||Pithouse, Richard (2005) Mhlengi Khumalo is gone. Centre for Civil Society : -.
||Last Friday 16 shacks burnt down in the Kennedy Road informal settlement in Durban. A one year old boy, Mhlengi Khumalo, was very badly burnt and died on Saturday night. This was the third conflagration this month. The fire started when a candle was knocked over. Until 2001 pre-paid electricity meters were being installed in shacks. To get electricity you needed to pay R350 and to be able to represent your case in a certain way. According to S'bu Zikode from the Kennedy Road Development Committee "It all depended on who applied. If you seemed ignorant because you can't speak English you were just told to wait outside." The eThekwini Metro has since informed Kennedy Road residents that there is a "new policy not to install electricity in informal settlements".
Their electrification policy openly states the following:
5. Informal Settlements
In the past (1990s) electrification was rolled out to all and sundry. Because of the lack of funding and the huge costs required to relocate services when these settlements are upgraded or developed, electrification of the informal settlements has been discontinued.
More than 70 people with receipts for payments for installation have neither a refund nor electricity. If the installation of electricity to the settlement had not been halted these fires, and Mhlengi's death, could have been avoided. Pre-paid meters won't stop fires altogether though since many people can't afford to buy electricity on credit. The fires will stop when there is decent housing and free basic services for everyone.
The Kennedy Road settlement has been in open revolt since Saturday 19 March this year when 750 people blocked the N2 and held it against the riot police for 4 hours. There were 14 arrests. On the following Monday1 200 people marched on the Sydenham police station, where the 14 were being held, to demand that either they be released or else the entire community be arrested because "If they are criminal then we are all criminal". The march was dispersed with beatings, dogs and tear gas. The immediate cause of the road blockade is clear. The Kennedy Road settlement had consistently been promised, over many years, that a small piece of land in nearby Elf Road would be made available for the development of housing. The promise had been repeated as recently as 16 February this year. The Development Committee had been participating in ongoing discussions about the development of this housing when, without any warning or explanation, bulldozers began levelling the land. A few people went to see what was happening and were shocked to be told that a brick factory was being built on the land by a private company believed by some to be connected to the local councillor. They explained their concerns to the people working on the site and work stopped. S'bu Zikode explains: "The next day the men from the brickyard came with the police, an army, to ask who had stopped the work. So, on Saturday morning the people wake us. They take us there to find out what is happening. A meeting was set up with the owner of the factory and the local councillor, but they didn't come. There was no brickyard, no councillor, no minister, nobody. There was no fighting. Then the police came. Then the councillor phoned. He told the police 'These people are criminals, arrest them.' Then the people blocked the road."
The road blockade was followed by a legal march of more than 3 000 people on 13 May demanding the resignation of the ward councilor, Yacoob Baig, and the delivery of the promised land and housing. The local ANC responded by sending in a heavy weight delegation who berated the community for their actions and demanded to know who was the third force behind the protest. Eventually Zikode acknowledged that there was in fact a third force - winter. Winter was coming and winter means shack fires. A second legal march was planned. Deputy city manager Derek Naidoo arrived to "avert the march". He offered a deal. Council would build two toilet blocks in the settlement and the leadership would run these toilet blocks by charging "10 cents and 20 cents a time" (10 cents for a piss and 20 cents for a shit? no one was sure) and using this money to employ a cleaner and to cover the maintenance costs. Toilets are not a small issue in Kennedy Road. The 147 pitlatrines had last been cleaned out 5 years previously and the 6 000 residents were now using 6 badly maintained portable toilets. But this wasn't good enough. Naidoo was challenged about the promised land and housing. He informed the community that their settlement had been "ring-fenced for slum clearance" and that "The city's plan is to move you to the periphery".
