||What, ultimately, was the importance of the Africa-US leadership summit at the White House last week? It came at a very decisive moment for geopolitical relations in the axis linking Washington, Pretoria and Tel Aviv. And surprising US-China economic connections were also revealed, potentially reaching deep into Africa. Mega-corporations of both US and African parentage revelled in the attention and repeated blasts of public subsidies, with deals alleged to have reached $37 billion over the three days.
We may never know the backroom Faustian Pacts done by African elites with these firms, but what public signals were sent? How dangerous is it that President Jacob Zuma is welcoming US military and corporate institutions back to Africa with open arms, as the continent’s aspirant gatekeeper?
The Palestine test
First, Middle East turmoil is now, to use a word we must regrettably return to, paramount. Iraq, Libya and Syria remain profoundly unstable. But in Gaza, where ‘incremental genocide’ is underway, according to Israeli historian Ilan Pappé, world concern is most urgent. During Israel’s escalating war against Palestine, even United Nations leader Ban Ki-Moon – formerly a behind-the-scenes supporter of Gaza bombing – bemoaned the ‘criminal’ brutality of Tel Aviv’s indiscriminate attacks, as UN schools were periodically demolished. US president Barack Obama, meanwhile, restocked the ammunition so the Israelis could reload. More than 2000 people have died in the latest attacks.
What did we learn at the frontline of Palestine solidarity, South Africa? On the one hand, many were surprised and appalled by the August 3 outpouring of support for the war by around 10 000 Israeli supporters, including leaders of two (marginal) black political parties and a major black evangelical church. Called by the hard-line South African Zionist Federation at the Huddle Park golf course in eastern Johannesburg, the backslapping rally occurred just as Israel was bombing more UN schools, but no sign of humility was displayed. A similar rally in Cape Town a week later attracted 4000.
South African Zionists exhibit breath-taking chutzpah. Those gathered at Huddle Park were amongst the main economic beneficiaries of apartheid (you can tell this by skin colour), and also of post-apartheid neoliberal economic policies whose historically unprecedented high interest rates and liberalised exchange controls reward those already wealthy.
Yet the same people feel beleaguered on the cultural front, with many experiences in mainstream society leaving Zionists alienated and exasperated. Bruises to the South African Zionist ego have been found during the annual ‘Israeli Apartheid Week’ events, in current controversies over Israeli products for sale at upscale supermarket Woolworths, especially the Sodastream water carbonator scandalised by Scarlett Johansson, and academic boycotts of Israel that have raised tensions at major tertiary institutions since 2011.
The same week that Zionists waved the flag in Johannesburg, one of Israel’s most celebrated intellectuals, Pappé, made the round of major South African universities and community halls. The majority-Muslim audiences gave Pappé standing ovations after not only a dissection of the ‘incremental genocide’ now underway and account of Israel’s ethnic cleansing of Palestine over the last century, but even his insistence on the need for a ‘one-state solution’ narrative to emerge.
When Pappé shared a stage with the higher education minister Blade Nzimande, the University of Johannesburg crowd roared for Pretoria to do more in solidarity with Palestine. Showing that academic boycotts are institutional and not personal, Pappé’s tour added more angst to the Zionists’ laager mentality. But what makes the battle over solidarities much more acute was that 30 000 Durban residents protested very forcefully against Israel (July 25) and 100 000+ then came out in Cape Town (August 9).
As society polarises, it is often the function of weak rulers to make soothing sounds so as to maintain status quo relations, and Zuma did not fail. After increasingly vocal calls for Zuma to cut diplomatic and business relations with Israel, as Latin American countries are doing, he openly announced there would be no expulsion of its ambassador, Arthur Lenk, to a standing ovation at a Washington press conference. South African Zionists were also delighted by Pretoria’s blind eye to the Gaza massacres, as Democratic Alliance MP Darren Bergman crowed to the ultra-Zionist SA journalist Ant Katz: “at a time like this it was not right to apportion blame to anyone but to rather seek a quick and lasting solution. Give that man a Bells” (sic).
This came on the heels of Zuma’s implicit rejection of the February 2014 Cape Town Declaration, which demanded a variety of SA-Israeli links be broken. It was supported by most political parties, including the ruling African National Congress (ANC), and as a result, Katz reported of Zuma, “The pressure they have been under to act (against Israel) has been enormous. The President chose to change the direction, appoint a top ambassador to Israel and encourage growth in trade,” citing a foreign policy source.
One source of counter-pressure could well be Ivor Ichikowitz of the Paramount Group, Africa’s most aggressive arms-dealing entrepreneur. The proximity he enjoys is impressive, perhaps because of deals – including the fabled Iraqi food for oil scandal – with ANC fundraisers like Sandi Majali, and his own millions in contributions to the ruling party. For example, in 2008, Ichikowitz provided Zuma with free flightsto Lebanon and Kazakhstan where interesting “business meetings” were held, and again in 2011 to Washington. Before the 2009 election, Ichikowitz flew an ailing Nelson Mandela from Johannesburg to Mthatha airport for the ruling party’s political gain, “unleashing a furore over whether the ANC had jeopardised his health and disregarded his strict travel protocol.” More recently, his air-chauffeur role again courted controversy, even in Israel, because he gave Ambassador Lenk and his family a free flight and weekend holiday at his Madikwe Game Reserve lodge.
“We will not supply countries that have a bad human rights record,” Ichikowitz claimed to a Sunday Business Timesreporter in 2013, because “the South African government would not allow us to supply countries that would be inappropriate.” Pretoria’s arms sales oversight is, in fact, notorious, most spectacularly just before the 2003 US/UK invasion of Iraq on false premises, when Denel supplied the Western belligerents with ammunition shell-casing, artillery propellants, and laser range finders. According to a 2013 Amnesty International complaint, the Arms Control Committee led by Minister Jeff Radebe “authorised conventional arms sales to governments without the required scrutiny,” even following a 2010 scandal in which the Auditor General slated 58 dubious arms deals between involving South Africans, including with rights-violating regimes in Sudan, Gabon, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Algeria, Egypt and the Central African Republic.
