqongqa, uMongameli waseNdiya waye kwiMTV (isiteshi sikamabonakude esidlala umculo) eyophakamisa egqugquzelela izinkondlo ayezibhalile. NgoNhlolanja walonyaka, uhulumeni lo owawugqugquzela ukubulawa kwabantu uphinde wavotelwa ukuthi uphinde uphathe, wawina kahle nje futhi. Akekho umuntu opanishiwe ngenxa yalesi senzo sokubulala esenzeka. UNarendra Modi, okunguye owaye ngumklami walezi zehlakalo, nolilungu eliziqhenyayo le-RSS, useqale umkhawulo wesibili njengoNdunankulu wesifundazwe saseGurajat. Uma ubenguSaddam Hussein, noma ikanjani yilobo nalobo budlova abenzile bebuzovezwa phambi kweCNN (isiteshi sikamabonakude saseMelika sezindaba esisakaza emhlabeni wonke imini nobusuku). Kodwa-ke ngoba akayena uSaddam – kanti futhi “imakethe” yaseNdiya ivulekile kubatshali zimali bomhlaba wonke – ukubulala kwakhe uModi akuyona neze into embangela amahloni noma emphoxayo emphakathini.

Endiya, kunamaSulumane angaphezu kwekhulu lesigidi (100 000 000). Kune bhomu elingaqhuma noma inini kuleliya lizwe.

Konke lokhu kuyaveza ukuthi kuyimpicabadala ukuthi ukuhweba ngokukhululeka kuwisa izithiyo zobuzwe. Ukuhweba okukhululekile akusabisi neze ukuzibusa kwamazwe, okukwenzayo ukubukela phansi amandla entando yeningi.

Ngenkathi ukungalingani phakathi kwabacebile nabampofu kukhula, ukulwela ukukwazi ukuthola amandla kubanzulu. Ukukwazi ukudlulisa izivumelwano zabo ezinongiwe, ukukwazi uku-corporatize izilimo esizitshalayo, amanzi esiwaphuzayo, umoya esiwuphefumulayo, kanye namaphupho esiwaphuphayo, I-corporate globalization idinga inhlangano yesivumelwano yomhlaba ethembekile, yohulumeni abonakele, abanengcindezelo emazweni antulile ukuze ikwazi ukuthi kuphumelele ukuthi izinguquko abantu abangazifuni zenzeke nokuthi ithulise abazama ukuhlubuka nokuvukela umbuso.

I-corporate globalization – noma kumele siyibize ngegama layo langempela? – I-imperialism – idinga abantu abathutha izindaba abazokwenza sengathi basakaza ngenkululeko. Idinga izinkantolo ezishaya sengathi zifika ezinqumweni ngokomthetho.

Ngenkathi kwenzeka lokhu, amazwe aseNyakatho ayaqinisa, avala imingcele yawo ukuze kungangenwa noma ikanjani emingceleni yawo., abuye futhi athenge ngamandla izikhali ezinokufa okukhulu. Kadeni kumelwe baqinisekise ukuthi yimali nje kuphela, izimpahla, nokusebenza okuglobhalazwayo. Hhayi ukuhamba ngenkululeko kwabantu. Hhayi ukuhlonipha amalungelo abantu. Hhayi izivumelwano zomhlaba eziphathelene nokucwasa ngebala noma izikhali zamakhemikhali neze-nuzi, noma izinto ezibulala ubunjalo bomhlaba ngokungcolisa ngezintuthu zezimoto nezamafekthri okwandulela ekushintsheni kwezulu.

Konke lokhu, singakubiza ngo-“mbuso”. Le nhlangano ethembekile, lokhu kunqwamelisana kokufuna ukuthola amandla, lesi sikhala esikhulu phakathi kwalabo abenza izinqumo nalabo okufanele baphile ngaphansi kwazo siyanda.

Impi yethu, umgomo wethu, umbono wethu ngomunye umhlaba, kufanele kube nguku vala lesi sikhala.

Ngakho-ke siwuvimbela kanjani “umbuso”?