He came under sustained attack. Where will we work? Where will our children school? What clinics are there? How will we live? Naidoo was told that there was no infrastructure in rural areas. He agreed and said that people must understand that it is too expensive to build it there and that the development focus was the 25km circumference radiating out from the nodal point of the city centre. It was put to Naidoo that this was the same as apartheid - black people were being pushed out of the city. Naidoo said that if people didn't like it "they should go to the constitutional court." He kept saying that there was no land. Cosmos Bhengu pointed out that there was in fact plenty of land around. Examples were cited. Naidoo said that the land belongs to a private company - Moreland. Moreland, the largest land owner in the city, owns the sugar plantations to the North which were won by colonial conquest, held through the 1906 Zulu rebellion via a series of massacres, worked by indentured labour from India and are now being sold off to the rich with colonial themed gated suburbs, shops and office parks with sea views. S'bu Zikode declared the meeting closed and promised that "We'll put thousands on the streets." On 14 September well more than 5 000 people marched on the local councillor.
This has been a revolt of the betrayed. The ANC has consistently legitimated its power, including its power to demobilise popular militancy and to speak for its traditions, in the name of the poor. This is not always done via abstractions. Concrete promises have been made to specific communities. On 9 November 1993 the ANC issued a press statement condemning the "housing crisis in South Africa" as "a matter which falls squarely at the door of the National Party regime and its surrogates". It went on to describe conditions in the 'informal settlements' as "indecent" and announced that …The ANC calls on all people living in informal settlements to make their voices heard! "Your problems My Problems. Your solution is My Solution." says President Mandela." Kennedy Road was specifically mentioned. On 4 June 1999 the ANC greeted news of their victory in the provincial election with a euphoric press statement. They promised, that, as their first priority, "The ANC will together with our people address the concerns of the poorest of the poor living in squatter camps like Kennedy Road, Lusaka and Mbambayi." In both elections Kennedy Road voted solidly ANC.
People come to shack settlements because opportunities to find work or develop livelihoods, and to access decent education, health care, cultural and sporting facilities and so on are often extremely limited in rural areas and small towns. Although there is tremendous suffering in shack settlements they are also a space of hope that enable many people to find ways out of acute marginality.
The Durban Municipality estimates that over 800 000 of the city's 3 million inhabitants live in 'informal settlements'. The City's policy is that all attempts at creating new settlements are considered as illegal land invasions. People erecting new shacks risk criminal charges and the city aims to demolish all new shacks. But it is not only new settlements that are subject to armed attack by the state. The City also seeks to prevent people living in established settlements from developing their shacks into more formal structures. The City threatens to, and quite often does demolish shacks that are developed. Officials argue that this is necessary because while some settlements will be upgraded more than 70 will be subject to 'slum clearance' and 'relocation'. Although the City does not admit it is clear that they have also reneged on promises to provide basic services like electricity and water in settlements, and have removed existing services, especially toilets, from some settlements in a clear attempt to force people to accept 'relocation.' The City says that is has already relocated 7 000 families and aims to build 400 houses a month to be able to continue with relocation. This policy is generally celebrated as progressive and exemplary in elite publics but this celebratory response misses two key continuities with apartheid.
The first is that there is a clear attempt to regulate the flow of poor African people into the city. In practice there is not an absolute barrier because new shacks are erected and because people who find work or develop livelihoods from a first base in a shack often move out of their shacks and rent them to new arrivals. But the policy intention is clearly to restrict the influx of poor people moving in to the city.
Secondly, while houses are being built in the areas to which people are relocated they are mostly being built, in the manner of colonial and apartheid era townships, away from the city. In his reflections on the colonial city Frantz Fanon observed that "The colonial world is a world divided into compartments" and that "The zone where the natives live is not complementary to the zone inhabited by the settlers. The two zones are opposed." For Fanon the two zones are materially and symbolically separate. So the native quarter is not only physically separate from the European quarter but the two zones are imagined to contain different types of people - one clean, safe and rational and the other dirty, dangerous and irrational. For Fanon the colonial era will be over when there are no longer two zones inhabited by 'different species of men' in one city. The material and symbolic Manicheanism must be undone.