In 2005, the Defense Department accused Ichikowitz’s firms of “violating arms control rules in exports to several countries, including Angola and Ghana,” bribing at least one army colonel in the process. Two years later, he was involved in what the Sunday Times termed “a mining venture in the war-torn eastern Democratic Republic of Congo with the Makabuza family, whose members have been accused of illegal arms trading and funding a rebel group charged with war crimes.”
This year, Ichikowitz made the news for allegedly corrupting the Malawian government with transport and also supplying the vicious Brazilian police with weapons to use in its clampdown on the favelas before this year’s World Cup, featuring extra-judicial killings and mass displacements. He began his career working with Rwanda’s authoritarian ruler Paul Kagame (allegedly responsible for many of the five million deaths in neighbouring DRC), and praises Equatorial Guinea’s hated dictator Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo as well as the late DRC dictator Mobutu Sese Seko, whom he called “a strong, powerful leader loved by many of his people.”
This man is a dangerous asset for Pretoria to wield in a context of extreme internecine competition over markets – including military equipment – between South Africa, China, the European Union and the US. Ichikowitz apparently understands the need to buff his image, through his family foundation’s new film publicising a French commodities trader who had a minor role in anti-apartheid deal-making during the late 1980s, through sponsoring a book about Jewish anti-apartheid heroes, and in the press.
With this kind of public relations concern, stretching to hiring professional sock-puppets to edit his Wikipedia entry, we should follow Ichikowitz’s moves more closely. For example, on August 13 he reported back from Washington to Johannesburg Star newspaper readers on the main editorial page, “The primary challenge as I see it for the US will be to overcome the reputational damage caused by the infamous mantra of the ‘regime change’ approach in years past. This bellicose security and defence issue remains a major concern to African emerging market actors.”
He is speaking of himself, for Ichikowitz is attempting to have US aid and International Monetary Fund rules relaxed so that he can do much bigger arms deals with African tyrants. Ichikowitz claims that these elites have “no capacity to be able to afford the solutions they require because of limitations imposed by the international community on how they use their budget.” (Making the same case in the US last week, Ichikowitz faced ridicule in at least one major periodical, but in South Africa, ownership of The Star by ANC ally Iqbal Survé appears to lower the vigilance level.)
At the same time, two other Israelis are in the news for their controversial extractive industry activities. Commodities czar Dan Gertler – according to Forbes, worth $2.6 billion – has found massive oil reserves in the DRC, working in collaboration with Zuma’s nephew Khulubuse, whose prior extractive industry accomplishments are not impressive. Both are very close to DRC authoritarian leader Joseph Kabila, which Global Witness suggests “raises further corruption concerns.”
Yaron Yamin is the second: a Bulawayo-based magnate who arrived in Zimbabwe with no english skills and no money, but with a controversial fundamentalist Israeli religious connection – Rabbi Eliezer Berland – whom he now funds with half his proceeds, even arranging a Lear jet shopping trip for Johannesburg essentials every week. Last December, Yamin announced he would do business with Zimbabwe’s corrupt military and mining elite in the Marange diamond fields, well known as the source of the country’s tragic Resource Curse, including several hundred murders of resident informal-sector diggers by the army in 2008.
US corporate seduction
This is the kind of arrangement that generates militaristic links between the contending powers, mainly for the sake of resource extraction. It also helps explain Zuma’s re-embrace of Washington, for as he explained last week in a talk to US Chamber of Commerce, “Amongst our flagship projects, we have invested more than one trillion rand in infrastructure since 2009. We are further investing more than 840 billion rand in infrastructure development over the next three years. The bulk of this spend is going into energy and transport related infrastructure.”
For expanding Transnet’s reach with a locomotive joint venture, Zuma praised General Electric. After all, he explained, “South Africa’s economic growth is inextricably linked to that of Africa as a whole. That is why we put great emphasis in developing not only our country’s infrastructure, but that of the African continent too.”
The warm reception impressed Johannesburg Business Day reporter Nicholas Kotsch, who cited GE chief executive Jeff Immelt applauding Washington for US Export-Import Bank subsidies: “In a very competitive world where we are up against China Inc and Europe Inc, it’s good to have this sort of support.”
In contrast, Kotsch felt obliged to observe, “The summit had almost nothing to say about 200 schoolgirls held captive in northeast Nigeria by Boko Haram guerrillas and the attacks in Kenya by other Islamist extremists. Legislative hounding of gays in Uganda and a few other countries were ignored,” because, he opined, “Perhaps the fear was that addressing such sensitive political matters would be bad for business and if ever a summit was about the nexus between presidents and business, this was it.”
Not to be left out of the nexus, however, Beijing’s Africa handlers must have felt insulted by the prior week’s Economist magazine interview of Obama: “My advice to African leaders is to make sure that if, in fact, China is putting in roads and bridges, number one, that they’re hiring African workers; number two, that the roads don’t just lead from the mine to the port to Shanghai.” Naturally Obama wants those African ports to host ships with minerals and oil headed for New York, New Orleans and Houston.
The competitive relationship with China is especially interesting because the US State Department’s top official for Africa from 2009 through last year, Assistant Secretary (A/S) of State Johnny Carson, very openly described – to leading Nigerian businesspeople in a February 2010 friendly chat whose details Chelsea Manning liberated for WikiLeaks via a US State Department cable – China as a “a very aggressive and pernicious economic competitor with no morals.” He continued, “The Chinese are dealing with the Mugabe’s and Bashir’s of the world, which is a contrarian political model.”
Unlike the Chinese leaders, Obama has very strong morals. He does not deal with the likes of Mugabe or Bashir, who were banned from last week’s meeting at the White House. (Instead, Obama is dealing with African democrats who abhor corruption and would never practice brutality against their citizenry, good men such as Uhuru Kenyatta, Paul Biya, Blaise Compaore, Paul Kagame, Yoweri Museveni, Teodoro Obiang, José Eduardo dos Santos, Idriss Deby, Joseph Kabila, Jacob Zuma, Goodluck Jonathan, Yahya Jammeh and Hailemariam Desalegn – whose praises are also sung by Alemayehu Mariam – and others in the same league such as King Mswati and Alpha Conde.)