Izindaba ezimnandi wukuthi asenzi kabi kakhulu, imizamo yethu iyabonakala. Sekuke kwaba khona ukunqoba okusemqoka. Lapha e-Latin America sekuzekwenzeka izikhathi ezimbalwa lokhu – eBolivia, kukhona uCochabamba. ePeru, kwabakhona ukuvukela umbuso e-Arequipa, eVenezuela, uMongameli uHugo Chavez usabambelele, yize iMelika isizame kabi ukumchitha.

Futhi amehlo omhlaba athe njo kubantu base Argentina, abazama ukutakula izwe labo emlotheni elifakwe kuwo yi-IMF.

ENdiya umzabalazo olwa ne-corporate globalization uyakhula, akukude kube yiwo kuphela ozokwazi ukumelana nengcindezelo ahimbasana nokucwasa ngokwenkolo.

Amanxusa e- corporate globalization ango ngqa phambili ezinkampani zakwa – Enron, Betchel, WorldCom, Arthur Anderson – bezikuphi nyakenye, futhi zikuphi-nje namhlanje?

Lapha eBrazil kumele sibuze ukuthi ubani obenguMongameli nyakenye, nokuthi sekungubani namhlanje?

Yize, noma abanye abaningi bethu sisafikelwe ubumnyama, sizizwa siphelelwa amandla nethemba. Siyazi ukuthi ngaphansi kompheme wempi yabavukela mbuso (War Against Terrorrism) amadoda agqoke amasudi amatasatasa ayasebenza.

Ngenkathi amabhomu esinetha, nezilabi zindiza esibhakabhakeni, siyazi ukuthi amakhontilaka azobe esayindwa, ama-patents e-register, amapayipi a-oyela efakwa, ingcebo yemvelo iphangwa, amanzi edayiselwa izinkampani ezizimele, bese uyamangala ukuthi yini u-George Bush efuna ukuyohlasela I-Iraq.

Uma sibuka lokhu kuphikisana njengoba kubhekene ngeziqu zamehlo “noMbuso”, bese ubheka labo abethu abaphikayo bezabalaza, kungabukeka sengathi siyahlulwa.

Kodwa-ke ikhona enye indlela esingayibheka ngayo le mpikiswano. Thina sonke esilapha, sonke ngezindlela zethu, siwubambile “umbuso”.

Mhlawumbe asikakayibambi-ngqi – okwamanje – kodwa sesiyivezile ubuze bayo. Siyenze yakhipha imaskhi. Siyiphoqelele ukuthi ivele obala. Manje imi phambi kweshashalazi lomhlaba elikhulu, inqunu, iveziwe ubuhluku nobubi bayo bampela.

Umbuso uingahamba uyolwa lempi yayo efuna ukuyilwa, kodwa manje isisobala – yimbi ayikwazi nokuzibuka emehlweni. Lombuso mubi ngalendlela yokuthi uyahluleka ngisho ukugcina abantu bayo bengakuyona. Ngeke kuthathe nesikhathi esingakanani ngaphambi kokuthi abantu baseMelika babe mdibimunye nathi.

Ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezedlule e-Washington, ikota lesigidi sabantu besibhikisha siphikisana nempi yase Iraq. Inyanga nenyanga izwi lokusola, nokuphikisana liyakhula.

Ngaphambi kukaMfumfu wamhlaka 11 2001 iMelika ibinomlando ofihlekile. Ubuyi mfihlo ikakhulu kubantu bayo. Kodwa manje izimfihlo zeMelika sezingumlando, nomlando wawo usuwaziwa uwonke-wonke. Kukhulunywa ngawo ezitaladini.

Namhlanje, siyazi ukuthi yonke impikiswano ebisetshenziswa ngempi yase-Iraq, ukuthi ingamanga. Into ehlekisa kakhulu yile ethi uhulumeni waseMelika uzimisele ukuletha intando yeningi e-Iraq.

Ukubulala abantu ngoba uthi uyabasiza noma ufuna ukubakhulula kuhulumeni wengcindezelo umdlalo omdala wahulumeni waseMelika. Lapha eLtin America, niyazi kangcono leyonto kunabanye emhlabeni.