The colonial and then apartheid city had been conceived as a modern space and as a white space in which Africans had to be carefully contained or removed and barred. But in the 1980s the apartheid state, occupying Namibia, at war with the Cubans and the MPLA in Angola and putting down bitter township rebellions across the county lost the capacity to completely regulate the movement of Africans. Where possible white suburbs were protected but people were able to flood into the cities, seize land in defiance of the state and found communities autonomous of the state. But now the state again has the resources, including, crucially, the symbolic resources, to do what it wants. And clearly it wants to return to the colonial vision of the modern city. Of course the contemporary city is no longer conceived as the white city. But it is conceived as the bourgeois city. When City Manager Mike Sutcliffe gave a lecture at the University of KwaZulu-Natal last year he showed photographs of shacks in the elite formerly Indian suburb of Reservoir Hills and said that transformation had to be pushed hard because formerly Indian suburbs still had informal settlements while white suburbs did not. He didn't mean that he would be encouraging land occupations in formerly white suburbs. His implication was that justice entailed extending the prerogatives of white privilege to the Indian elite. The City is attempting to, in large part, reverse the popular challenge to the Manichean logic that lay behind the material segregation of the colonial city. A policy that aimed to integrate the city would require the appropriation of privately owned land and in particular the sugar cane plantations now being developed into gated communities for the rich by Moreland. This would not only require a direct conflict with capital. It would also require a direct challenge to the anxieties and prejudices projected on to shack dwellers by the white and black middle classes - prejudices that often repeat, precisely, the stereotypes directed at all black people by white racism under apartheid.
The struggle continues. On 4 October 2005 over a thousand people, more or less the entire population of the small Quarry Road settlement marched on their councillor, Jayraj Bachu, demanding his resignation, the return of their toilets and the provision of land and housing within the city. Two days later a meeting of 12 settlements was held in Kennedy Road. There were 32 elected representatives there, 17 men and 15 women. They agreed that they will not vote in the coming elections and that they will stand together and fight together. Each settlement now has a weekly meeting and representatives from each of the 12 settlements meet every Saturday. A new movement has emerged in these slums. But Mhlengi Khumalo is gone.
Mhlengi Khumalo's funeral will be held on Saturday at the home of the Khumalo grandparents. A memorial service will be held at 6:00 p.m. on Friday in the Kennedy Road community hall, 286 Kennedy Road, Clare Estate. All of the 12 settlements that have joined together in the abahlali base emijondolo movement to fight against forced removals and for land, housing and basic services in the city will send representatives. A number of other poor communities from around the city will also send representatives. Everyone wishing to express solidarity for the struggles in Durban’s shacklands is welcome to come to the service.
U-Umhlengi Khumalo Akasekho
- U-Richard Pithouse
NgoLwesihlanu olwedlule, kwasha imizi engu 16 ezakhiweni eziku Kennedy Road eThekwini. Umfana ononyaka owodwa igama lakhe lingu Mhlengi Khumalo washa kabi kakhulu wagcina ngokushona ngoMgqibelo ebusuku. Lesi kwakuyisigameko sesithathu esihlasimulisa umzimba ukuthui sehle kulenyanga. Umlilo waqala emva kokuba ikhandlela lawa phansi, kwase kokheleka umlilo. Kuze kwaba ngunyaka ka 2001, ama-metre kagesi efakwa ezakhiweni. Ukuze umuntu athole ugesi, kwakufanele akhokhe imali engu R350 nokuze ukwazi ukubeka udaba lwakho ndlela thile.