Tellingly, former Rwandan Ambassador to the US Theogene Rudasingwa wrote a pleading letter to the Obama administration, asking Secretary of State John Kerry to “reign in your national security team. The hawks among them will insist that there is a red threat (China) looming over Africa, which must be contained or neutralised. Furthermore, these hawks argue, it is US security and economic interests that should take precedence over anything else, even if this means baby-sitting some of Africa’s most dangerous big men.”
But the red threat is being neutralised, if Obama succeeds in winning more African tyrants’ hearts and minds. The Economist interviewer asked, “You see countries like China creating a BRICS bank, for instance – institutions that seem to be parallel with the system, rather – and potentially putting pressure on the system rather than adding to it and strengthening it. That is the key issue, whether China ends up inside that system or challenging it. That’s the really big issue of our times, I think.” Obama replied, “It is. And I think it’s important for the United States and Europe to continue to welcome China as a full partner in these international norms.”
As if on cue, the Wall Street Journal reported a “proposal by Beijing to work together [with Washington] on large infrastructure projects such as the Inga-3 hydroelectric dam in the DRC… For the US, a partnership with China on such projects could sustain long-term the central role of the World Bank and IMF.”
Added the Financial Times, “US officials say that a partnership with China on Inga-3 or another dam would be an important breakthrough in collaboration at a time when military rivalry between the two countries in Asia is growing.” The main project under discussion, a dam on the Congo River three times larger than China’s Three Gorges, would send the vast majority of its electricity into mining and smelting. South Africa knows the terrible denouement caused by a Minerals-Energy Complex taking over state power, personified in this week’s testimony by Cyril Ramaphosa about why he, a 9 percent owner in Lonmin, called in police to conduct operations against his “dastardly criminal” platinum mineworkers, who were striking at Marikana two years ago.
The Chinese elites are still not short of cash, and to illustrate the symbiotic relationship, Beijing purchased $107 billion of US government bonds in the first five months of 2014. According to the Wall St Journallast month, this was “the fastest pace since records began more than three decades ago.” The Chinese, in return, now apparently want US cooperation to lower risk and intensify the exploitative process in Africa, even at the risk of assisting a competitor to get its boot back down hard on local throats.
The potential for US military activity in Africa remains great, given Washington’s need to prop up friendly dictators against all manner of local resistances – not only religious extremists, but also social activists whose rate of protest has, in 2011-13, been growing even faster than the 2010-11 North African uprising period, according to the African Development Bank’s latest count.
But in contrast to frightening recent reports from the brilliant US journalist Nick Turse about the Pentagon’s “war fighting combatant command” in dozens of African countries, there is still a rather blunt division of labour at work between Washington and its deputy sheriff in Pretoria. Strategists from the Africa Command have already explained why they are doing so much training of African militaries, including SA National Defence Force soldiers: “We don’t want to see our guys going in and getting whacked.”
It is here that Zuma offered the most disturbing words last week, a veritable sub-imperialist manifesto: “There had been a good relationship already between Africa and the US but this summit has reshaped it and has taken it to another level… We secured a buy-in from the US for Africa’s peace and security initiatives… As President Obama said, the boots must be African.”
Patrick Bond directs the University of KwaZulu-Natal Centre for Civil Society in Durban.
Ukujikileza kukaObama,noZuma ngokusebenzisa ngeWashington-nePitoli kanye neTel Aviv
Mhlaziyishumi neSihlanu kuNcwaba
Umhumushi nguFaith ka-Manzi
Ngabe . empeleni, kwakuyini ebaluleke kangaka ngengqungquthela phakathi kobuholi baseAfrika kanye naseMelika ngenyanga kaNcwaba? Kwenzeka ngesikhathi sesinqumo esibalulekile ngesikhathi ubudlelwane mayelana nobubalezwe nezombusazwe busaqhubeka okuhlanganisa iWashington, iPitoli kanye neTel Aviv. Futhi okuthusayo ukuxhumana phakathi kwezwe laseChina nelaseMelika kwambulwa, okwenza lamazwe agxile ngokujulile eAfrika. Izimboni ezinkulukazi abazali bazo okuyiAfrika kanye neMelika zazizi bungaza ngokunakwa kanye nokuphinda phindeka kokuxhaswa kakhulu yizimali zemiphakathi, kanye nezivumelwano ekusolwa ukuthi zifinyelele kwizigidigidi ezingamashumi amathathu nesikhombisa zamadola ezinsukwini ezintathu.
Ngeke sazi ngezivumelwano ezenziwe ngasese ezingcolile zenziwe ngababusi baseAfrika nalezizimboni, kodwa ngabe imiphi imiyalezo yemiphakathi eyathunyelwa? Ngabe kunobungozi kangakanani ukuthi uMongameli uZuma wemukela abombutho wezempi kanye nezikhungo zezimboni la Eafrika ngezandla ezivulekile, njengomqaphi ozimisele womnayngo walelizwekazi?
Okokuqala, izinxushunxushu ezenzeka Maphakathi neMpumalanga (phecelezi iMiddle East) zenzeka njangamanzj, ukusebenzisa igama esizisolayo ngokulisebenzisa, ukuthi zibalulekile. I-Iraq, iLibya kanye neSyria amazwe alokhu eqhubeka enganakho ukuthula. Kodwa eGaza, lapho, ‘ukushintshashintsha kokubulala inqwaba yebantu esizweni’ (phecelezi incremental genocide) kuyeza, ngokusho kwesifundiswa kwezomlando sasezweni lakwaIsrael uIlan Pappé, ukubhekana nalesisimo ngumhlaba wonke ikhona okubaluleke kakhulu. Ngesikhathi impi yakwaIsrael ihlasele kakhulu ePalestine, ngisho nomholi weZizwe Ezibumbene (United Nations) uBan Ki-Moon – owayekade ecashile ngokuxhasa kwakhe ukubhonjwa kweGaza –wakhalaza ngesihluku ‘esinobugcwelgcwele’ sokuhlasela kwe Tel Aviv okwakungasakhethi, njengoba izikole zeZezwe Ezibumbene zazicekelwa phansi ngaso sonke isikhathi. Umongameli waseMelika uBarack Obama, ngesikhathi, ehlanganisa kabusha izikhali ukuze isizwe sakwaIsrael sikwazi ukugwalisa izikhali zaso. Bangaphezulu kwezinkulungwane ezimbili abantu abafe kulokukuhlaselwa okusanda kwenzeka..