Akukho ongabazayo ukuthi uSaddam Hussein ungumphathi onesihluku esibi, umbulali (yize kunjalo izenzo zakhe ezimbi kakhulu zaxhaswa nguhulumeni waseMelika nowase Ngiladi). Akungabazeki ukuthi abantu baseIraq bangabangcono kakhulu uma uSaddam engekho.
Uma kunjalo kodwa umhlaba wonke ungaba ngcono kakhulu uma uMnuzane Bush “othile” enganyamalala. Empeleni, uyingozi kakhulu kunoSaddam Hussein.

Ngenxa yalokho-ke sekufanele simbambe simkhiphe ezindlini zaseMelika zahulumeni e-White House?

Kusobala ukuthi uBush uzimisele ngokulwa ne-Iraq, nanjengoba kunezinkomba eziqinisekile zokuthi akanandaba nabantu emhlabeni ukuthi bathini.

Ekuzameni kwayo ukuthola abantu abazoma ngkuyo, iMelika izimisele ngisho nokuqamba amanga.

Lo mdlalo ewudlalo iMelika ngabahloli bezikhali, le indlela yayo yokuba icanule noma, ithuke, izama ukuthola indlela okuzoba sengathi yenze yonke into esemandleni ngaphambi kokuthi ihlasele e-Iraq. Lokhu kufana nokushiya “intuba” ivuliwe ukuze kuthi lapho sekugoqwa abazimbandakanya neMelika, mhlawumbe nenhlangano yezizwe imbala, bakwazi ukugaqa ngamadolo bangene.

Uma sikhuluma iqininso, impi entsha ne-Iraq isiqalile.

Singenzani thina?

Singacijisa izingqondo zethu, sifunde emlandweni. Singaqhubeka sivuthele amalangabi kubantu nemibono yabo, kuze kugcine sekubanga inhlokomo enkulu engazibeki.

Singayiphendula lempi yase-Iraq siyiguqule ibe isitsha senhlanzi Ekhombisa ukunganeliseki kwahulumeni waseMelika.

Singabadalula o-George Bush noTony Blair – kanye nabaxhumene nabo - ukuthi bangamagwala ababulala abantwana, ukuthi bafaka ushevu emanzini abantu abaphuza kuwo, nokuthi bayizinti ezingenamgogodla ezibhomba zikude.

Singakha kabusha ngezindlela ezahlukene indlela yokungalaleli singumphakathi. Ngamanye amazwi, singaqhamuka nezindlela eziyizigidi zokuthi sibe yimbumba ezobelesela.

Nxa uGeorge Bush ethi “uma ungekho ecaleni lethu, ukulelo labavukeli mbuso” singathi kuye, “Qha, siyabonga”. Singamtshela ukuthi abantu bomhlaba akudingi ukuthi bakhethe phakathi kobubi obufanayo.

Amasu kanye namacebo okuphemba ethu, akufanele kube kuphela ilawo okulwa nombuso, kodwa kumele siwuvimbe. Siwucindezele, siwuncishe umoya. Siwuveze ukukhohlakala kwawo. Siwubhuqe ngobuciko bethu, umculo, izincwadi, ngenkani, ngenjabulo, ngobuhlakani, ngokungaphezi kanye nokukwazi ukuthi siyixoxe indaba yethu. Sixoxe izindaba ezihlukile kunalezo abafuna sizikholwe.

I-corporate revolution izobhidlika uma sinqaba ukuthi sithenge lokho abakudayisayo – indlela yokwenza, ukulandisa umlando, izimpi zabo, izikhali kanye nokwenza sengathi ayikho enye indlela ngaphandle kwale abayishoyo.

Khumbulani lokhu: Thina sibaningi kunabo. Basidinga kakhulu kunalokho sibadinga bona.

Omunye umhlaba, enye indlela yokuphila, hhayi nje ukuthi ingenzeka kodwa isendleleni. Uma usuku lucwathile ngiye ngiwuzwe lomhlaba omusha ozayo uphefumula.

* U-Arundhati Roy wayeyibhalele ukukhuluma ePorto Alegre, eBrazil, ngoNhlolanja wa- 27 enyakeni wa-2003.

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