Ngokusho kuka Sbu Zikode, “ Kwakuya ngokuthi ngubani ofaka isicelo. Uma ubukeka njengomuntu ongazi lutho ngenxa yokungasazi isiNgisi, wawuvele utshelwe ukuthi linda phandle.” UMetro wase Thekwini usutshele umphakathi wase Kennedy Road ukuthi kunenqubo entsha ethi “ ungabe usafakwa ugesi ezakhiweni” Abantu abangaphezu kuka 70 abanamarisithi ashoyo ukuthi bakhokhela ukufakelwa ugesi, ababuyiselwanga izimali zabo abasebezikhokhile kanti abafakelwanga ugesi. Ukuba ukufakelwa kukagesi kulendawo akuzange kumiswe, ngabe lemililo kanye nokushona kukaMhlengi Khumalo ngabe kwanqandeka.
Sekunesikhathi eside umphakathi wase Kennedy Road uvuke umbajazana. Lokhu kusukela ngo March 19 kulonyaka ngesikhathi abantu abangu 750 bevimba ukuhamba kwezimoto ku N2, futhi bebhekene ngeziqu zamehlo namaphoyiysa abhekene nodlame isikhathi esingamahora amane (4). Kuloludlame, kwaboshwa abantu abangu 14. NgoMsombuluko olandelayo abantu bomphakathi wendawo bamashela ekamu lamaphoyisa eSydenham lapho kwakuboshwe khona abantu abangu 14. Umpahakathi wawuthi mabakhululwe okungenjalo umphakathi wonke wendawo mawuvalelwe ezitokisini ngoba uma “beyizigebengu, kusho ukuthi wonke umphakathi uyizigebengu.” Imashi yomphakathi yahlakazwa ngezinja, isisi esikhalisa izinyembezi bebuye bashawe futhi.
Isizathi sokuvimba u-N2 sisobala. Umphakathi wawulokhu uthenjiswa, emva kweminyaka, ukuthi umhlaba omncane eduzane endaweni eku-Elf Road uzokhululwa ukuze kwakhelwe abantu izindlu. Ikomiti lezentuthuko yomphakathi wakuKennedy Road, wawulokhu ubambe izingxokxo mayelana nokuthuthukiswa kwalomhlaba ukuze kwakhelwe abantu izindlu. Ngaphandle kwesixwayiso noma incazelo, baqala ogandaganda ukumba umhlaba. Idlanzana labantu lanikela kulendawo ukuyobona ukuthi ngabe kwenzekani, bafika bathola okukhulu ukushaqeka ukuthi esikhundleni sesindlu zomphakathi, ogandaganda babemba isiza sefemu yokukhiqiza izitini, okutholakala ukuthi lenkampani eyayimba yayixhumene nekhansela londawo. Umphakathi wendawo wazwakalisa ilaka lawo kulaba ababemba, wase njalo usuma umsebenzi. “ Ngosuku olulandelayo, amadoda ayesebenza kelendawo afika namaphoyisa kanye nabombutho wezempi ukuzobuza ukuthi ubani omise umsebenzi wokumba. NgoMgqibelo ekuseni, abantu basivusa. Basithatha basiyisa lapho ukuyothola ukuthi kwenzekani. Kwanqunywa usuku lomhlangano nomnikazi wefemu eyakha izitini kanye nekhansela lendawo, kodwa abazange baze bafike. Akubanga khona khansela , noma ungqonqgoshe noma abasebenzi befemu yezitini, akubanga khona namunye umuntu. Kwakungekho ukulwa. Kwasekutheleka amaphoyisa. Lase lifona-ke ikhansela. Ikhansela lathi emaphoyiseni: “Lababantu bayizigebengu, babopheni.”