Ngabe sifundeni phambili obumbanweni lwasePalestine, iNingizimu Afrika? Ngakolunye uhlangothi, iningi lathuka futhi ladangala mhlazintathu ngenyanga kaNcwaba nokuxhaswa okukhulu kwalempi ngabaxhasi abangu10 000 baseIsrael, okumbandakanya abaholi ababili (abasemingceleni) abamnyama bamaqembu bezombusazwe kanye nelinye ibandla elikhulukazi lbavangeli labamnyama. Bemenywe yinhlangano yamaZionist aseNingizimu Afrika ePaki yaseHuddle lapho kudlalwa khona igalofu empumalanga neGoli, lomhlangano okwakungowabantu abazishaya emhlane kwenzeka ngesikhathi izwe lakwaIsrael lidedela iziqhumane ezinye izikole Zamazwe aBumbene , kodwa laba ababehlangene abazange bakhombise ukuba nozwelo. Omunye umhlangano ofana nalona wabanjwa eKapa futhi kwafika izihlwele eziyizinkulungwane ezine
AmaZionists aseNingizimu Afrika ayekhombisa ukudelela okumangalisayo. Labo ababehlangele ePaki laseHuddle kwakungabanye abazuze kakhulu ngesikhathi sombuso wobandlululo (lokhu kwakubonakala ngombala wesikhumba sabo), kanti nemigomo yomnotho ongxiwankulu eshayiwe emva kobandlululo amazing ayo amakhulukazi enzuzo kanye nokuxegisa izimali ezingenayo neziphumayo kuzuzisa labo vele abacebile.
Kodwa futhi bona labantu bazizwa besesimweni esinzima uma sekubhekenwe nezamasiko, ikakhulukazi uma sekubhekwana nezinto abadlule kuzona kwimiphakathi yezwe labo okwenze amaZionists azizwe engeyona ingxenye yabo.Ukulimaza ukuzethemba kwamaZioniztz aseNingizimu Afrika kutholakale ngesikhathi semicimbi eyenzaka njalo ngonyaka ‘yeIsraeli Apartheid Week’, okunobuhixhixi mayelana nemikhiqizo yasezweni lakwaIsrael edayiswa kwizinxanxathela zezitolo ezisemazingeni aphezulu njengoWoolworths, ikakhulukazi iSodastream okuyisiphuzo samanzi agxabhisiwe kodwa abandayo okwenziwa yihlazo nguScarlett Johansson, kanye nezibhelo zezifundiswa zasezweni lakwaIsrael eseziveze ukungaboni ngaso linye kwizikhungo zemfundo ephakeme ezihamba phambili kusukela ngonyaka ka2011.
Kulelosonto futhi ngesikhathi amaZionists ephephezelisa ifulegi eGoli, omunye wezifundiswa ezinodumo kakhulu ezweni lakwaIsrael, uPappé, wavakashela izikhungo zemfundo ephakeme ezimbalwa ezisezingeni eliphezulu zaseNingizimu Afrika kanye nasemaholo emiphakathi.Izihambeli eziningi zamaSulumane zazishayela kakhulu uPappé ihlombe zize zime ngezinyawo emva kokuba esehlaziye ‘ukushintshashintsha kokubulala inqwaba yabantu esizwenu’ manje okwenzekayo futhi babuka ukubulawa kwesizwe samaPalestine yisizwe samaIsrael kuleminyaka eyikhulu edlule, kodwa ngisho ukugcizelela kwakhe kwisidingo sengxoxo yokuthi kukhulunywe ‘ngesixazululo sezwe elilodwa’ kuqhamuke.
Ngesikhathi uPappé ekhuluma emhlanganweni lapho kwakukhuluma khona futhi nongqongqoshe wezemfundo ephakeme uBlade Nzimande, isihlwele esasisesikhungweni semfundo ephakeme eGoli iUniversity of Johannesburg samemezela ukuthi iPitoli kube khona elikwenzeyo ukuhlanganyela nePalestine. Ukukhombisa ukuthi ukunswinya ezemfundo kuhambisana nezikhungo hayi umuntu nomuntu, ukuhambela kukaPappé kuleli kwangeza ukukhathazeka emiqondweni yamaZionists. Kodwa yini eyenza impi ngokuhlanganyela kwabanokungamukeleki ukuthi izakhamizi ezingu30 000 zaseThekwini zabhikilisha ngomfutho omkhulu zimelene nezwe lakwaIsrael( mhla zingamashumi amabili nesihlanu ngenyaka kaNtulikazi) kanye nabangu100 000 nokungeziwe baphuma eKapa ( mhla ziyisishagalolunye ngenyanga kaNcwaba)
Njengoba imiphakathi ishintsha, kujwayelekile ukuthi ababusi ababuthakathaka ukwenza imisindo enokududuza ukuze kulawuleke ubudlelwane bungashintshi, futhi uZuma akazange ahluleke. Emva kokumemezela okunomsindo ukuthi uZuma ahlukanise ubuhlobo bezizwe kanye nezohwebo nezwe lakwaIsrael, njengoba kwenza amazwe aseLatin America, wamemezela phambi kwabantu ukuthi ngeke balixoshe inxusa lakwaIsrael, uArthur Lenk, kwakze kwasukuma abantu bemshayela ihlombe ngesikhathi enomhlangano nabezindaba eWashington. AmaZionists aseNingizimu Afrika ayekujabulela futhi ukuthi iPitoli liziba ukucekelwa kwemiphefumula yabantu basePalestine, njengoba iLunga lasePhalamende leqembu iDemocratic Alliance uDarren Bergman laklewula kwintatheli yaseNingizimu Afrika exhasa ngobuhlanya amaZionists wathi: ‘’ngesikhathi esinjengalesi kwakungalungile ukugxeka noma ubani kodwa ukuthi kubhekwane nendlela elula futhi enesixazululo esizohlala isikhathi eside. Nika lowomuntu utshwala” (sic).
Lokhu kwenzeka emva kwamazi kaZuma okungukunqaba okusobala kwe2014 Cape Town Declaration ngenyanga kaNhlolanja, okwakufuna ukuthi izindlela ezimbalwa zokuxhumana phakathi kwezwe lakwaIsrael nellaseNingizimu Afrika zinqanyulwe. Lokhukumemezela (declaration) kwakuxhaswe ngamaqembu amaningi ezombusazwe, okumbandakanya ngisho noKhongolose, lokhu kwaholela ukuthi uZuma, ngokusho kukaKatz, “Ingcindezi ababengaphansi kwayo ukuthi (kumelwane nezwe lakwaIsrael) yayinkulu kakhulu. UMongameli wakhetha ukushintsha indlela , wagcoba inxusa eliphezulu ukuthi liye ezweni lakwaIsrael ukuthi ligqugquzele ukuhwebelana,” sekusho elinye abezindaba basemazweni aphesheya.
Enye indlela eqhamuka ngakwelinye icala lengcindezi kungaba nguIvor Ichikowitz weParamount Group, umhwebi onamandla kakhulu wezikhali waseAfrika. Ukusodelana wakuthanda, ngoba izivumelwano – okuhlanganisa ukudla kwaseIraq okwakuyinganwekwane kuhlanganiswe nodaba lwehlazo ngamafutha – kanye nabakhankasela uKhongolose izimali njengoSandi Majali, kanye nezigidi zakhe axhase ngazo leliqembi elibusayo. Ngokwesibonelo-nje, ngonyaka ka2008, uIchikowitz wakhokhela uZuma ukuthi andiza mahala eya eLebanon kanye naseKazakhstan lapho ‘’imihlangano enokuthakasa’’ yayenziwa khona, waphinde wamkhokhela ukuthi andizele eWashington ngonyaka ka2011. Ngaphambi kokhetho langonyaka ka2009, uIchikowitz wakhokhela uMandela owayesegula ukusuka eGoli aye eMthatha ukuze kuzuze ezombusazwe zeqembu elibusayo, “okwenza kube khona ulaka mayelana nokuthi ngabe uKhongolose awuzange wenze isimo sakhe sempilo sibe bucayi kakhulu kanye nokungahloniphi umshicilelo wokuthi angabe esahamba kakhulu.” Okungekudala-nje, kulokhukudiza kwakhe ngezimali zokuhambisa abantu kwahlangezana nobunxushunxushu, ngisho nasezweni lakwaIsrael, ikakhulukazi indima encane ayidlala kwisivumelwane kumelenwe nobandlululo sekuphela iminyaka uama80, ngokuxhasa ngezimali incwadi eyayngamaqhawe amaJuda ayemelene nobandlululo, ngoba wanika iNxusa uLenk kanye nomndeni wakhe ukuthi undize mahala kanye namaholide angezimpelasonto kwindawo yakhe yokungcebeleka iMadikwe Game Reserve.
Ngeke sihlinzeke amanye amazwe anegama elibi mayelana nokuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo esintu,’’, kusho uIchikowitz wintatheli yephephandaba iSunday Business Times ngonyaka ka2013, ngoba “uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika ngeke usivumele siwahlinzeke ngoba lokho ngeke kube kuhle. Unkungaphelelisi kwePitoli uma lidayisa izikhali, empeleni, kudume kabi, kwagqama futhi kakhulu ngaphambi-nje kokuhlaselwa kweIraq ngomqondo ongenaqiniso ngamazwe aseMelika nelaseNgilandi ngonyaka ka2003, ngesikhathi iDenel inikeza lamazwe anodlame aseNtshonalanga ngezikhali eziyiziqhumane kanye nezinye izinhlobo ezinobungozi kakhulu. Ngokukhononda kwenhlangano iAmnesty International ngonyaka ka2013, iKomidi Elilawula Izikhali (phecelezi iArms Control Committee) eyayiholwa ngungqongqoshe uJeff Radebe “lavumela ukuthi kube khobna ukudayiswa kwezikhali ezinguhlobo oludala kohulumnei ngaphandle kokubabhekisisa kahle,” lokho kwalandelwa uhlazo langonyaka ka2010 lapho uMhloli Mabhuku wezwe lonke yabika kabi ngezivumelwano zezikhali ezimbi kakhulu ezingamashumi amahlanu nesishagalombili ezazimbandakanya iNingizimu Afrika, okuhlanganisa nemibuso engawahloniphi amalungelo esintu njengeSudan, iGabon, Djibouti, iEthiopia, iAlgeria, iEgypt kanye neCentral African Republic.
Ngonyaka ka2005, uMnyango weZokuvikela wasola imboni kaIchikowitz ngokuphula imithetho elawula izikhali ngokudayiselwa amazwe angaphesheya ambalwa, okubalwa iAngola kanye neGhana kuwona,” kanye nokufumbathisa ngokukhohlakala omunye wabezikhulu bombutho wempi ngesikhathi enza lokhu. Emva kweminyaka emibili, wayehlangene iphephendaba iSunday Timeslangesonto elakubiza ngokuthi “uhlelo olunobungozi kwezokumbiwa phansi ezweni elisempini empumalanga neDemocratic Republic of Congo kanye nomndeni wakwaMakabuza family, amalunga awo aseke asolwa ngokudayisa ngezikhali ngokungemthetho kanye nokuxhasa ngezimali iqembu lamavukelambuso elibekwe amacala empi.”
Kulonyaka, uIchikowitz wagqama futhi ezindabeni ngokusolwa ngokuthi wekhohlakalisa uhulumeni waseMalawi ngokuwunukeza ezokuthutha kanye futhi nangokunikeza amaphoyisa aseBrazil adume kabi kakhulu ngezikhali ukuthi azisebenzise ukucekela phansi namafavelas (imijondolo) ngaphambi kokuqala kweNdebe Yomhlaba Komdlala kaNobhutshuzwayo, okwaholela ekutheni kufe abantu abaningi kanye nokuthi abanye abaningi bangabe besaba namakhay.a Waqala ukusebenza nombusi waseRwanda owayebusa ngesandla esiqinile uPaul Kagame (owasolwa ngokuba nesandla ngokufa kwabaningi ababbalelwa kwizigidi eziyisihlanu ezweni akhelene nalo iDRC), futhi wancoma uobusa ngendlovukayiphikisa ozondwa kakhulu waseEquatorial Guinea uTeodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo kanye futhi nomunye futhi owayebusa ngendlovuyangena ongasekho emhlabeni uMobutu Sese Seko, ayembiza ngomholi onamandla kakhulu, futhi owayethandwa kakhulu ngabantu.”