Ukuvalwa kwemigwaqo kwalandelwa imashi eyayisemthethweni. Yayithanyelwe ngabantu abangu 3000, ngomhlaka 13 May. Lombhikisho wawenzelwe ukuba kutshenwe ikhansela lendawo uJacoob Baig ukuthi malishiye phansi umsebenzi, nanokuthi kudedelwe umhlaba futhi kuqhutshekwe nokwakhiwa kwezindlu. Ikhansela laphendula kulokhu ngokuba lithumele abantu bazokhuluma nopmhakathi. Leliqembu labamele ikhansela lafike lathethisa umphakathi, lafuna futhi nokwazi ukuthi ngubani ngempela ophehla lesisihlava. U-Zikode wavuma ukuthi ukhona ngempela okuyena ophehla lesisihlava, wathi ubusika. Ubusika buyeza, futhi busho ukuthi kuzosha izakhiwo abahlala kuzo. Imashi yesibili esemthethwei yahlelwa.
Isekela lomphathi weTheku, u Mnumzane Derek Naidoo wafika “ukuzothicha imashi.” U-Mnumzane Naidoo waveza indlela yokuba imashi ingenziwa: Waveza ukuthi uMkhandlu weTheku wakhe izindlu zangases zibe yingxenye yezakhiwo. Futhi lezizakhiwo zizobasezandleni zabaholi. Kwabekwa ukuthi uma umuntu efuna ukuchama uyokhokha u-10cents, kanti uma efuna ukukaka uyokhokha u-20 cents, kodwa akekho owayazi kahle. Lemali okwakuzongenwa ngayo kulezizindlu zangasese yayizosetshenziswa ekukhokheleni ozoyi hlanza futhi isetshenziswe ekunakekeleni izakhiwo uma zidinga ukulungswa.
Izindlu zangasese zomgodi(pitlatrines) akuyona into encane lapha Kennedy Road. Lezizindlu zangasese ezingu 147 zagcinwa ukukhucululwa eminyakeni engu 5 eyedlule. Abahlali balapha abangu 6000 besebesebenzisa izindlu zangasese ezithwalwayo ezingu 6 futhi ezisesimweni esibi kakhulu. Kodwa-ke lokhu kwakungekuhle neze. U-Mnumzane Naidoo wafakwa inseleleo mayelana nomhlaba kanye nezindlu ezazithenjisiwe. U-Mnumzane Naidoo watshela umphakathi ukuthi indawo ababehleli kuyo yase ithathwa njengendawo edinga ukukhucululwa futhi engekho esimweni esimukelekayo, nanokuthi “uMkhandlu weTheku wase unqume ukuthi bazosuswa bayiswe ekugcineni noma ngaphandle kwe Theku.”
U-Mnumzane Naidoo wahlatshwa kakhulu ngalokhu ayekutshela umphakathi. Siyosebenzakuphi? Abantwana bethu bazofunda kuphi? Imiphi imitholampilo ekhona ? Siyohlala kanjani? U-Mnumzane Naido watshelwa ukuthi azikho izingqalazizinda emaphandleni. U-Mnumzane Naidoo wavumelana nabo kulokhu wase ebeka ukuthi abantu kufanele bazi ukuthi kuyabiza kakhulu ukwakha lapho, nanokuthi intuthuko igxiliswe endaweni engu 25 kilometres ukusuka enkabeni emaphakathi neTheku. Umphakathi waphendula ngokuthi loku okushiwo ngu Mnumzane Naidoo kuyefana nobandlululo lapho abantu babephushelwa ngaphandle kwedolobha. U-Mnumzane Naidoo waphendula ngokuthi uma lokhu bengakuthandi “babengaya kwi Nkantolo Yezomthetho Sisekelo.” U-Mnumzane Naidoo wayelokhu egcizelela ukuthi awukhu umhlaba. U-Mnumzane Cosmos Bhengu waveza ukuthi empeleni kunomhlaba omningi kakhulu khona eduzane. Waveza izibonelelo ngalokhu. U-Mnumzane Naidoo waveza ukuthi lomhlaba ngowenkampani yangasese ebizwa ngokuthi u-Moreland. I-Moreland, okuyinkampani enkulu kakhulu ephethe imihlaba lapha e-Thekwini, ingumniniyo womhlaba okutshalwe kuwo umoba endaweni esenyakatho neTheku.
Lemihlaba yatholakala ngokunqoba ngesikhathi sempi ka 1906 phakathi kwamaNgisi nesizwe samaZulu, lapho kwabulawa khona abantu abaningi. Lemihlaba yabuye yasetshenzwa kakhulu yisizwe samaNdiya esasilandwe phesheya ukuzotshala umoba. Lemihlaba namhlanje isiyakhiwe imizi yezicebi, amahovisi abizayo kanye nezitolo ezibheke olwandle. U-Sbu Zikode wamemezela ukuthi umhlangano usuyavalwa, wase ethembisa ukuthi “ Sizothumela izinkulungwane ezitaladini.” Ngomhlaka 14 September, izinkulungwane ezingu 5000 zamasha zaya kwi khansela lendawo.
Lokhu kungumbejazana wabantu asebengasanakiwe. Ukhongolse (ANC) uhlale ezigqaja futhi ekhuphula amandla akhe ngokuthi konke akwenzayo, ukwenzela uquqaba oluntulayo. Lezizinkulumo akazenzi nje emoyeni, kodwa kunezithembiso eziphathekayo azenze emiphakathini ethile. Ngomhlaka 9 November 1993, ukhongolose wakhipha isitatimende lapho ayehlaba khona “inkinga enkulu mayelana nezindlu eSouth Africa” njengento ayibeka emahlombe ka Hulumeni we National Party kanye nalabo ayehambisana nabo.” Isitatimende saqhubeka sathi izimo zokuphila ezakhiweni “azizinhle” neze. Waqhubeka uKhongole wathi: Abantu abahlala ezakhiweni kumele basukume bame ngezinyawo bakhulume ngempilo abayiphila kulezizindawo! “ Izinkinga zakho, Izinkinga zami. Ikhambi lakho, Ikhambi lami, “ kusho President Mandela. Indawo yase Kennedy Road yathintwa kulezizitatimende.
Ngomhlaka June 4, 1999, uKhongolose wamukela ukunqoba kwabo okhethweni lwezifundazwe ngomhlangano nabamaphephandaba. Bathembisa ukuthi into yokuqala ezinjongweni zabo “U-Khongolose uyosebenzisana nemiphakathi yakithi ekulungiseni isimo sabantu abantula kakhulu abahlala ezakhiweni njengase Kennedy Road, Elusaka nase Bhambayi.” Okhethweni olwabakhona, abahlala ku Kennedy Road bavotela uKhongolose ngokuphindiwe.
Abantu bahlala ezakhiweni ngezizathu zokufuna imisebenzi, noma bathole izindlela ezithile yokuziphilisa nanokuthi bathole ukufunda ezindaweni ezingcono, ukuthola imitholampilo nalapho bezokwazi ukuthola khona izindawo ezingcono zokungcebeleka. Noma kukhona ukuhlupheka okukhulu ezakhiweni, kodwa futhi izakhiwo ziyindawo lapho abantu bethola khona ithemba lokuphila., bathole nendlela yokuphuma ezingxakini zabo ezinzima.
U-Masipala weTheku uhlambisela ukuthi abangaphezu kuka 800 000 emphakathini weTheku ongu 3million bahlala ezakhiweni. Inqubo yeTheku ithi imizamo yokwakha ezinye izakhiwo ithathwa njengengekho emthethweni. Abantu abakha izakhiwo ezintsha bazozithola sebebhekene namacala. Kodwa akuzona izakhiwo ezintsha kuphela ezibhekene nengalo yomthetho. UMkhandlu weTheku ufuna futhi ukuvimbela abantu abahlala ezakhiweni ezindala ukuba bangazilungisi izakhiwo zabo zibe izindlu ezibhekile nezimukelekayo. U-Mkhandlu weTheku usonga , futhi uvamile ukubhidliza izakhiwo ezinwetshiweyo. Izikhulu zoMkhandlu weTheku zithi lokhu kufanele kwenziwe ngoba uma ngabe ezinye izakhiwo zilungiswa , ezingaphezu kuka 70 kuyofanele zisuswe abantu bayiswe kwenye indawo.