Lendoda iyingozi kakhulu ePitoli ukuthi ingangenelela kulokukuncintisana okunodlame kakhulu kangaka kwizimakethe – okuhlanganisa izimpahla zombutho wempi- phakathi kweNngizimu Afrika, neChina, neEuropean Union kanye neMelika. UIchikowitz engathi uzwa usidingo sokwenza sokuzenza ukuthi abukeke njengesikhondlakhondla, ngokuthi asbenzise umndeni wakhe usebenzise izimali zawo ukwenza isithombe esizokhombisa lapho umdayisi wezimpahla waseFrance owaba nendima encale ayidlalayo kwisivumelwano esenziwa ngesikhathi kumelwenwe nobandlululo ngesikhathi saminyaka yokuphela kwama80, ngokuxhasa bngezimali incwadi emayelana namaqhawe amaJuda ayemelene nobandlululo, kanye nakwabezindaba.
Ngokuba nendaba kangaka-ke mayelana nobudlelwano okusemehlweni abantu, okwasabalala kwaze kwafinyelela nakulabo abayizincelebane zakhe abahlela ukungena kwakhe kwiWikipedia, kufanele silandele iminyakazo kaIchikowitz ngokusondelela. Ngokwesibonelo-nje, zingiyishumi nantathu ngenyanga kaNcwaba wenza lombiko evela eWashington esebuya eGoli awenza kubafundi bephephandaba iStar kumbhalo wabahleli, “Inginamba ehamba phambili njengokubona kwami ukuthi iMelika iyokwazi ukunqoba ukwaziwa kwayo kwucekeleke phansi ngokushiwo kuphindaphindiwe okumbi kakhulu ‘ngumbuso woshintsho’ kuleminyaka edlule. Lokhu kulwa okunodlame kanje kwezokuqapha kanye nezokuvikela kusahlezi kungudaba olubalulekile kakhulu kulaba abahwebi baseAfrika okuyimakethe okuyima ivela.”
Ukhuluma ngaye, ngoba uIchikowitz uzama ukuthi imithetho elawula usizo lwaseMelika kanye neInternational Monetary Fund ixegiswe ukuze zkwazi ukwenza kakhulu izivumelwano zezikhali nebabusa ngendlovuyangena emazweni aseAfrika. UIchikowitz uqhamuka nezinkulumo ezithi lababusi ‘’abanawo amandla okungenza ukuthi bakwazi ukuthola izixazululo ezidingakalayo ngenxa yezindlela ezibavimbayo ezibekwe phezu kwabo yimiphakathi yasemazweni aphesheya ukuthi bayisebenzise kanjani imali ababelwe yona.” (Okuyinto eyenzekile efanayo eMelika ngesonto eledlule, uIchikowitz wabhekana nokuphoxeka cisho ephephabhukwini elilodwa elikhulu, kodwa eNingizimu Afrika, umnikazi wephephandaba leStar ongubhululu kaKhongolose uIqbal Survé ubonakala engamqaphele ngokwanele.)
Kanti futhi ngaso sona lesosikhathi, ababili bobuzwe baseIsrael basezindabeni mayelana nobunxushunxushu bokuzimbandakanye nezimboni zokumbiwa phansi. Isicebi esiphezulu kwezokudayiswa uDan Gertler –ngokusho kukaForbes, onemali elnganiselwa kwizigidigidi ezingu2.6 zamadola- uthole izinndawo ezinkulu ezigcine amafutha eDRC, esebenzisana ngokubambisana nomshana kaZuma uKhulubuse, owaziwayo ukuthi imboni yakhe yezokumbiwa phansi ngaphambilini ayizange ibe nemiphumela emihle. Bobabili basondelene nombusi wakhona obusa ngesendla esiqinile uJoseph Kabila, iphephabhuku iGlobal Witness ethi lokhu kuchaza ‘’ukudlulela phambili kwezimo ezidala ukuthi kube nokusolalisa ngenkohlakalo eqhubekela phambili.”
UYaron Yamin ungomunye wesibili:isicebi esihlala kwaBulawayo owafika eZimbabwe engakwazi ukukhuluma isingisi futhi engenamali, kodwa enobudlelwane nontamolukhuni wenzenkolo waseIsrael -uRabbi Eliezer Berland –manje asenikelela kuye izimali ngengxenye yenzuzo yakhe, waze wamhlelela ukundiza kuhambo lakhe lokuzothenga izinto ezibalulekile eGoli njalo ngeviki. Ngenyanga kaZibandlela ngonyaka odlule, uYamin wamemezela ukuthi uzohwebelana nabombutho wempi onenkohlakalo waseZimbabwe kanye nongxiwankulu bezokumbiwa phansi endaweni yaseMarange lapho kumbiwa wakho idayimane, eyaziwa kakhulu nnjengesizinda esinobuhlungu ezweni lonke laseZimbabwe njengesinesiqalekiso kwezokumbiwa phansi, okumbandakanya ukubulwa kwezakhamizi ezingamakhulu ambalwa ezizimele ezazimba ngokungabhalisiwe, zibulawa ngabombutho wempi ngonyak ka2008.
Ukuyengwa yizimboni zongxiwankulu baseMelika
Lolu uhlelo luholela kuhlanganyela yezombutho wempi phakathi kwamazwe aphikisanayo, ikakhulukaz, ngenxa yezokumbiwa phansi. Kuyasiza futhi ukucaza ukubungaza kabusha kweWashington nguZuma, njengoba achaza ngeviki eledlule enkulumweni yakhe kwiUS Chamber of Commerce, “Kwezinye zezinhlelo zethu ezibalulekile, sitshale imali ngaphezulu kwezigidigidi esisodwa eziphindwe kathathu zamarandi kwizizinda kusukela ngonyaka ka2009. Futhi siyaqhubeka sitshala ngaphezulu kwamakhulu ayisishagalolunye namashumi amane ezigidigidi zamarandi ekuthuthukiseni izizinda kuleminyaka emithathu ezayo. Imali eningi esiyisebenzisayo iqondene nezizinda ezimayelana namandla kagesi kanye nezokuthutha.”
Ukwandisa lomsebenzi ohlanganyelwe neTransnet mayelana nezokuthutha ngezitimela, uZuma wancoma imboni yakwaGeneral Eletric. Phela emva kwakho konke lokhu, esechaza, “ Ukukhula kwezomnotho waseNingizimu Afrika uhlangene kakhulu nokukhula komnotho weAfrika yonke. Kungakho sigcizelela kangaka ekuthuthukiseni hayi-nje izizinda zezwe lethu, kodwa nalezo zezwekazi laseAfrika.”
Ukwamukelwa ngemfudumalo yenza intatheli yephephandaba laseGoli iBusiness Day eGoli uNicholas Kotsch athatheke, wayesebhala ngokuthi ngomphathi weGE uJeff Immelt eshayela ihlombe iWashington ngemixhaso yezimali zaseBhange mayelana nezokuthuthela kwamanye amazwe imkhiqizo nokuyingenisa emazweni: “Kulomhlaba okunokuncintisana kakhulu lapho sibhekene neChina Inc kanye neEurope Inc, kuhle ukuthi sibe nalendlela yokuxhaswa.”
Ngokungavumelani, uKotsch wabna kufanele ukuthi aqaphele lokhu, “ingqungquthela yayingenakho engakusho ngamantomabaze esikole angamakhulu amabili agcinwe njengeziboshwa enyakathompumalanga ngamaphekulazikhuni eBoko Haram kanye nokuhlaselwa kweKenya ngontamolukhuni bamaSulumane. Ukuhlukunyezwa ngokomthetho kongqingili baseUganda kanye namanye amazwe ambalwa akuzange kukhulunywe ngakho,”ngoba, ngokubona kwakhe, “Mhlawumbe ukwesaba ukuthi ukukhuluma ngalezizimo zezombusazwe ezizwela kanje kungaba kumbi kwezohwebo futhi umangabe lengqungquthela kwakungebhekene kuphela nalabomongameli kanye nezohwebo, futhi kwakuyilokho.”
Futhi bengafuni ukusala ngaphandle kulokukuhlangana okwakubhekene ngqo nalaba, kodwa-ke, abalawula iAfrika baseBeijing kungenzeka ukuthi bazizwe behlanjalazwa ngumbhalo wenkulumo eyayikhona evikini alalingaphambi kwalokhu phakathi kwephephabhuku iEconomist kanye noObama: “Engikakusho okunga gqugquzela abaholi baseAfrika ukuqinisekisa ukuthi uma, empeleni, iChina yakha imigwaqo kanye namabriji, okokuqala, nokuthi iqasha abasebenzi baseAfrika; okwesibili, ukuthi imigwaqo ayiyi –nje ezindlini zokumbiwa phansi bese isuke lapho iya echwebeni iShanghai.” Nokujwayelekile, uObama ufuna ukuthi lawomachweba aseAfrika ukuthi abe yizizinda zemikhumbi yokuthwala imkikhiqizo embiwa phansi kanye namafutha bese lemikhiqizo ithuthelwa eNew York, eNew Orleans kanye naseHouston.
Ingqinamba ebhekene neChina
Lobubudlelwano obunokuncintisana kanye neChina iyamangalisa ngoba isikhulu esiphezulu kuMnyango Wombuso waseMelika esimele iAfrika kusukela ngonyaka ka2009 kuze kube ngonyaka odlule, Omgusizi kaNobhala Wombuso uJohnny Carson, ngokungafihli wachaza- kubaholi babahwebi baseNigeria ngenyanga kaNhlolanja ngonyaka ka2010 ngesikhathi ekhuluma nabo ngobungani imininingwane yalenkulumo uChelsea Manning ayidalula kwiWikiLeakseyidlulisa ngomyalezo woMnyango Wombuso waseMelika – iChina njengezwe ‘’elinobudlova kanye nomphumela onobungozi makuncintiswana ngezomnotho futhi alingenanembeza.” Waqhubeka wathi, “Abesizw saseChina asebenzisana noMugabe kanye noBashir bakulomhlaba, okuyisibonelo esingesihle neze kwezombusazwe.”
Okungafani nabaholi baseChina, uObama unonembeza kakhulu. Akasebenzisani nabafana noMugabe noma uBashir, abangazange bavunyelwe ukuza emhlanganweni wangeviki eledlule eWhite House. (Esikhundleni salokho, uObama usebenzisana nabaholi bamazwe ahola ngentando yeningi abzonda inkohlakalo futhi abangeke babe nobudlova kwizakhamizi zabo, amadoda amahle njengoUhuru Kenyatta, noPaul Biya, noBlaise Compaore, noPaul Kagame, noYoweri Museveni, noTeodoro Obiang,o José Eduardo dos Santos, oIdriss Deby, oJoseph Kabila, oJacob Zuma,o Goodluck Jonathan, oYahya Jammeh kanye no Hailemariam Desalegn – udumo lwabo luvezwa nguAlemayehu Mariam – kanye nabanye abafana naye njengeNkosi yaseSwazini uMswati kanye noAlpha Conde.) Ngokulindelekile, owayeyinxusa laseRwanda ezweni laseMelika uTheogene Rudasingwa wabhala incwadi encengayo eyiqondise kumbuso kaObama, ecela ukuthi uNobhala Wombuso uJohn Kerry “ukusebenzisa amandla ombuso wakhe kwezokuvikela zezwe lakhe. Amaqili aphakathi kwabo ayogcizelela ukuthi kunobungozi (obuyiChina) egebela phezu kweAfrika, okufanele inqandwe noma ikhinyabezwe. Futhi okunye, lamaqili athi, izidingo zezokuvikela kanye nezomnotho zaseMelika ekufanele zihambe phambili kunakho konke okunye, noma ngabe lokhu kusho ukutetemisa amanye amadoda aseAfrika aziwa kakhulu anobungozi kakhulu.”