Noma u-Mkhandlu ungasho, kodwa kuyacaca ukuthi abazigcinanga izithembiso abazenza emphakathini, njengoku faka izidingo ezinjengo gesi, kanye namanzi, kokunye bazikhiphile ezinye izinto njengezindlu zangasese, kwezinye izakhiwo. Lesisenzo siyinkomba yokuthi bazama ukuphoqa umphakathi ukuba usuke endaweni. U-Mkhandlu weTheku uthi usuyisusile imindeni engu 7000, futhi baqonde ukwakha izindlu ezingu 400 ngenyanga ukuze bakwazi ukuqhubeka nokuyisa abantu kwezinye izindawo. Lenqubomgomo ithathwa njengenenqubekela phambili kwezinye izindawo ezisezingeni eliphezulu kodwa kunamaphuzu amabili angabhekisiswa kulokhu. Lamaphuzu ahambisana nenqubo yobandlululo.
Elokuqala elokuthi kuyacaca ukuthi kunemizamo yokuvimba abantu abantulayo ukuthi beze bazohlala edolobheni. Ngokwempela, akukho mngcele ngoba izakhiwo ezintsha ziyakhiwa nanokuthi abantu abathola imisebenzi noma bathole indlela yokuziphilisa ukusuka befika ezakhiweni bavamise ukuphuma ezakhiweni zabo bese behlalisa abanye abantu abafikayo noma abasha ezakhiweni zabo babakhokhise i-renti. Kodwa injongo yenqubo mgomo yomkhandlu ukuthi kwehliswe isibalo sabantu abantulayo abangena edolobheni bezohlala.
Okwesibili, uma kusakhiwa izindlu ezindaweni lapho bethuthelwe khona abantu, zivamise ukwakhiwa ngendlela efuze eyamalokishi ngesikhathi sobandlululo. Emicabangweni yakhe, u-Frantz Fanon wathi umhlaba noma umbuso wama “colonialists”( abamhlophe ababethatha imihlaba yabantu ngenkani futhi baphinde bababuse ngendlela engenabo ubuntu) uhlukaniswe izigceme ezimbili: indawo lapho kuhlala khona abantu bendabuko ayifani nendawo lapho kuhlala khona ababusi (colonialists). Lezizindawo zombili azifani.’ Ngokuka Fanon, lezizindawo ezimbili zihlukene ngokokuphila nokunethezeka.
Ngakho-ke, indawo yomuntu wendabuko ayihlukene nje kuphela naleyo okuhlala kuyona abamhlophe, kodwa futhi lezizindawo zithathwa njengezi ndawo ezihlala abantu abahlukene: omunye uhlanzekile, uphephile kanti futhi unomqondo ohluzekile, kanti omunye ungcolile, uyingozi kanti futhi akanawo umqondo ophusile. Ngakhoke, isikhathi sobu “colonialism” siyophela mhlazane kwaphela izindawo ezimbili ezihleli abantu abangefani edolobheni elilodwa. Loluhlelo lokuphila kumele luqedwe.