Kodwa lobububgozi (obuyiChina) byakhinyabezwa, uma uObama ephumelela ukunqoba izinhliziyo kanye nezingqondo zababusi baseAfrika ababusa ngobundlovuyangena. Owayebuza imbuzo kwiphephabhuku iEconomist wathi, ‘’Uyabona ukuthi amazwe anjengeChina abumbe ibhange leBRICS, ukwenza isibonelo-nje -izikhungo ezibonakala sengathi zenze kanye kanye nalenqubo, kunokuba – ngokuzama ukufaka ingcindezi kulenqubo kunokuba bandies kuyona noma bayisimamise. Iyona ndaba ehamba phambili, noma ngabe iChinaigcina ingaphakathi kulenqubo noma iphikisana nayo. Ilona ludaba olukhulu ngempela lolu kulezizikhathi zethu, ngicabanga kanjalo.” UObama waphendula wathi, ‘’Kunjalo. Futhi ngicabanga ukuthi kubalulekila ukuthi iMelika kanye neEurope iqhubeke ngokwamukela iChina njengomlingani ngokugcwele kulemikhuba yomhlaba wonke.”
Engathi base betsheliwe, iphephabhuka iWall Street Journal labika, “ngokuhlongozwa yiBeijing ukusebenzisana [neWashington] kwizinhlelao ezinkulu zezinqalasizinda njengedamu lokuphehla amandla kagesi eDRC i-Inga-3… Kwizwelase Melika, uku ngulmlingani neChina kwuhlelo olunjenga lolu kungenza kusimame isikhathi indima ebalulekile yeBhange Lomhlaba kanye neIMF.”
Kwaphinda kwangenelela nephephandaba iFinancial Times, “Izikhulu zaseMelika zithi ubulingani neChina ledamu i-Inga-3 noma elinye idamu kungaba yindlela ebalulekile yokusebenzisana ngokuhlanganyela ngesikhathi lapho ukuncintisana ngokuthi ubani onamandla kwabembutho wezimpi phakathi kwalamazwe zwenikazi laseAsia kukhula.” Uhlelo olukhulu olucubungulwayo, idamu kuMfula iCongo elikhulu ngokuphindaphindwe kathathu kune Three Gorges yaseChina, okungathumela amandla amaningi kagesi kwizimboni zokumbiwa phansi kanye nezokuncibilikisa. Iningizimu Afrika iyazi ukuthi mumbi kangakanani umphumela owdalwa yiSizinda-Namdnla kagesi-Nemikhiqizo yokumbiwa phansi (phecelezi iMinerals-Energy Complex) uma isibusa ngaphezulu kwamandla ezwe, okwabonakala kulelisonto kubufakazi nguCyril Ramaphosa ukuthi yini ndaba, njengomnikazi weLonmin amasheya akhe ayisishagalolunye, wabiza amaphpyisa ukuthi azokwenza izinhlelo zokumelana ‘’ezinobunya nobugebengu’ ngabasebenzi basemayini yeplatinum, ababebhikilisha eminyakeni emibili edlule.
Ababusi baseChina kuze kube manje abashodelwa imali, futhi ukukhombisa lokho ilobubudlewalne bokusebenzisana, iBeijing yathenga amabond kahulumeni waseMelika ezigidigidi ezingu107 zamadola ezinyangezi eziyisuhlanu zokuqala ngonyak ka2014. Nokusho kwephephabhuku iWall St Journal ngenyanga edlule, lokhu ‘’kwakuyindlela eshesha kakhulu kusukela kumlando owaqala ngaphezulu kweminyaka engamashumi amathathu edlule.” Abesizwe saseChina, nawo-ke, sekuyabonakala ukuthi afuna ukusebenzisana neMelika ukwenhlisa ubungozi kanye nokubhebhethekisa izindlela zokuxhaphaza iAfrika, noma lokhu kungaba nobungozi ngokusiza abancintisana nabo ukuthi abuye athole ithuba lokugcindezela abantu bakulelizwekazi.
Ukungenzeka kokuthi izenzo zezombutho wempi yasemelika eAfrika zigcine zinkulu kakhulu, uma sekubhekwana nokusimamisa ababusa ngendlovuyangena kumelenwe nakho konke ukuphikisana okungaqhamuka emiphakathini yakulelzwekazi – hayi-nje kuphela ontamolukhuni bezinkolo, kodwa ngisho izishoshsovu zezenhlalakahle isibalo sokubhikilisha kwazo okunyuka kakhulu, kusukela ngo2010 kuya ku2013, uma kuqhathaniswa nokwaseNyakatho neAfrika ngesikhathi sezibhelu, ngokugcina kokubala kweBhange Lokuthuthukisa LaseAfrika.
Kodwa ngokuphikisana okusabisayo kwimibiko engemidala-nje eqhamuka kwintatheli ehlakaniphe ngokumangalisayo yaseMelika uNick Turse “ngempi yasePentagon yokulwa ngokubhekana nabalawulayo ezimpini’’ kumazwe ambalwa aseAfrika, kusekhona ukuhlukanisa okusobala okumbi amazing emisebenzi phakathi kweWashington kanye namasekela aboePitoli. Abacabangayo abaqhamuka kwabalawulayo eAfrika vele sebechazile vele ukuthi bayiqeqeshelani kakhulu kangaka imibutho yaseAfrika, okumbandakanya nabezombutho wezwe laseNingizimu Afrika (phecelezi iSA National Defence Force): “Asifuni ukubona amabutho ethu ehambela ukuthi ayohlulwa.”
Kulapho-ke uZuma eqhamuke khona namazwi aphazamisa kakhulu ngeviki eledlule, okuyisiqubulo esiyiqiniso salowo obusa ngokusabala kwamanye amazwe: “Bekuvele kunobuhlobo obuhle phakathi kweAfrika neMelika kodwa lengqungquthela isibuqale kabusha futhi yabuyisa kwelinye izinga… Sesiqinisekise ukungenelela ukuthula kweAfrika okuqhamuka eMelika kanye nezindlela zokuvikeleka…Njengoba uMongameli uObama asho, izicathulo kufanele kube ezasAfrika.”
UPatrick Bond ungumqondisi weCentre for Civil Society esikhungweni semfundo ephakeme eNyuvesi yaKwaZulu-Natal eThekwini.
On The Web