Idolobha lama “colonialists” kanye nelobandlululo laliqambeke njengendawo yesimanje kanye nendawo yabamhlophe lapho abantu abamnama babezohlungwa kahle endaweni yabo noma basuswe futhi bavinjwe. Kodwa-ke eminyakeni yawo1980, uhulumeni wobandlululo, ephethe e-Namibia, elwa nabase Cuba kanye ne MPLA e-Angola, eqeda futhi ukuvukelwa kombuso emalokishini ezweni wagcina ngokuhluleka ukushayela abantu abamnyama imigomo yokuhamba endaweni. Lapho okwakulula khona ukuthi kwenzeke, izindawo zabamhlophe zazivikelwe, kodwa abantu abamnyama babekwazi ukungena ezindaweni ezingamadolobha, badle umhlaba ngaphandle kwemvume kahulumeni bese begcina sebakhe imiphakathi ezimele, engancikene nohulumeni. Kodwa uhulumeni unezingqalazizinda angazisebenzisa ukwenza noma yini ayithandayo. Kucacile ukuthi uhulumeni ufuna ukubuyela kuleyonqubo yama “colonialists” yokwenza amadolobha abe ngawesimanje. Kodwa-ke phela, idolobha alisathathwa njengendawo yabamhlophe.
Kodwa idolobha selithathwa njengendawo yabantu abakhethekile, njengalabo abanezimali. Ngesikhathi u-Mike Sutcliffe ongumphathi weTheku enza inkulumo yakhe lapha e-University of KwaZulu Natal ngonyaka odlulile (2004), wakhombisa izithombe zezakhiwo endaweni eyayaziwa ngokuthi eyamaNdiya kuphela, futhi ehlala amaNdiya acebile e Reservoir Hills, wagcizelela ukuthi uguquko kufanele lusheshe ngoba lezizindawo okwakuthathwa ngokuthi ezamaNdiya kuphela zinezo izindawo ezinezakhiwo, kodwa zazingekho kobeLungu izindawo ezinjalo. Ngalokhu wayengaqondile ukuthi ugqugquzela ukuthi kungenwe ezindaweni kwakhiwe izakhiwo ezindaweni okwakungezaba Mhlophe kuphela.
Inkulumo yakhe yayiqonde ukuthi kufanele ezobulungiswa kuhlanganise nokuqhutshelwa phambili amagunya namalungelo abaMhlophe nasezindaweni zamaNdiya acebile. Inqubo yoMkandlu weTheku yokuzama ukuxuba idolobha uyodinga ukuba kuthathwe imihlaba enobunikazi bangasese (privately-owned)ikakhulukazi izindawo ezinjengalezi kutshalwe khona izimoba, manje inkampani yakwaMoreland ibhidlangile yakha imizi kanokusho ebiyelelwe ukuze kungangeni muntu. Lokhu ngeke kuphela kudinge ukubanjwana ngezihluthu nongxowankulu (capiatalists). Kuyodinga futhi inseleleo eqondile ebhekiswe ekuhlukumekezekeni kubahlabali basezakhiweni, behlukunyezwa ngabaMhlophe nabaMnyama abaphila emazingeni aphezulu
Umzabalazo uyaqhubeka. Ngomhlaka 4 October 2005, abantu abangaphezulu kwenkulungwane, okucishe kube ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi kwesibalo sabantu bephelele basendaweni yase Quarry Road, bamasha bayakwi khansela lendawo, uJayraj Bachu, befuna ukuthi ashiye phansi isikhundla sakhe, kubuyiswe izindlu zangasese kubuye kutholwe indawo lapho bezokwakhelwa khona imizi maphakathi neTheku. Emva kwezinsuku ezimbili, kwabanjwa umhlanagano wezindawo ezingu 12. Lomhlangano wenzelwa ku Kennedy Road. Kwakunabamele imiphakathi yabo abangu 32: abesilisa abangu 17 kanye nabesifazane abangu 15. Bavumelana ukuthi ngeke baze bavote okhethweni oluzayo, nanokuthi bayobambana, balwe ndawonye. Indawo nendawo manje ibamba imihlangano kanye ngesonto, kuthi abamelele izindawo ngayinye ezindaweni ezingu 12 bahlangana njalo ngo Mgqibelo. Ubumbano olusha lwaqhamuka kulezizindawo. Kodwa uMhlengi Khumalo akasekho.
Izakhiwo igama lokuhloniphisa ukuthi imijondolo.
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